Wenger Bros., general merchants.
The most enterprising firm of young men in the village of Wayland are the brothers, Joseph and Christian C. Wenger, both born in Washington County, Iowa, and are the two eldest sons of Christian and Elizabeth (Goldsmith) Wenger. Christian was born in Switzerland and is a son of Christian and Mary (Roth) Wenger, who emigrated from Germany to Hamburg, Canada, and thence to Washington County, Iowa, making the journey with a team passing through Chicago when that now great city was a village but a trifle larger than Wayland. Settling in 1832, in Marion Township, Washington Co., Iowa, the grandsire of our subject purchased a claim, upon which stood a small cabin and later entered the lands. This family were among the first settlers in that county, and both lived and died upon the farm which they had put in fine cultivation. His wife reached sixty, and Christian Wenger, Sr., the ripe age of eighty-three years. All their children but the three eldest were born in Canada, and came with them to Iowa, and perhaps no better family has ever settled in her boundary. We are pleased to make separate mention of each: John married Mary Ernst; Christian, father of our subject, wedded Elizabeth Goldsmith; Nicholas died unmarried; Joseph married Elizabeth Roth; Benjamin became the husband of Lena Gengerich; Annie married Christian Eicher; Mary wedded Joseph Rich; Lena wedded Christian Ernst, a brother of John’s wife; Katie became the wife of John Miller, of Davis County; and Barbara became the wife of Christian Schlatter, the proprietor of the Wayland sawmills. Under the name of Christian Wenger the further history of the family is given. His five eldest children were born in Washington County and are: Joseph, Christian, Samuel, Jacob and Lizzie, the latter the wife of Jacob Kabel. On the farm in Henry County, John, Daniel, Henry, Ella and Levi, were born. Samuel was educated at Howe’s Academy, and has taught in the public schools of this county. The two eldest sons were educated in the schools of the township, but are brilliant business men, and their retail trade is successfully managed.
In 1881 Christian C. left the farm and in 1882, in company with Benjamin Gardiner, engaged in the mercantile trade. Their new store building was erected in 1883, but prior to its completion Joseph purchased the interest of Mr. Gardiner, and the firm was changed to Wenger Bros. The firm carry a full line of general merchandise and the largest stock in the northern part of the county, their stock invoicing over $6,000. Everything is of the best, and selling goods at the lowest living profit has given these young men a trade of over $10,000 per annum, and located as they are in the midst of an excellent agricultural region, their trade is constantly increasing. They are an honor to their parents, their village and their country, and to men of such business enterprise the growth and prosperity of Henry County is due.
The wedding of Joseph, the elder member of this firm, was a brilliant affair, and was celebrated on Thursday, Oct. 27, 1887, the bride being Miss Katie, the handsome daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Henss, the veteran wagon-maker, and one of the wealthy men of Wayland. The young couple took a pleasant bridal tour, and are now cosily settled in Wayland, the birthplace of the bride, who has one of the best of husbands and a man in whom the public repose confidence.
Christian C., the younger member of the firm, but the original partner of Mr. Gardiner, is also happily married, having, on Dec. 8, 1887, been united to Miss Ella, daughter of Isaac and Keziah Allen, of Wayland, of which place she is a native. She was educated in the schools of the village, and has always been regarded as one of the brightest and best of its daughters, as her husband is known as one of its most honorable and enterprising merchants.
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The Family History Library Catalog Overview
Learn more about the catalog and how to access materials. Search the catalog of materials (including microfilm, microfiche, and publications) found at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah. Many items can be loaned to local Family History Centers around the world.
RootsWeb’s Guide to Tracing Family Trees
This free course, written and compiled by Julia M. Case, Myra Vanderpool Gormley, and Rhonda McClure, is a series of 24 wonderful lessons.
Genealogy.com – Genealogy Classes
- Part 1: Your Great Ancestral Hunt (Six lessons)
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The goal of the Registered Genealogist Certification Class is to take a person from the beginning through the end of researching a specific problem for at least four generations, documenting it as they go, investigating a full realm of available resources (both on-line and off-line) and preparing that pedigree in report format as if they were presenting it to a client who has commissioned them to do research. At the conclusion of this 12 month course, the student will submit that report to the instructor as part of their ‘testing’ procedure for review, as well as take a test of at least 200 questions in their own area of expertise which must be passed by 85% in order to qualify for certification.
Brigham Young University
BYU offers numerous free online courses. Please note I have abbreviated the BYU list of Free Offerings.
Family History/Genealogy – Introductory
Family History/Genealogy – Record Type
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FHFRA 71 — France: Immigrant Origins
FHFRA 72 — France: Vital Records
FHFRA 73 — France: Reading French Handwriting
FHFRA 74 — France: Genealogical Organizations and Periodicals
FHFRA 75 — France: The Internet and French Genealogy
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FHGER 71 — Germany: Immigrant Origins
FHGER 72 — Germany: U.S. Sources and Surname Changes
FHGER 73 — Germany: Jurisdictions, Gazetteers, and Maps
FHGER 74 — Germany: Reading German Handwriting
FHGER 75 — Germany: Calendars and Feast Days
FHGER 76 — Germany: Vital Records
FHHUG 71 — Huguenot Research
FHSCA 73 — Scandinavia: Jurisdictions, Gazetteers, and Maps
FHSCA 74 — Scandinavia: Reading Gothic Script
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International Internet Genealogical Society University (IIGS)
- Beginning Genealogy Lessons – 15 lessons designed to take the beginning genealogist through all the steps in order to complete a four generation pedigree with accompanying family group sheets.
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“Basic Genealogy” is designed to help people get started in tracing their family tree. The course answers the question “how do I start?” and provides information family historians will need in order to interpret various records they will come across during their research. Full definitions of terms are provided as well as links to valuable research sources both on and off the internet.
JewishGen Learning Center
JewishGen is delighted to offer online interactive courses in Jewish genealogy, to help you organize your information and begin to trace your ancestral roots. Most courses will be eight sessions and in addition to the “lecture”, will contain optional reading material and helpful links to JewishGen’s resources, as well as other genealogical websites.
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From The European History of the Swiss Mennonites from Volhynia
Schrag, Martin H 1956
source web document
The early Anabaptists were educated and urban–but the persecution drove them from the cities and towns to the remote and relatively inaccessible highlands and mountain fringes of the fertile areas of the Canton Bern. Here they hid and persisted in spite of persecution, through the centuries to the present time. Persecution, of varying intensity, was the lot of the Swiss Anabaptists (Mennonites) until the middle of the eighteenth century. During the intense periods of persecution many, perhaps most of the Anabaptists, fled to whatever havens of refuge they could find, especially in the Germanic areas to the north and northwest of modern Switzerland. The Swiss-Volhynians were among this group.
Documentation of Swiss Origin. Documentation of the Swiss origin of the Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites is found in families that can be traced back to Switzerland, and in early records written by or about Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites.[ref]It is interesting to note that three Swiss-Volhynian family names are found in early Anabaptist records. In a listing of early Anabaptists is found one Jan Zurcher from Schaffhausen. The year is 1535, and he is listed as a city dweller (Peachy, p. 127). A Peter Stucki from Oberiesabach attended the Anabaptist debate in Bern in March, 1538. A person by the same name, possibly the same individual, was executed in Bern on April 16, 1538 (Gratz, p. 25). In July, 1531, an Anabaptist named Fluckiger reported in court that he had been baptized the previous Easter (John C. Wenger, “Martin Keninger’s Vindication of Anabaptism, 1635,” Mennonite Quarterly Review XXII:3 July, 1948, p. 180). There is no way of knowing, however, whether these men were related to the later Swiss-Volhynian families.[/ref] Mention should be made of the fact that families of interest in this study left Switzerland in the later part of the seventeenth century and the forepart of the eighteenth.
The Krehbiel family is traceable to Switzerland genealogically. Jost Crayenbuehl[ref]J.J. Krehbiel, Moundridge, Kansas, states regarding the origin of the name: “The saying about the name is this. There was a hill and lots of crows, so the hill was called Crayenbuhl.” (Letter from J.J. Krehbiel, Moundridge, Kansas, to C. Henry Smith, Newton, Kansas, March 18, 1923, and now in the Historical Library of Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio.) Variant early spelling was Krahenbuhl. The Mennonitsche Lexikon states that the Krehbiel family came from the Kirchapiel Grosshochstettern” in the Canton of Bern (“Krehbiel,” Mennonitsche Lexikon II, p. 565).[/ref], characterized as a leader in the church, lived at Zäziwil, Switzerland, near the River Aar[ref]Passport issued to a group of six individuals, February 8, 1721, by the Duchy of Wuerttemberg, J.B. Mauclar, colonel. Copied by the Russian Government, March 8, 1874. Russian copy original at Bethel College Historical Library, North Newton, Kansas See p. 42 for content of passport.[/ref]. He was located on a large hof in the immediate vicinity of Zäziwil. Three sons were born to Jost. One of these, named Peter, states that they were reared in the fear of the Lord and with much Bible teaching. They worked their fields and were not too much concerned with matters outside their immediate context. The Anabaptists living in the area met at different places on Sunday because the congregation was scattered. Nearly all of the members were farmers, with a few weavers and carpenters. Persecution came in 1670. Jost Crayenbuehl was imprisoned and mistreated. After something of a miraculous delivery from prison, he and his family left Switzerland[ref]“Nach alten Papieren und Erzaehlungen eines Grossvaters Wie die Krehbiels auf den Weierhof kamen,” 1792 (unpublished article, Bethel College Historical Library). Authenticity of information based on the fact that information in the first part of the article was recorded by Peter, the son of Jost.[/ref].
On the basis of primary sources, as recorded by the historian Mathiot, it can be asserted that the families arriving in Volhynia from the Montbeliard community in France were of Swiss origin. Mathiot states in relation to families living in the Montbeliard community, that the Fluckiger family came from Lützelfüh and Hettiswil in Bern, the Graber family from Bern (possibly Kirchdorf), the Kauffman family from Grindelwald, Bern, and the Stuckys from Kirchdorf, Diessbach, and Diemtigen[ref]The work by Mathiot is a scholarly written book, based on primary sources. Ch. Mathiot, Recherches Historioues gur les Anabaptistes de l’Ancienne Principaute de Montbeliard, d Alsace at des Regions voizines (Belfort: Mission Interieure, 1922), Annexe. See Location, p. 18[/ref]. This evidence relates family names found among Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites with explicit points in Switzerland.
Reinforcing the last paragraph, there is conclusive evidence that the Alsace and Montbeliard communities were almost entirely composed of Swiss Anabaptists and their descendants. A Catholic priest notes the coming of the Swiss Anabaptists to Alsace in 1643. (Earlier Swiss Anabaptists in Alsace had been virtually wiped out by persecution and war.) Primary sources attest to the fact that a large group arrived in Alsace in 1671[ref]Ernst H. Correll, “Alsace,” Mennonite Encyclopedia I (1953), pp. 68-70.[/ref]. The Swiss background of the two mentioned communities is commonly accepted by historians conversant with the story[ref]An example of this is Gratz, pp. 38 and 87.[/ref].
Further evidence of the Swiss origin of the Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites is to be found in early documents. In a passport issued to a group of Swiss-Volhynians (Goering, Graber, Lichti, Kaufman, and Roth) as they left Montbeliard for Poland, the group is referred to as “German-Swiss”[ref]Passport issued to a group of six individuals, February 8, 1721, by the Duchy of Wuerttemberg, J.B. Mauclar, colonel. Copied by the Russian Government, March 8, 1874. Russian copy original at Bethel College Historical Library, North Newton, Kansas See p. 42 for content of passport.[/ref]. They are referred to as ethnically Swiss. A second document giving further proof is the church book begun approximately 1810 by the Galician Mennonites soon after their arrival in Galacia from the Palatinate. In this source we find that the first settlers, although coming directly from the Palatinate, originated in Switzerland (were “aus der Schweiz abstammend.”[ref]Quotation from church book in H. Pauls, “Galizien,” Mennonitische Lexikon, ed. Christina Hege and D. Christian Neff, II (1937) pp. 29-30.[/ref])
Lastly, mention should also be made of the fact that the Anabaptist (Mennonite) communities in Alsace, Montbeliard, and the Palatinate gained very few if any new members by the conversion of their non-Anabaptist neighbors. As a matter of fact, this was forbidden by law[ref]Will be further discussed later.[/ref]. Thus, they remained “pure” in their Swiss ethnic background.
The evidence marshaled suggests the conclusion that the ancestral core of the Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites was of Swiss origin.
Swiss-Anabaptist Life. Continued persecution combined with an interpretation of Anabaptist views, especially the concept of separation from the world, resulted in significant tendencies and patterns in the religious and social life of the Swiss Anabaptists.
Robert Friedmann suggests that the initial zeal of the Anabaptist movement was spent by 1600[ref]Robert Friedmann, Mennonite Piety through the Centuries, Its Genius and Literature (Goshen, Ind.: Mennonite Historical Society, 1949), p. 11.[/ref]. A period of declining spiritual vitality and growing institutionalism is evidenced in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The aggressive spirit of early Anabaptism was changed to a quietism characterized by withdrawal from the social order, a deep loyalty to the “faith of the Fathers,” a simple Biblicism, a strong concern regarding the moral life, and an increasing inwardness of religion. These tendencies were transmitted in Mennonite communities, and influenced the Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites.
Persecution and the concept of separation from the world resulted in socio-religious communities withdrawn from the world. Generating strong primary group feelings, such communities also had the effect of fostering feelings of hostility of indifference toward those outside the community. These Mennonite communities were characterized by the qualities of integrity, industry, frugality[ref]Pannabecker, p. 68.[/ref] and simplicity in dress. Persecution drove the Anabaptists into rural areas, where farming was the chief occupation. The Mennonites continued their agricultural activities as they migrated to new communities. Some aspects of German culture was a part of the pattern since most of the Swiss Mennonites were German-Swiss. Persecution discouraged higher education and creative activity. The patterns of life became institutionalized. This community pattern was inherited and perpetuated by the Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites[ref]Peachy, p. 116; S.F. Pannabecker, “The Nineteenth Century Swiss Mennonite Immigrants and Their Adherence to the General Conference Mennonite Church,” Mennonite Quarterly Review, XXI:2 (April, 1947), p. 64.[/ref].
Life was difficult in the solitary valleys and mountain slopes of the area. Much of the work was done by hand. The Anabaptists specialized in dairying, farming, and fruit raising[ref]Pannabecker, p. 64.[/ref]. Despite many difficulties, they became outstanding farmers–pioneers in Swiss agriculture, contributing to the advancement of that science[ref]Samuel Geiser, “The Mennonites of Switzerland and France,” Mennonite Quarterly Review, XI:1 (January, 1937), p. 54[/ref].
Much of the Robert Henss family background is rooted in Swiss and Iowa Anabaptist Mennonite traditions. Many of our forebears were active participants and members of the following congregations. [Please note that this post will be updated as more information is uncovered].
Basel-Holee (Basel Switzerland)
Basel-Holee, a Mennonite congregation with a meetinghouse at Holeestrasse 141 in Basel, Switzerland, formerly called Basel-Binningen, the Amish congregation mentioned in the article Basel. The origins of the congregation go back to the middle of the 18th century, a church book containing records of births, marriages, deaths, and baptisms (probably maintained at the request of the state) having been kept from 1777 on (with an interruption 1880-1910). Throughout its existence a majority of the families of the congregations lived on the Alsatian side of the nearby border and the congregation belonged to the Alsatian Conference. In wartime this caused considerable trouble, particularly in World War II when the Alsatian part of the congregation could not cross the border into Basel and had to meet in near-by Bourgfelden. The first meetinghouse in the village of Binningen (now incorporated in the city of Basel) was built in 1847 and continued in use until the new meetinghouse was built on the same lot in 1932. The membership remained fairly constant for several decades, with considerable losses by emigration to the near-by Mulhouse region and to the United States. The 1952 membership was 185 and 50 children; in 2009 the membership was 100. Most common family names have been Roth, Widmer, Wenger, Würgler, and Goldschmidt. Elders have included Hans Jacob Schmuckli, 1777-?; Hans Freienberg, 1787-?; Johannes Kaufmann, ca. 1800-?; Fritz Steinbrunner, ca. 1830; Hans Steinbrunner, d. ca. 1843; Johannes Kaufmann, ca. 1845; Hans Schmuckli, ca. 1860; Christian Klopfenstein, ca. 1870; Joseph Klopfenstein, d. 1878; Jacob Zimmerman; Jacob Widmer, 1874-? emigrated to America; Michel Widmer, 1893-1924; Christian Roggy, 1896-1904; Daniel Roth, -1927; Jakob Widmer, 1924-1942; Fritz Goldschmidt, 1927-; and Daniel Wenger, 1951-. In the 1950s services are held every two weeks alternating with Schänzli. The congregation has had an organized chorus since 1896. As late as 1915 it still practiced feetwashing. The Ausbund was used as hymnal until into the 20th century.
source: Goldschmidt, Fritz and Harold S. Bender. (1953). Basel-Holee (Basel Switzerland). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 12 July 2010, from http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/B37574.html.
The Rev. Johann (John) Eicher II, husband of Margaretta (Margaret) Conrod, was a native of Pulversheim in the Alsace and Margaret was born in Switzerland. John had charge of a Mennonite congregation in the Alsace and for many years was engaged not only in the ministry, but in farming. Not all of their children came to America; and of those who did, they came singly. First came Jacob, then John Jr., Christian, Daniel, and then Martin Benjamin. The boys were followed by a sister Annie and her husband, John W. Wittmer; Annie and John had married in Alsace before settling in Wayne County, Ohio. Jacob returned from the United States to the Alsace to marry Mary Summer, a “childhood friend”; he brought her back with him to America.
Three of the boys, after trying life first in Ohio, concluded it would be better to make their life in Canada; John, Daniel and Christian relocated to Waterloo County, Ontario. John and Christian remained in Canada for three years. Daniel Eicher stayed on for six years, and finally following his brothers to Iowa. Three of the Eicher brothers: Christian, Martin Benjamin, and Jacob located in Washington County, Iowa; and John and Daniel located in Henry County, Iowa. Martin was the only one who invested in land, doing so in 1850.
After coming to Iowa, all the sons married:
- Martin wedded Barbara Roth;
- Christian married Annie Wenger;
- Jacob became the husband of Catherine Rich; and
- Rev. Benjamin Eicher married Lydia Summers.
Johann and Margaretta remained in the Alsace (today France) with their remaining children:
- Joseph, who married Elizabeth Kropf;
- Fannie, wife of Jacob Summer; and
- Peter, husband of Catherine Summer.
Johann Eicher II and Margaretta Conrod lived to a ripe old age, and were buried in the country that gave them birth.
edited by Mark Rabideau from the original:
Portrait and Biographical Album of Henry County, Iowa.Chicago: Acme Publishing Company, 1888. Evansville: Unigraphic, 1976 pp 392
Additional information obtained from: Gingerich, Melvin. “Eicher (Eichert, Eichler, Eycher) family .” Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1956. Web. 13 July 2010. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/E470ME.html.;
The Senger Family appears to have had a long term link to the lands around Zeyer (see below). I guess it is no wonder that my mother is still so ‘mentally’ attached to this land and region (Es war einmal…).
Thank you to Rainer Mueller-Glodde for this note & excerpt:
Two years ago (2008) a Dr. Glodde from Berlin, [...] tried to find out the meaning of “Glodde”, [and] sent me a shot he made of a document from about 1805 [located] in the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz. The subject is the estimation of the size of the Grosse Jacob Glode Buden Kampe [in the area of Zeyer, Westpreußen].
Zum Plan von der Großen Buden Kampe
Kott Kampe und Lange Hacken, Sämtliches Land gehörte ehmals dem Einsaßen Glodde, wovon derselbe an die Sengers und Barwigs die Kott Kampe und Lange Hacken verkaufte welche damals betrugen 8 Huf : 12 m : Cut welches aus der unten stehenden alten Berechnung auch zugleich aus der neuen Vermeßung Berechnung zu ersehen ist wie viel die außen Kampen sich vergrößert haben.
William (Wilhelm) Henss and Katharine (Catharina) Kaemmer probably both came from Hesse in Germany and were born around 1830 (according to the 1900 US Census records Dec 1831 for William and Nov 1829 for Katharine) . I am looking for any historical documentation regarding their births or marriage. Photos of graves or life would be most appreciated, also.I have a fairly well established genealogy and history for their lives in the US. They lived and loved in Wayland, Henry County Iowa. What I am most ardently attempting to establish is a clear link for them back into Germany before 1853- I have a tentative information set with which I am not completely comfortable. I do know that Katharine Kaemmer (name originally spelled as Catharina Kaemmer) came to the US from Lumda and through Bremen through port of Baltimore – all according to a metal tag on her trunk. She is reported to have come to the US in 1854 and William in 1853; both immigration dates are from US Census information.
Any help, leads or pointers are most appreciated; you may use our contact page to get in touch with me directly.
The following, incomplete, history follows the life and times of William & Katharine Henss, the founders of our US based Henss Family.
If you know of any additional history to support and expand our history, please use our contact page to share your information and/or images.
1853 & 1854
In 1856, William Henss (Hense) was a blacksmith living in Jefferson, Henry County Iowa. He was 25 and had been a resident of Iowa for 3 years. (according to the 1856 Iowa Census). This likely means he emigrated to the United States about 1853.
NB. The area where William lived had its plat filed as Marshall, Iowa in 1851.
William Henss and Katharine Kaemmer were married 12 Jan 1857. Their wedding record provides us with the following information:
- Groom’s Name: William Heuss (note misspelling)
- Groom’s Birth Date:
- Groom’s Birthplace:
- Groom’s Age:
- Bride’s Name: Catharine Kraemer (note misspelling)
- Bride’s Birth Date:
- Bride’s Birthplace:
- Bride’s Age:
- Marriage Date: 12 Jan 1857
- Marriage Place: Des Moines, Iowa
- Groom’s Father’s Name:
- Groom’s Mother’s Name:
- Bride’s Father’s Name:
- Bride’s Mother’s Name:
- Groom’s Race:
- Groom’s Marital Status:
- Groom’s Previous Wife’s Name:
- Bride’s Race:
- Bride’s Marital Status:
- Bride’s Previous Husband’s Name:
- Indexing Project (Batch) Number: M02529-7
- System Origin: Iowa-EASy
- Source Film Number: 956350
- Reference Number: Vol. 4 p.139
- Collection: Iowa Marriages, 1809-1992
By 1859, we find a Hance William, blacksmith listed in the HENRY CO, IOWA DIRECTORY 1859-60 (Watson Brown, Publisher, Burlington, Iowa).
Town 73, Range 7.
Post Office-Marshall. ALEX. STEWART, P.M.
MARSHALL is the only village in this township. It has a population of some 250; one good church, a school house, and three stores. Is a place of considerable business. The township is timber and prairie about equally divided. The land is rich and well adapted for farming purposes.
The population of the township 803 persons.[...] H
Hance William, blacksmith.
By 1860 William, now 28, (Hens) had married Katharine (Kaemmer, age 29) and had a son Louis (age 10 months). He continued to be listed as a blacksmith and along with his family resided in Marshall, Jefferson Township, Henry County, Iowa. His real estate was valued at $400 and his personal estate at $500. At that same time they had a white domestic servant named Christina Collin (aged 10).
In June of 1863, William Henss was registered on the consolidated list of all persons of Class I, subject to do military duty in the First Congressional District, State of Iowa.
In 1864, William Henss received his US citizenship.
Name: William Henss
Source Publication Code: 6015.65.85
Primary Immigrant: Henss, William
Annotation: Date of naturalization in Henry County, Iowa. Country of origin also provided.
Source Bibliography: NATURALIZATION RECORDS, HENRY COUNTY, IOWA. In Henry County Genealgoical Society Quarterly (Mount Pleasant, IA), vol. 9:4 (October 1995), pp. 306-311; vol. 10:1 (January 1996), pp. 317-320; vol. 10:2 (April 1996), pp. 326-329; vol. 10:3 (July 1996), pp.
According to the 1870 US Census, William & Katharine and their family lived in Mt. Pleasant, Henry County, Iowa. William (listed as 38) was Wagon maker while his wife Kate (also listed as 38) was keeping house. The value of their Real Estate was noted as $8000; their personal estate was valued at $320. With them were their children:
- Louis (enumerated as Lewis) 11 at home
- Elizabeth 9 at home
- William 7 at home
- Katie 3 at home
By 1880 US Census, the William Henss Family was in the Village of Wayland, Henry County, Iowa (NB. In March 20, 1880, just before the US Census was conducted, Marshall Iowa was renamed to Wayland Iowa in order to eliminate confusion with the larger Marshalltown, Iowa.). William (48) was listed in the 1880 US Census as a Blacksmith. Catharine (50), his wife was noted as Keeping house. Living with them were their children:
- Lewis (20) Working in Blacksmith shop (presumably with William Henss)
- Elizabeth (19) Keeping house
- William (15) Working in Blacksmith shop (presumably with William Henss)
- Catharine (12) at home
However by the 1885 Iowa Census, we find William Henss (age 53) and Katharine (age 55) living in Jefferson Township, Henry County, Iowa. Living with them were their children:
- Louis (age 25)
- Lizzie (age 23)
- William (age 21)
- Katie (age 17)
They also had Oliver Carow (age 50),a teamster, and Will Franks (age 41), a laborer, living in their household. By this time William was in business as a wagon maker.
“The wedding of Joseph [Wenger] [...] was a brilliant affair, and was celebrated on Thursday, Oct. 27, 1887, the bride being Miss Katie, the handsome daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Henss, the veteran wagon-maker, and one of the wealthy men of Wayland. The young couple took a pleasant bridal tour, and are now cosily settled in Wayland, the birthplace of the bride, who has one of the best of husbands and a man in whom the public repose confidence.”[...]
“Louis Wagner of Burlington visited Mrs. William Henss Saturday. They are distantly related and were raised in the same village in the old country.”
from Portrait & Biographical Album of Henry County- 1888
By 1900, William (indexed as William Henis, age 68) and Katharine (indexed as Katie, age 70) were living in Wayland City, Jefferson Township, Henry County, Iowa with their daughter Lizzie (age 39).
William’s birth date is listed as Dec 1831; Katharine’s as Nov 1829; and, Lizzie’s as Feb 1861. William and Katharine had been married for 43 years by 1900 and Lizzie was single. Emigration dates listed as being 1852 for William and 1855 for Katharine. William was listed as being a naturalized citizen. William, in 1900, was listed as being a wagon manufacturer and a home owner. All three Henss Family members could speak, read, and write English. (A complete transcription of this 1900 US Census page is available on us-census. org. Original document image follows below.)
William Henss died on 19 March 1902.
In the 1910 US Census, we find that confirmation that William has died and Katharine is listed as the widowed head of household (age 80) living with her daughter Lizzie (age 48). They continued to reside in Wayland Town, Jefferson Township, Henry County, Iowa.
Katharine died on 18 November 1913.
Early Wayland Iowa Photos
The following photo gallery contains photos from Wayland, Iowa in the late 1800′s and early to mid-1900′s.
The information on this page has been graciously augmented by the efforts of numerous genealogical friends including: Manuela Bassler, Elvira Groot, Jerry Harris, Kate “Chris’ Mom”, and Jutta Hoffmann.
1 & 2 Aug. 2011:
I have read the following website… Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt(HStAD) Auswanderer-Nachweise(R 21 B); I have run searches and reviewed all materials for:
- all Hen*
- all Hin*
- all Hes*
- all kaem*
- all Kae*
- all Käm
- all Beuren
- all Baltimore
- all Lumda
- all bremen
- all Chatharina
- all kaemmer
- all Wilhelm
Finds that were returned were:
NACHWEIS Kämmerer, Katharina, Herkunft: Kröckelbach. – Auswanderungsdatum: 1854 / Ziel: über London. – Alter/geb.: 10 Monate, Eltern: Kämmerer, Adam, 28 J.; Kämmerer, Margarete, geb. NN, 24 J.. – Bemerkungen: mit Eltern; Vertr./Prüf.27.2./3.3.1854. Quelle: Huschke 823; G 15 Bergstraße 2 Nr. 284 1854
NACHWEIS Kammler, Katharina, Herkunft: Seeheim. – Auswanderungsdatum: 1854 / Ziel: Amerika, USA. – Alter/geb.: * 1836-12-15. Quelle: HFV-Kartei; Heimatbuch Seeheim-Jugenheim, S. 251
neither seems relevant.
I have ordered the following microfilms from the LDS:
- FHC Microfilm (NARA Baltimore Ships Lists) K-560 and K-566 FHL #0821575
- Beuern ev. Kirche Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1821-1840 FHL INTL Film 800674
- Allendorf/ Lumda Taufen 1825-1845 FHL INTL Film 1195876
- Grünberg, Hessen Taufen 1817-1835 FHL INTL Film 801274
- Grünberg (Kr. Gießen)Tote 1827-1828 Tauf-, Heirats-, Totenindex 1808-1828 Tote 1829-1845 Tauf-, Heirats-, Totenondex 1829-1845 Tote 1846-1861 FHL INTL Film 1201518
17 Oct. 2010: New information, worthy of exploraion, has been discovered in the Henry County History vol. 1 copyright 1982. This document states that William’s family was from Beuern, Hessen. In researching the location of Beuern a second Lumda was found within 5 miles of Beuern. Church records for Gruenberg and Stangenrod (both near Lumda) are being sourced for Katharine’s birth; and, Beuern Church records are being sourced for Wilhelm’s birth.– these documents produced nothing of interest.
14 Sep. 2010: Sadly, I reviewed the Church records for the ev. Kirche in Lumda and was unable to find either William or Katharine’s birth.
I will search on. If anyone knows of possible family members in Hesse (in Germany) or of possible birth record locations, please let us know!
This area may be augmented in the near future as I attempt to uncover additional Census and/or photographic information for inclusion here.
The Raphael (Russel) Robidoux & Family- 1880
The family lived in Altona, NY; their exact location is unknown as the street information was left blank on 1880 Census. At that time, Raphael (40) was a Laborer; he had been employed all during the 12 months preceding the June 1880 enumeration. Euphemie, Raphael’s wife (40) was Keeping House. Living with them were eight children including:
- Delia (19) Daughter
- Lois (16) Daughter
- Russel (13) Son
- Mary (11) Daughter
- Newell (9) Son (g-grandfather)
- Joseph (7)
- Elmira (5) Daughter
- Jeremiah (8mo. born Oct of 1879) Son (my g-grandfather Alexander)
Raphael (Russel) Robidoux & Family – 1900
In 1900, the family continued to live in Altona, NY. Once again, their exact location is unknown because street information was left blank on the Census. At that time, Raphael was a Farmer; he owned his farm and it was listed as Farm #93 on the farm schedule. His farm was still under mortgage and not freely owned. He was able to read and speak English but could not write it. Euphemie (62 years of age born in June 1837) was Keeping House. Euphemie was able to speak English but neither read nor write it. They had been married 41 years as of 19 June 1900. Living with them were two children:
- Alexander (born Sept of 1879 aged 20); Alexander was working on his father’s farm as a laborer. He could speak English but neither read nor write it. He had been unemployed for 2 of the previous 12 months.
- Delia (born Aug of 1883 aged 16). She could read, write and speak English.
Given Delia was born 3 years after the 1880 Census, we can assume that the elder Delia born in 1861 died in those three intervening years between 1880 and 1883.
Alexander Rabideau & Family- 1910
In 1910, their address is listed as 145 Alder Bend Road in Altona, New York. Today any previously existing homes appear to have been removed… or abandoned, perhaps as part of the Adirondack Park creation. In 1910, the farm on Alder Bend Road was rented and worked by Alexander (31); who was working as a Farm Laborer. He and Flora had been married for 8 years. Flora (29) was keeping house and spoke French not English. They had three children living with them including:
- James (7) son- in the 1920 Census he was enumerated as Alexander Jr.
- Victor (5) son
- Frederick (4) son – my grandfather
Raphael (Russel) Robidoux & Family – 1910By 1910, Raphael Robidoux had died. Euphemie, his widow, was living with daughter Delia and her husband John Brooks; and her grandson Clement (age 6) and grand-daughter Malena (aged 2) in Altona, New York.
Lacolle is the area from which the Joseph Dion family emigrated to the United States. Historically both Rabideau and Dion/ Deyo family members lived and traversed this region.
source [minor edits and corrections made by ManyRoads]
First written mention of Lacolle can be traced back to July 4, 1609 when Samuel de Champlain and his entourage stopped briefly at the mouth of a small stream for a meal before continuing southward up the Richelieu River into the lake which now bears his name. In his journal Champlain referred to the location of the delta as “Lacole”. When translated literally the term means the neck of a bottle or that which is above the shoulders. [...]This river seems to take its source from a nearby, solitary hill. From many places in France the term “La Cole” or “La Colle” stems from the Latin “colla”, which means “hill”.
“La Rivière à La Colle” appeared for the first time in the 1740 “Map of Lake Champlain from the Fort of Chambly to the ‘pointe à la Chevelure’” drawn by Chaussergros de Lery. His map is seen here. You can barely make out “Beaujeu” in the block to the right of the crease in the paper, below the river
Lacolle Quebec- 1740
What today is the farming village of St-Bernard-de-Lacolle has its roots in the Seigneurie of Beaujeu. The seigneurs of Beauharnois and Hocquart hatched a project to concede some seigneuries in the area of the Lake Champlain Valley. In 1733, they conceded land to Louis Denis de la Ronde (seigneurie of Lacolle) and to Louis Lienard de Beaujeu (seigneurie of Chazy). Unfortunately, as of 1741, both seigneurs had left the land as they received it. On the 10th of May, 1741, the lands were returned to Couronne because the consessioners had not established colonies. On March 22nd, 1743, Beauharnois and Hocquart conceded the seigneurie of Lacolle to sir Daniel Lienard de Beaujeu, son of Louis. By 1751, two new families had settled by the “rivière à la Colle”. On Mar 6, 1752, under the Marquis de la Jonquire and Francois Bigot, Daniel received the lands of his now-deceased father. It would be told “…how he made, before and after the war (1746-1748), considerable dispenses for the establishment of said concession on which he had settlers who have bulls, cows, plows, and other work tools.”The seigneurie changed hands several times, passing from one generation to the next. During this time, several mills, churches, schools, and homes were built. Some had stone houses while the poorer settlers built log cabins. [...]
Along the Richelieu River, the closest church to Lacolle was in Chambly, quite a distance to travel for marriages and baptisms. In 1810, the curé Berthelot took his chalice and portable alter to visit the settlers in Lacolle. He baptized several children and said mass. Later, other protestant missionaries made their way to the area and founded the United Church of Lacolle called St-Saviour.
In 1841, Lord Sydenham proposed the erection of municipal districts. Everyone thinks these municipalities will revive and that they will come to be well-known like a parish. On November 18, 1841, some residents of the seigneurie of Lacolle addressed Monsignor Ignace Bourget, bishop of Montreal, to obtain the erection of a parish. They presented the usual reasons: distance from the nearest church, the dreadful state of the roads [in order to get there], the difficulty in training their children in the catholic religion. The real reason appeared at the end of the document: “after the ecclesiastical recognition, they would be addressing the government to obtain “some documents that grant to their said new parish a civil existence which will soon be recognized.”In January 1842, M. Charles Laroque, curé of Blairfindie was sent by Bourget to make an inquest. On the first of February, Monsignor Ignace Bourget set up the “mission of St-Bernard-de-Lacolle”, as the population is still too dispersed to create a parish. He also accepted the gift of three arpents [unit of land] of land from Michel Normandin on which to build a church.
- 11 July 1842 – four representatives (James O’CONNOR, Michel NORMANDIN, Louis REMILLARD, Etienne DUQUETTE) signed a contract with Charles NOËL to build a stone church for $250 ($150 silver,$100 hay and grain).
- 13 October 1843 – three representatives (Patrick BARKER, Constant BOUSQUET, Noël DESAUTELS) purchased 80 benches from the chapel of Saint-Jacques-Mineur for 16 livres 14 shillings.
- 11 November 1843 – Charles François Calixte MORRISON is named the parish priest.
- 16 November 1843 – At the courthouse of Montreal, the church was equipped with the necessary registers for the parish.
- 19 November 1843 – The first baptism is recorded.
In 1851, the census of St-Bernard-de-Lacolle reports: 3483 persons (1760 anglophone and 1723 francophone), 1787 men and 1696 woman, 1886 catholic and 1597 protestant.
The law of December 18, 1854 ended the seigneurial system in Canada, and the municipality of St-Bernard-de-Lacolle has flourished since its first mayor [was elected] in 1833.
Charles Berthelot, curé of Saint-Luc, [wrote] on 9 October 1909 that the young people of the area are working cutting trees down south, near Lake Champlain.” In the 40-50 years since [then], many young families [spent] years in the factories in the [United States] to earn better wages. Many returned, but not all, with their savings. The [Canadian] census records still indicate one or two children from these families [were] born in the United States. [...] In 1850, the California gold rush saw many men leaving behind a wife and children [...]never [to] return with [...] promised riches. Soon after , many farmers left with their families to settle in the fertile prairies of Illinois [and Michigan], where they could easily establish their sons. In October 1867, the [Lacolle] city council began to worry, for an empty house meant that the road opposite this property was no longer maintained. [Dirt roads needed to be maintained by the settlers.] [At] the turn of the [21st] century, the parish of Notre-Dame-du-Mont-Carmel and the municipality of Lacolle [were] established, and St-Bernard-de-Lacolle has become seemingly very small. The area has seen many ups and downs, but the overall feel for the land is the same. The families who till the land and milk the cows are as hardy today as they were in the first days of the seigneurie. If you ever visit this village, take note of the rolling hills and the wide open fields with their long, plowed rows, [...] you’ll be swept away to another time when your ancestors [settled] a whole new world.
Both the Rabideau & Deyo families have roots in the area surrounding Lacolle Quebec. In the early to mid-1800s Lacolle was an area that saw numerous battles and skirmishes, both in the war of 1812 and the Patriotes Rebellion of 1837-1838 including:
Battle Of Lacolle Mills (1812)
Second Battle of Lacolle (1814)
Battle at Odelltown and the Battle of Lacolle (November 7 & 9, 1838)
Battle Of Lacolle Mills (1812)
The Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought on November 20, 1812, during the War of 1812. In this relatively short and fast battle, a very small garrison of British troops and Canadian volunteers, with the assistance of Kahnawake Mohawk warriors, defended the Lacolle Mills Blockhouse near the village of Lacolle, Quebec.The American invasion force, prepared and led by Major General Henry Dearborn, captured the blockhouse in the early morning, possibly following a brief confrontation with the outnumbered defending forces. In the dark, a second group of American militia attacked the troops at the blockhouse, resulting in a short battle between two groups of American forces. In the aftermath of this confusion, the British forces under the command of Charles de Salaberry launched a counter attack against the shaken American forces, forcing a retreat to Champlain before the American forces withdrew from Lower Canada completely. After this defeat, the demoralized American forces would not attempt this assault again until 1814 in the Second Battle of Lacolle Mills.
Second Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814)
The Second Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought on 30 March 1814 during the War of 1812. The small garrison of a British outpost position, aided by reinforcements, fought off a strong but badly-executed American attack.
After the St. Lawrence campaign had ended late the previous year with the British victory at the Battle of Crysler’s Farm, the defeated American Army under Major General James Wilkinson went into winter quarters at French Mills, New York, only just inside the United States. The British commanders feared that the Americans could threaten the British line of communication along the St. Lawrence River from this position, but Wilkinson made no attempt to do so. His army arrived at French Mills with few supplies, and because of poor roads, lack of transport and draught animals and inefficiency of the Quartermaster General’s Department, it was almost impossible to supply the army in this advanced position. Sickness rapidly increased until there were no less than 450 sick in squalid conditions in a hospital in Malone, New York and many more in French Mills.
Finally, in late January, Secretary of War John Armstrong ordered Wilkinson to detach a division numbering 2,000 men under Brigadier General Jacob Brown to Sackett’s Harbor, New York, and fall back with the main body (about 4,000 fit men) to Plattsburgh, New York on Lake Champlain, while the sick and wounded were removed to Burlington, Vermont. British troops followed up almost to Plattsburgh, recovering large quantities of supplies from settlements in New York state such as Malone and Four Corners and paroling many sick American soldiers who fell into their hands, before withdrawing.
Wilkinson was aware that he would almost certainly be removed from command following the defeat of the St. Lawrence campaign, and planned several offensives to restore his reputation. Most of these were too ambitious with the means available, but one objective seemed feasible. A few miles north of the border between Canada and the United States, the main road running north crossed the small Lacolle River. Here, the British maintained an outpost of 80 men of the 13th Regiment of Foot in a blockhouse and the stout stone-built mill building. The defenders also included a Congreve rocket detachment of the Royal Marine Artillery, and there were other outpost positions and blockhouses nearby.
BattleWilkinson marched northwards from Plattsburgh to attack this outpost on 27 March 1814. His force consisted of 4,000 men organised into three brigades, with 11 pieces of artillery. The march was delayed by deep snow and mud, and he was not able to occupy Odelltown until 30 March, and begin the attack on Lacolle Mills until the early afternoon.
The Americans opened fire with two 12-pounder cannon and a 5-and-a-half inch mortar. They could not bring an 18-pounder gun into action because of soft ground around the area. The British garrison fired back with their Congreve rockets. Although the rockets were inaccurate, they caused several American casualties. The American troops had not encountered these weapons before in battle and were unnerved.
The flank (i.e. the Light and Grenadier) companies of the 13th had been stationed nearby, and launched a bayonet charge against the American artillery emplacements, but they were far outnumbered and were repulsed. Hearing the firing from some 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) away, a company of the Canadian Voltigeurs and the Grenadier company of the Canadian Fencibles also marched to reinforce the defenders. They waded through icy water to slip through the American lines and opened fire on American artillery, wounding the American artillery commander, his replacement and many of the gun crews. The Americans were also under fire from British gunboats under Commander Daniel Pring of the Royal Navy, who had brought his vessels up the Richelieu River from Ile aux Noix to the mouth of the Lacolle River.
By evening, the Americans had made little impression on the British defences. Rather than launch an all-out assault, Wilkinson ordered a retreat. The Americans returned to Plattsburgh, considerably disheartened.
Wilkinson had apparently recklessly exposed himself to British fire throughout the action, though to little purpose.
On 11 April, Wilkinson received orders from Armstrong relieving him of command. This was probably not a direct result of the debacle at Lacolle Mills, but followed a request made by Wilkinson himself on 24 March for a Court of Enquiry to rule on his conduct of the St. Lawrence campaign the previous year. This eventually resulted in a court martial, but Wilkinson was acquitted of various charges of negligence and misconduct.
The failure nevertheless allowed Armstrong to promote a crop of comparatively junior officers to command divisions and brigades. Major General George Izard, who had been on leave when the Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought, eventually took command at Plattsburgh.
The November 7 & 9, 1838 Battle at Odelltown and the Battle of Lacolle
The years of 1837 and 1838 were bad for the citizens of Quebec. Many French settlers were led into rebellion by Louis Papineau.Lacolle was the scene of two significant battles during the Papineau Rebellion, both occuring in the late fall of 1838. About 220 militia and volunteers from Havlock, Covey Hill, Hemmingford and Sherrington marched through Roxham to reinforce those facing the rebels in the November 7, 1838 stand at the Bullis Farm. The Battle of Lacolle was fought on November 7, 1838 between Loyal Lower Canada volunteer forces under Major John Scriver and Lower Canada rebels under Colonel Ferdinand-Alphonse Oklowski. On November 6, on their way to Lacolle, the Patriote rebels had won a first skirmish, but they lost in the final confrontation the next day. The battle lasted half an hour.
Again, on the 9th of November Odelltown (a part of Lacolle today) became a battlefield when nearly 1200 rebels unexpectedly engaged about 200 loyal defenders in and around the Odelltown Church. On both occaisions the rebels were forced to retreat.
Based upon Census data, we know the following information regarding the Rabideau & Deyo branches of our family (note all photos are from Google).
According to the 1920 US Census
In 1920 the George Deyo Family lived at 214 Main Street in Altona, NY; father George (age 52) was a farm worker. Exina his wife (37) was keeping house. They had 6 children living with them at that time including:
- Edward (17)
- Leona (13)- my grandmother
- Lawrence (10)
- Clarence (6)
- Gilbert (2)- interestingly listed as a daughter on the 1920 Census
- Gerald (an infant)
- Alexander Jr. (18)- working in a plastic mill
- Victor (16)- working in a cotten mill
- Fredrick (15)- my grandfather- was working in a plastic mill
- Mildred (6)
- Nelson Diteau (16)- boarder (his parents were unknown)- working in a cotten mill
According to the 1930 US CensusBy 1930 the George Deyo Family had moved from Altona and was now living at 5 Maple Street in Easthampton. Father, George (age 61), was a dryer working in a cotton mill; Exina, his wife (48), was keeping house. They had 4 children living with them in 1930 including:
- Lawrence (21)- working as a machinery oiler in a cotton mill
- Clarence (16)- working as a clerk in a chain store
- Gilbert – is missing from the 1930 enumeration and perhaps died during the years between 1920 and 1930.
- Gerald (10)
- Dora (8)
George’s daughter, Leona nee Deyo, and her husband, Frederick Rabideau/Rabidue (my grandparents), were living next door at 7 Maple Street. Frederick was employed as a truck driver for Yen Trucking. They had three young children living with them in 1930.
- Verda (4)
- Mildred (2)
- Francis Frederick (1)- my father
- Victor Rabidue (26), in 1930, was married to Simonne (21) and living in his parent’s home with their son Victor Jr. (3) on 37 Cottage Street. Victor Sr. was, also, employed as a wood chopper for a lumber company.
- In 1930, I find no US Census records for Alexander Rabideau (Rabidew/ Rabidue) Jr. It is possible that he either moved away or died in the years between 1920 and 1930.
In the 1910s, the Rabideau family moved to Easthampton, Massachusetts from Clinton County, New York. They came in search of work and a future. As lumberjacks and forest workers, their future and earnings were becoming increasingly limited in upper New York and the promise of work in the mills of Massachusetts was alluring. Neither Frederick Louis Rabideau nor his brothers had an education. By 1920 the boys Alexander (18), Frederick (15) and Victor (16) were working in a plastic mill as laborers supporting the family. Alexander Rabideau (the boy’s father) and Florinda nee Simard were unemployed.
The following history was written in the 1890s and may be found on the internet at the Historic Easthampton site.
Easthampton is a delightful and prosperous manufacturing, educational and farming town in the southern part of Hampshire County, on the New Haven and Northampton Railroad, about 90 miles west from Boston, five miles from Northampton. It has Northampton on the north, a dissevered section of the same town (including Mount Tom) on the east, Holyoke and Southampton on the south, and the latter and Westhampton on the west. The territory is triangular in general form, with its base to the north. It has an assessed area of 7,325 acres, of which 1,304 acres are forest, principally of pine and chestnut. Along the well kept streets of the older villages, also, are great numbers of maple and elm, many having a growth of 75 years, and few less than 20 years. The Manhan River flows northeasterly through the middle of the town, emptying into the Connecticut at a westward curve called “The Oxbow.” Broad Branch, coming into the town from the south, and North Branch at the northwest angle, are tributaries of the Manhan River, and, with it, furnishing valuable motive-power. The formative rock is lower sandstone. The face of the town is undulating, with mountains rising about on almost every side. The most prominent of these is Mount Tom, at the southeastern border, which attains the altitude of 1,214 feet, forming a magnificent sky outline to the landscape on that side. The railway, which follows the valley of the Manhan River, affords excellent points of view for this mountain ridge. The soil in this town is sandy loam, with much clay subsoil, and generally fertile; uniformly yielding good crops of hay, rye, oats, potatoes and tobacco. The greenhouse product in 1885 had a value of upwards of $3,000. The aggregate farm product was $154,038. The manufactures are numerous. The leading establishments are the “Williston Mills” (having two mills), the Nashawannick Manufacturing Company (three mills), the Glendale Company (three mills), the Easthampton Rubber Thread Company, Williston and Knight Company, George S. Colton, and the Valley Machine Company. The principal products are cotton prints, suspenders, buttons, elastic webs, rubber and silk goods, machinery, castings, whips, bricks, and food preparations. The value of the aggregate product of these and other manufactures in the census year of 1885 was $1,945,488. There is one national and one savings bank. The valuation of the town in 1888 was $2,397,279, with a tax-rate of $14 on $1,000. The population was 4,291; of whom 785 were voters. The dwelling-houses numbered 815. The postal villages are Easthampton and Mount Tom; and others are Factory Village and New City. Easthampton has an excellent town-hall, which cost originally $65,000; also an elegant public library building, containing about 10,000 volumes. The grading of the public schools is complete; and fifteen buildings, valued at upwards of $25,000, are devoted to their use. The Williston Seminary has a library of about 2,000 volumes. This institution was founded by the Hen. Samuel Williston, and has cost upwards of $250,000. I t was opened for students December 2, 1841, and has commodious buildings and a complete outfit for a school of its kind.
Professional Basketball in 1920s Easthampton, Massachusetts. I found this interesting tidbit of Easthampton history on the web. These events occurred about the time of my father’s birth and seemed informative of the the time and place that was Easthampton, Massachusetts.
by: Edward Dwyer (source article)
During the 1920s, pro basketball players played for semi-pro teams. Such a team was located in Easthampton and used the present upper Town Hall as their home. The NBA and the current popularity of basketball did not yet exist. The most talented teams were barnstorming squads that used New York for their base of operations such as the New York Celtics, the Original Celtics, and the New York Whirlwinds. Players moved rather freely between teams. An opponent one night could be a teammate the next. No arenas existed in those days, so large areas, such as a town hall floor, would be partitioned off with chicken wire, (the source of the name ‘cagers’ for players), and a game would be played. A band and dancing would usually follow the game. The Easthampton team was an offshoot of the Turn [Verein] (a local athletic club), basketball team. According to the 1935 Anniversary Book, the team started with local players, but gradually recruited outside talent. The first mention of the professional team in the Daily Hampshire Gazette was in 1920.The Easthampton Team played in the Interstate League. Also in this circuit, were teams from Holyoke, Springfield, Adams, Turner’s Falls, Westfield, Albany, NY and Thompsonville, CT. The 1921 and 1922 teams had some good players. The stars of the team were Barney Sedran, the self described ‘midget guard’, and forward Marty Friedman. Together, they played as a combo for many teams. Nat Holman, long time coach for the City College of New York, regarded both as super-stars of the era and Sedran as one of the greatest guards ever. Both had injuries that curtailed their playing time in Easthampton. The third star was Honey Russell, a guard. Although only 18 when he came to Easthampton, he had been a pro since his midteens. He was a defensive specialist. Russell played for many years and later coached Seton Hall in the 1940s and 50s. He was also the first coach of the Boston Celtics.
Freedman, Sedran and Russell have been inducted in the Hall of Fame in Springfield. Sedran’s plaque has him in his Easthampton uniform. Freedman’s biography at the Hall mentions playing here. All three began playing in town in 1921.Another player was Em Grayson, a forward. He was captain at Mass Aggie (now University of Massachusetts, Amherst) in 1916-17 and 1919-20, he later coached there and at Amherst College. Harry ‘Man-o-War’ Riconda was a forward in 1921 and 22. Once with the Original Celtics, he had the reputation as a tough player. ‘Hot’ Haggerty of Springfield had several stays in Easthampton. In 1922, he left Springfield’s team to play for Easthampton then quit to play for the Original Celtics. He again played for Easthampton in 1923. From newspaper accounts, he was a very popular player.
Others came and went. A player named Bernot was at center for a few games in 1922, left and came back in 1923. Billy Sullivan played in 1921 and moved to the Adams team. ‘Stretch’ Meehan, a 6’9″ center was used as a drawing card in 1921. Bob Jackson, a center also played in 1921.
The league suffered financial difficulties. To recoup some losses, the Original Celtics came in 1922 to play each team in the circuit. An ad billed them as the World Champs of the previous year. Easthampton emerged victorious by the score of 18 to 12. Sedran led all players with 7 points and held Celtic star Nat Holman to gust one point.
After the season, Sedran, Friedman, Russell and Riconda all left to play other circuits. On February 5, 1923 the team moved to Northampton. The season and the entire league ended the next month.
Hampshire County- 1856
Hampshire County, Massachusetts- 1854
Southern New England 1872
Clinton County, NY 1892
Clinton County, NY 1895
Champlain Valley- 1844
Mooers Forks, NY
Mooers and Cherubusco, NY
New York State- 1846
New York State & New England- 1832
Rouses Point, NY
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The following documents covering Prussian and Polish Royalty lexicons and histories are now available on ManyRoads.
- Der polnische Adel und die demselben hinzugetretenen andersländischen Adelsfamilien Band. 1
- Der polnische Adel und die demselben hinzugetretenen andersländischen Adelsfamilien Band. 2
- Die polnischen Stammwappen: ihre Geschichte und ihre Sagen
- Geschichte des polnischen Adels: nebst einem Anhange der Vasallenliste des 1772 Preussen huldigenden polnischen Adels in Westpreussen
- Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon band 1. A-D
- Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon band 2. E-H
- Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon band 3. I-O
- Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon band 4 P-Z
- Westpreussen unter polnischem Scepter
ManyRoads is pleased to announce that June 2010 was our busiest month ever.We had 4341 unique site visits in June of 2010. By large site standards, this is not even a good day, for us it is both exciting and pleasing. We hope that you will continue to visit our site and if possible link to us from yours (if you have one).
Should you have ideas on how we might further improve our sote, please use our contact page.
Again thank you!
The following Quebec History subjects are now available in our online library: The 1837 Patriots Rebellion of Lower Canada and the Metis population of Quebec.
1837 Patriots Rebellion
- Some Personal Recollections of the Rebellion of 1837 in Canada
- To the surviving veterans of 1837-8-9
- The Patriotes of ’37- a chronicle of the Lower Canadian rebellion
- The Canadian rebellion of 1837
- Dictionnaire historique des Canadiens et des Metis francais de l’Ouest
- Statement of the seigniors of Rimouski and Metis in reference to their right of fishing in the rivers Rimouski and Metis- 1877
These documents like most of our texts are in DJVU format.
Names used to designate Natives, other than the name of their tribe or nation, include : Savage (a pejorative, rarely used today but common only a half-century ago), Indian, North American Indian, Native, and Amerindian (this one seems to be used only in French). In French, the corresponding terms are: Sauvage, Indien, Indien nord-américain, Autochtone and Amérindien.
Metis means mixed blood, that is initially one parent was White, and one was Native, while later one or both were Metis. While a Metis can be any place where there are Natives and Whites, Metis Nation is defined as including the Metis living in the early Manitoba lands.
Contrary to popular belief, there were few marriages between Natives and the French in the early days of the colony of New France. We can find these marriages in Jette for the period before 1731, just like all the other marriages of that period. This kind of marriages seems to be more common in Acadia but because of the missing records, it is not possible to estimate the proportion of Acadian Metis families.
In the Quebec early vital records (1621-1765), we have about 78 couples with a Male Native and a Female European, 45 with a Female Native and a Male European and 540 with 2 Natives. The whole database has over 44,500 couples, including some living in France. So, the % of Metis married couples is very small, under 0.3%. Those are couples according to our church records. It is practically not possible to count about many couples left no official trace except if we do some DNA analysis for the whole population.
While the Acadian records are less complete, it is quite fascinating to compare them with the Quebec records. In the Quebec missions like Tadoussac or Oka, the Amerindians were called with Indian names. In Acadia, they had more frequently European names. In the old West (pays d’en haut), there are some fur traders who married Native women following the local custom. The European settlement appeared after that of Quebec and Acadia and the naming pattern is similar to that of Quebec. This could mean in Acadia, the Natives were mixed to Whites, while in Quebec and the West, the White were mixed to Natives. This would explain why there is no Native parish in Acadia, unlike in Quebec.
From 1600 to 1800 ( very approximate years ), acts of baptism, marriage, and [death] may include only the Christian name or both the Christian and the Native names. In the second case, it is possible to find the genealogical link even if the Native name is not hereditary because that name is kept by a person all along his/her life.
Around 1800-1850 ( very approximate years ), acts concerning Natives start using a family name and it then becomes possible to trace the genealogical links.
There was another special phenomenon, namely the adoption by Whites of Natives, but these adoptions left no trace in the parish registers. In fact, adoptions before 1930, be they of Whites or Natives are rarely mentioned in Quebec parish registers.
Quite a bit has been added to the site since my last missive. Rather than bore you with a lot of details, I will simply outline the changes. The major items or changes to ManyRoads include:
- A complete revamp of the Maps area on ManyRoads, providing easier access points and ‘more useful’ page layout.
- Complete re-layout of our Prussian History Library including: address books, maps, histories, etc.
- Addition of Quebec Maps Category and Maps
- Officially published the paper I delivered at the Parker Genealogical Society
- Published numerous posts on Robidoux History
- Suffered a humor and philosophical moment resulting in a Winnie the Pooh posting.
- Published a remembrance of Elbing by one of our Readers, Fred Rump
Additionally I have upgraded the entire site to the newest version of WordPress and everything seems to be running fine. Please let me know if you encounter any problems.
We provide free maps of Prussia (Germany), Europe, Quebec, and Early North America.
Maps Related Articles:
- British Colonies
- Central Europe & Baltic Region
- Deutsche Mundarten- German Language
- Early Canada Maps
- Elbing Area Maps
- Europe 800 to 1400
- Europe- 1560
- Europe- 1648
- Europe- 1740
- Europe- 1808
- Europe- 1815
- Europe- Medieval Commerce
- Evolution of Germany from 1867
- Finding Former Eastern German Place Names
- Garnison Karte von Mitteleuropa- 1897
- German Orders Hanse- 1400
- German Settlements 800-1400
- Germanien 2.Jahrhundert
- Germany until 1945
- Graudenz Umgebung
- Gross Lichtenau
- Handkarte Gross
- ManyRoads Maps
- Massachusetts Maps
- Misc. Pommern
- Misc. Prussia & Poland
- Neuteich Maps
- New Amsterdam
- New Netherland
- North America- 1704
- Pomerania, Marcha, Prussia
- Pre-1945 Polska Maps
- Pre-WW2 Maps of Poland & the former German East
- Preußen- (Ost und West)
- Preussische Holland
- Quebec & New France Maps
- Soviet Gulags
- Sprachenkarte Deutschland
- Upstate New York Maps
- Vertreibung Landkarten (German Expulsion Maps)
- World War 2 Maps
- Zeyer u. Zeyervorderkampen
Our maps are sourced from all over the internet. In an effort to thank most of those who have provided us with these wonderful documents, we acknowledge the following groups, sites and organizations:
- The University of Texas- Austin (Perry-Castañeda Library)
- Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
- DLibra- University of Poznan
- Emerson Kent
We also thank Zoomify for their software which makes the loading and analysis of large images both fast and easy.
Find your friends. If you run a family history/ genealogy website, building associations and affiliations can be a useful and valuable adjunct to your genealogical efforts.
Some of the most interesting and potentially useful affiliations (links) are with are sites and organizations belonging to other family members or family associations. These family members/ associations need not be particularly close, from a genealogical relationship perspective, but rather simply represent individuals or groups searching for, or providing, information on branches, limbs of your family tree. It is additionally helpful if their family name obviously links or relates to those most frequently mentioned on your site. Obvious name linkages make it easier for casual readers and researchers alike to see the importance and enthusiasm for information involving your family, perhaps enticing a more reluctant reader into active participation.
Not only can related sites possible additional readership for, and comments on, your site, but more importantly, they provide you with the potential of finding good and useful sources of genealogical information. Presumably, the readers of closely affiliated and obviously related sites are also interested in assisting in your research success and may, also, be willing to provide you with analysis and reviews on your own research efforts. (N.B. I have found this form of review invaluable in scrubbing errors and addressing omissions in my research.)
In the case of ManyRoads, we have recently come across several such sites. These include:
If you know of sites researching any of our family names, most notably any related to:
- Johannson (Veddige, Sweden),
- Sivertsen (Sandane/ Gloppen, Norway),
- Deyo (Quebec, Northern NY),
- Senger (East & West Prussia),
- Rich (Washington Cty, Iowa)
Please let us know. We’d both love to visit them and create a mutual link.
The following reproduced web publication goes a long way in solving the mystery of Raphael Robidoux’s birth and his family linkages.
I sincerely appreciate the wonderful work of Clyde Rabideau and his making this publication available on the web. I hope he is honored by our presentation of his material and analysis.
IN PURSUIT OF MY ANCESTORS
By Clyde M. Rabideau
I started trying to determine who my ancestors were in 1990 when I was living and working in Ottawa, Canada. It was not long before I was at a dead end. My parents were Medard [Medor] Rabideau and Lillian Varin. My paternal grandparents were Noel Rabideau and Agnes Rousseau. A close look at my grandfather’s death certificate showed his name as Newell and parents as Russel Rebedeau and Philanda Mathews.. [...]
It did not take me long to determine that my great-grandfather’s name was actually Raphael Robidoux. I was able to locate his immigration papers at the Clinton County Clerk’s office in Plattsburgh, New York. He immigrated from Quebec in about 1855 when he was 13 years old and became a citizen on October 21, 1884.
My next step was to find out where he was married. I was able to locate his marriage in the St. Pierre’s [Peter’s] church records in Plattsburgh:
Unfortunately, the marriage record did not show any parents. This meant that I would have a much more difficult time in my pursuit. The Clinton County federal census records showed them living in Alder Bend in the town of Altona which is where my grandfather, Noel, was born. I still had the problem of going backwards. I started with Raphael and used Quebec church records that were available at the Quebec Archives located very close to the American Embassy in Ottawa, Canada. This location was very close to where I was posted to and working for the U. S. Government. After a considerable search, I was able to find his baptism record in St-Constant, Quebec. St-Constant is located south of Montreal and very close to the Caughnawaga Indian Reservation.
Unfortunately, I was now at a dead end. The baptism record did not provide any clues as to Raphael’s actual parents. His death certificate showed his parents as Russel [Raphael] Rabideau and Mary Lashway [LaJoie]. I could not find any records on a Raphael Robidoux and Mary LaJoie:
I had no other choice but to change my research to find out more about his wife, Euphemie Robidoux. Family records and written family history had her name as Philomene Mattis or Philenda Mathews and Philomene St. Germain. Her death certificate did show her mother as Salome Boyer:
All of the church baptism records of Raphael and Euphemie’s children had her last name as Robidoux. Euphemie is oftentimes shown as Philomene of Philanda or something close to that. As shown on my grandfather’s death certificate her name was Philanda Mathews. On the death certificate of Euphemie’ daughter, Mary, it was shown as Mary St. Germaine. There were several baptisms of children in the Clinton County area to Leon [Leandre] Robidoux and Salome Boyer. Assuming that her name was actually Euphemie Robidoux, I began my search for her birth. I concluded through circumstantial evidence that the Leon Robidoux that attended her wedding was her father. I further concluded that the Pierre Robidoux attending the wedding was the Peter [Pierre] Robidoux who was married to Esther St. Germain and lived in the area of West Plattsburgh.
Based on these conclusions, I began my search of Euphemie and her parents, Leandre Robidoux and Salome Boyer. I found her baptism record shown below:
I was still at a dead end but subsequently found the marriage of her presumed parents, Leandre Robidoux and Salome Boyer. The actual marriage record in French and English follow:
I then began to research Leandre Robidoux only to find that it was a another complicated task. Footnote 1 of the English translation that I did on the marriage of Leandre Robidoux and Salome Boyer indicates that Julian Laplante, uncle, was married to Marie Anne Robidoux. This was based on my research of Julian Laplante and the connection to the Robidouxs. Marie Anne was the daughter of Toussaint Robidoux and Marguerite Vautrin and the brother of Joseph Robidoux who was born on October 26, 1796 in St-Phillipe, Quebec. Joseph was the only brother of an age that could have fathered Leandre out -of-wedlock or illegitimate, as the Quebec church records describe the baptism. Joseph did not marry until November 22, 1825 when he was 29 years old. It was very uncommon to wait this long to marry during that time and based on the evidence available, I determined that Joseph was the father of Leandre.
I was not able to locate the illegitimate baptism record for Leandre but was able to find him and Euphemie with their children in the 1851 census of Quebec, Canada. They were in Sherrington, Quebec and the age and birthplace is shown for each person. The census below shows that Leandre was born in 1815 in St-Phillipe, Quebec:
I now attempted to find where and when Leandre died. Family history had him dying in Beekmantown, New York at the age of 104 with the name of Leandre Mattis. As usual, family history is not always accurate. I was in the Wead Library in Malone, New York looking through microfilm when I came across a two line notice that a Leander Robedeau had died on January 22, 1907 at the age of 94. I eventually was able to obtain a Certification of Death from the Village of Malone clerk in October 1994. The notice in the January 30, 1907 edition of The Malone Farmer read, “ROBEDEAU – In Malone, N. Y., Jan 21st of apoplexy, Leander Robedeau, aged 94 years.”
The certificate indicated that Leandre’s mother was a Laplante. More than likely, she was a sister of Julian Laplante and as close to the Robidoux family as Julian was. I have not been able to pinpoint exactly which Laplante was her mother. This solved the mystery of my great-grandmother, I thought.
It was not until 2008 when the Northern New York Library Network brought The Malone Paladium on line on their public access site for newspapers in northern New York, http://news.nnyln.net/, that I was able to solve the 80 year old mystery of the Mattis/Robidoux name. I found these articles:To correct some of the information in these two newspaper articles, I must point out that in 1906, Leandre was 91 years of age and not over 100 or 97 as his son, Theodore told the newspaper. In the September 13th article, the editor got the age right.
Also, Leandre was visiting his daughter, Euphemie, who lived in Alder Bend, and not his sister. Euphemie was 68 years old at the time. I could find no record of a sister, let alone one living in Alder Bend with my great-grandparents.
These articles solved forever the family history of Euphemie’s surname and revealed that there were several Mattis, Mattice, Mathes, Mathieu, Matthiew that lived in both New York and Massachusetts that were descended from Leandre Robidoux and Euphemie Robidoux. I found several of her siblings that had taken the Mattis name which subsequently evolved into the names shown above. It appears that Euphemie and Theodore, the two oldest children, were the only siblings to retain the Robidoux name. In Euphemie’s case, she apparently told her family that her maiden or surname was Mattis.
The following obituary was found in the May 8, 1929 Malone Farmer Newspaper:
Euphemie’s brother, Leandre Mattis, moved to Lowville, New York and her brother, Gilbert Matthews, lived in Malone, New York for several years before moving to Massachusetts. Both had large and extended families. Theodore and his brother, Gilbert, both served in the Civil War. Theodore as Theodore Rubadue and Gilbert as Gilbert Mattice. It had been a difficult task but I now had a line back to Andre Robidou, the original Robidou that came to Quebec in the 1600s . There are now over 70 spellings of the last name of the Robidou name.
Now, for the rest of the story. By January 2009, I was getting the itch to retry to connect up my great-grandfather, Raphael Robidoux. I spent a couple of months researching the Quebec vital statistics and possible connections. Remember, my grandfather’s name was Noel and my father’s name was Medard. Finally, I used these names as a clue in my search. Both names were extremely rare in the over 9,000 Robidou/Robidoux Quebec record of vital statistics. I found a Medard Robidoux born on June 9, 1798 in Yamaska, Quebec, son of Antoine Noel Robidoux and Josette Godin.
This was too much of a coincidence to pass up. I discovered that Medard married Marie Brouillard on Feb 2, 1819 and they had eleven children born in Quebec. Further, most of their children lived in the Schuyler Falls, Morrisonville, and Cadyville area of Clinton County, New York area. It turned out the Pierre Robidoux attending Raphael & Euphemie’s wedding was a son of Medard Robidoux and Marie Brouillard. This further pointed to Medard Robidoux as the possible father of Raphael. But of course, I did not have any proof.
I had in mind how I was going to prove the connection but I needed to do some more research. I traced the male descendants of Medard Robidoux & Marie Brouillard [...]
I purchased two paternal lineage DNA Test Kit-Y-Chromosome 33s for $79 each from Ancestry.Com with one to be sent directly to the male descendant [...] and one to sent to me. The test kits were received in May 2009 and I completed mine and returned it for testing. He also completed his and returned it for testing. I then had to wait about a month.
The results of the test were emailed to me in June 2009 with a perfect match! Raphael had been born out-of wedlock to Marie Lashway with Medard Robidoux as his father. This meant that the Pierre Robidoux attending the wedding was Raphael’s half-brother and that the male descendant [...] was my third cousin. He was not nearly as excited as I was about the match. It also meant that many of the local Rabideaus were closely related to me and that my long search for my roots was successful.
Euphemie Robidoux and Raphael Robidoux on their wedding day at St. Pierre’s church in Plattsburgh, NY on January 9,1860 [small photo] and later in life.
Hampshire Gazette, Massachusetts
Monday, October 17,1921
Mrs. Russell Robideau, aged 92, died Friday evening at the home of her son, Joseph, on Payson Ave. [in Easthampton]. Mrs. Robideau came here in September to visit her son. The body was sent last evening to Altona, N. Y.
Note: Please notice the many different spelling of both the given names and the surnames of all of the ancestors.
It surprises me how much Winnie the Pooh knows about genealogy.
I came across the following quotes and they just seemed to be very insightful. I hope you find them so as well.
Before beginning a Hunt, it is wise to ask someone what you are looking for before you begin looking for it.
Winnie the Pooh
Pooh’s Little Instruction Book
It’s always useful to know where a friend-and-relation is, whether you want him or whether you don’t.
Winnie the Pooh
Rabbit, Pooh’s Little Instruction Book
A little Consideration, a little Thought for Others, makes all the difference.
Winnie the Pooh
Eeyore, Winnie the Pooh
Some people care too much, I think it’s called love.
Winnie the Pooh
Winnie the Pooh
Did you ever stop to think, and forget to start again?
Winnie the Pooh
Winnie the Pooh
Always watch where you are going. Otherwise, you may step on a piece of the Forest that was left out by mistake.
Winnie the Pooh
Pooh’s Little Instruction Book
They’re funny things, Accidents. You never have them till you’re having them.
Winnie the Pooh
Eeyore, The House at Pooh Corner
When looking at your two paws, as soon as you have decided which of them is the right one, then you can be sure the other one is the left.
Winnie the Pooh
Pooh’s Little Instruction Book
When you are a Bear of Very Little Brain, and Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into the open and has other people looking at it.
Winnie the Pooh
The House at Pooh Corner
You can’t stay in your corner of the forest, waiting for others to come to you; you have to go to them sometimes.
Winnie the Pooh
Piglet, Pooh’s Little Instruction Book
All these quotes are copyright A.A.Milne.
ManyRoads has just completed a rather extensive software upgrade. We moved from version 2.9.2 of WordPress to version 3.0.
If you notice any problems I would greatly appreciate a message regarding the problem(s) so I can track them down and fix them. Feel free to use our Contact page to let me know.
We’ve had some interesting discussions [...] lately but I feel that for most of us Elbing and it’s history is far, far away. The people who actually lived there before 1945 are fast becoming a dying breed. In addition, while there is much Information available in German sources, little information can be found in English.
Let me store some of my thoughts and a brief historical background on these pages.
I was born in Elbing in Dec 1937. My earliest memories are rather vague. See My Story
Point is we left under duress with the full expectation to be back in at most 2 weeks. That was the propaganda line. How my mother could have been so naive and accepted that which was handed her, has taken me to the study of history and the power of government (or other) propaganda. I have read many books and majored in European history just to try to get a handle on this manipulation of the minds of human beings. How was the holocaust possible among a civilized people? The question still haunts me but I’ve discovered that human beings are easily lead astray no matter where they live or who they are. We are essentially tribal beings whether we belong to a family, an infantry squad or a religious group and will defend the behavior of our members against all ‘others’.
I knew my mother was always prejudiced towards Poles. She referred to them as Pollacks in a derogatory way. Why? Where did this come from? I know that we had a Polish maid during the war who helped my mom raising my sister and me. She was probably assigned to us against her will by the state. I don’t know if I’m right or whether she wanted to work for us. Anyway, one fine day she was gone along with some our valuables. That helped my mom with her prejudice against all Poles. They’re all thieves etc. Another action was the aftermath of WW1 when the allies gave much of Eastern Germany to the Poles and created Czechoslovakia from scratch. Just as we just read about Loesser & Wolf, one of their 4 factories was simply Polonized and taken over because it lay in this new Polish territory. This happened all over West Prussia and the animosity of Pole vs German was a breeding ground for hate and prejudice. The rights to live in their homes and keep their livelihood was basically cut short by the actions of the new Polish owners of this land. A perfect cauldron for revenge as soon as the opportunity presented itself. The Nazi propaganda machine only added to this hate campaign. It became easy to see a Pole simply as an opportunistic thief who didn’t want to work for their own benefit like good honest Germans did. When the National Socialist party ran on an extreme rightist ticket for redress of all these wrongs, the people voted them into power. Once they had it, they took complete charge but always under a highly patriotic banner. If you’re not with us, you’re with the enemy. The people could fill in their own blanks.
How did all this get started? Nationalism or tribal warfare – the us and them. To add a little history: way back when the area was Christianized at the request of the authorities who did this all over the world. The idea was to run the newly converted land under new rules of civilization. Normally a country would be formed but this was the time of the crusades and the Teutonic Knights happened to have been given charge of this process by the emperor and the pope. Many wars later a peace treaty was signed which gave roughly half of the knight’s land to a new sovereign, the Polish king. Nothing changed except that more and more settlement came in from the East to enjoy the fruits of trade and commerce. The land became more Slavic while the cities stayed German and managed themselves. They were examples of a new Democratic type of government run by the tradesmen of these towns. They too resented having to pay taxes to some nominal overlord whether he was Polish or the Grandmaster of the knights. They joined together in the Hanseatic League to present a power of their own. Remnants of this free and self governing lifestyle are still seen in the City State of Hamburg and others to this day. They belong to no state. The old HRE (Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation) had many such imperial cities who managed themselves and paid a nominal tax only to the emperor.
In any case, these cities were part of the tribe of German speakers. Countries as such hadn’t been invented yet. The King of England was also the King of Hannover. This did not make Hannoverians into Brits or part of the British Empire. They simply offered homage to the king. Such was the deal in Royal and Ducal Prussia. A lord would sit somewhere far away and the people lived their lives in harmony. Back, before the US had fought it’s 38 Indian wars to conquer native lands, the King of Prussia and others divided Polish lands among themselves to enhance their spheres of influence and, in the Prussian case, get back when they lost in previous wars against the knights. So, in 1772, Royal Prussia which had been under a Polish sovereign for a while became part of the Kingdom of Prussia under a German sovereign. This is our West Prussia. It was all turned back in 1920 when the land was given to this newly created country of Poland which hadn’t existed since 1795. After Napoleon defeated Prussia the Treaty of Tilsit established the Duchy of Warsaw from Prussian lands and a new Poland was born again but under another personal union deal where the King of Saxony was also the Duke of Warsaw. Not to go into the entire history but Poland essentially did not exist until after Versailles. The Poles then also attacked Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania to enlarge their territory. In 1921 after a plebiscite was won by the Germans in Upper Silesia the allies also awarded that territory to Poland. In general it was a time of extreme nationalism which favored the Poles in all respects. German resentment was quietly cooking during the 1920s and 30s. Various atrocities and so called ‘bloodbaths’ in the newly created Polish lands upon the German population only added to the seethe.
In 1939 Russia and Germany attacked Poland. Germany took back all the land taken from it after WW1 and there was great rejoicing among the people. They had gotten their homes and pride back. The Nazi party took the glory and credit. Everyone else was a defeatist and enemy of the state. The concept of traitorous behavior which caused Versailles as a sell out was being blamed on Socialists, the Jewish population and its bankers and industrialists. Enemies of the state where among us. Once all power was in the state, concentration camps were not far behind. The people closed their eyes and did not want to know why and what.
Russia, of course retained the land it took from Poland and arranged for the Polish population to be shifted into German lands after WW2. In order to make room somewhere between 14 and 16 million people were ethnically cleansed and moved out or killed. Our country agreed to this process even though our history books don’t tell us about it. Well over a million people died in the forced exodus. Many simply disappeared in Siberia as they were shipped there as slave labor. Further, a million German POWs died after the war was over in Soviet prisons. It was the worst of times for German women who happened to be caught by Russian soldiers or the so called Polish Militz. Every German refugee can tell those stories from hell. They say such is war.
So much for a short recap of what happened. In 1995 I spent 8 weeks on a camping trip in the former German lands to see what was left to see of the past. I have to admit that the transformation and erasure of the past was almost 100% complete. Except for a few faded signs on old discontinued railroad buildings out in the country and the word ‘Elbing’ in the 1912 cast iron sewer inlets there was really nothing there to showed hundreds of years of having been. Even an old 17th century map painted on a museum wall had the word Elblag replacing Elbing. I’ve seen that same German map in books in its original version. It’s as if Boston were converted over night to be a French city with every English word chiseled out of the granite buildings. All that is left are the old blue and white porcelain house number signs on the buildings. Our house still had its old number but the street name was translated into Polish. So nothing changed and everything changed. The street itself had risen as the city’s rubble was simply paved over. Where once I had to climb steps up into our house, they now led down. Strange.
The people were friendly though. Their world view and history is formed from a system that teaches only a Polish version but we do the same here. History is what people are taught by the establishment. In Germany they try to not even to teach history. I had many long discussions as people wanted to know what I think even though everything I thought was obviously wrong. Their teachers told them so. When I added myself to a group of architectural students from Britain on a group tour of the Marienburg castle, one of the students started arguing with the guide as her story was completely wrong. The student was Polish but was studying in England. He chastised the tour guide for making up stories and then they got into it in Polish. Point is, the tour guides are employees of the state and they have to present the official Polish version of the world or they wouldn’t have a job. There are historians and writers in Poland today who work on the truth but they are still on the outs with the official version of Polish history. Maybe someday history will be written as it really was. “Wie es eigentlich gewesen ist.” (Ranke) But we need to do away with nationalism first.
One incident I should bring up here: I had made this U-turn on a major street in Elbing and was pulled over by the police. ‘Papers (or a something) please’ in Polish. All I really had was a passport. The cops did not look happy about my transgression. Maybe its a big thing to make a U-Turn in Poland? Then they pointed out to something on my passport to each other and their demeanor changed instantly. They showed the passport to me pointing out that it said ‘born in Elbing, Germany’. Maybe that was the first time they had seen the word Elbing but they knew it and smiled and wished me welcome with a shake of the hands. I didn’t understand a word of what they were saying but I got the message and saw this act as a moment of hope for all of us. We had the same home town but came from different worlds and we were able to smile.
On this page you will find presentations I have created/delivered to a wonderful group in Parker, Colorado- The Parker Genealogical Society. Presentations are available here for anyone to view and/or download.
I hope you find them useful.What's in a name?- Delivered 12 June 2010 Quebec Genealogy- Delivered 09 October 2010
Burgos is the area in Spain from which Andre Robidou, the founder of the Rabideau family in North America, came.
Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago. When the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos the site had been a Celtiberian city. In Roman times it belonged to Hispania Citerior (“Hither Spain”) and then to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the fifth century the Visigoths drove back the Suebi, then the Arabs occupied almost all of Castile in the eighth century, though only for a brief period, and left little if any trace of their occupation. Alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered it about the middle of the ninth century, and built several castles for the defence of Christendom, which was then extended through the reconquest of lost territory. The region came to be known as Castile (Latin castella), i.e. “land of castles”.
Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez “Porcelos”, count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; with this end in view he gathered the inhabitants of the surrounding country into one fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages (Gothic baurgs). The city began to be called Caput Castellae (“Cabeza de Castilla” or “Head of Castile”). The county (condado) of Burgos, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was gradually extended; one of these counts, Fernán González, established his independence.
In the eleventh century the city became the see of a Catholic bishop and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners. Throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site. The consejo or urban commune of Burgos was firmly in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the “peasant knights” of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves relief from taxes, provided that they continue to live within the city walls The merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250; they carried on their mercantile business in common with municipal or royal functions and sent their sons to England and Flanders to gain experience in overseas trade. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor; a special court, the alcalde del rey was first mentioned at Burgos in 1281 By the reign of Alfonso X the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm.
In the century following the conquest of Seville (1248), Burgos became a testing-ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king. In 1285 Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works; the king reserved the right to select its members. The city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rather from an uncontrolled aristocracy during royal minorities: Burgos joined the hermandades of cities that leagued together for mutual protection in 1295 and 1315. In the fourteenth century official royal intrusion in city affairs was perceived as a palliative against outbreaks of violence by the large excluded class of smaller merchants and artisans, on whom the tax burden fell. The alguacil was the royal official instituted to judge disagreements.
On 9 June 1345, sweeping aside the city government, Alfonso XI established direct royal rule of Burgos through the Regimiento of sixteen appointed men
In 1574 Pope Gregory XIII made its bishop an archbishop, at the request of king Philip II.
Burgos has been the scene of many wars: with the Moors, the struggles between León and Navarre, and between Castile and Aragon. In the Peninsular War against Napoleonic France, Burgos was the scene of a battle, and again in the 19th century Carlist civil wars of the Spanish succession. During the Spanish Civil War Burgos was the base of Gen. Franco’s rebel Nationalist government.
A recent posting I placed on ManyRoads has provided me with some new insights into life, progress and accommodating the past. As an old adage notes, you can not control the problems life presents you with, but you can choose how you react to them. And, this is true.
The following historical facts are true:
- World War 2 involved the senseless displacement and destruction of tens of millions of people
- Germany lost the second World War
- the German people of Kreis Elbing were expelled from their homeland
- the Russians and their allies destroyed much of what was West Prussia
- the Poles were given many former eastern German lands including those of Zeyer and Elbing
- immediately after WW2 the victors made serious attempts to eradicate all traces of the region’s former German residents and history
- improved (actually quite excellent) availability of German documents and archives (dlibra),
- active preservation, conservation and restoration of the region’s original architecture,
- a more active and accurate acknowledgement of German history,
- more public acknowledgement of the German/ Prussian historical contribution to the development of the region,
- and most importantly to me, allowing former German residents to erect memorials to their forebears (such as the new Memorial on Zeyer’s ev. Kirche Cemetery)
As a person whose forebears were from Zeyer and Kreis Elbing, I appreciate the thoughtfulness and difficulties associated with taking this broader approach. Hopefully tolerance and peace are finally finding a home in this long troubled area.
Ah, the advantages of hindsight. Looking back in time and regretting the decisions that were made, the options that were chosen, and the events that occurred is very easy trap to fall in. Fruitless, but easy. In fact, spending a lot of time trying to rewrite the past, excuse events or bemoaning their occurrence is, from a family history and genealogical perspective, often counter-productive. The past is gone and not likely to be wished away. The past impacts our current actions, options and choices. If past actions are not well understood they risk being repeated, and often are.
Rather, it is my opinion that the following is much more productive:
- Attempt to understand the details of events (what really happened?). This often means listening to or reading about events from perspectives that may run counter to your own view of them or perspective.
- Place events in an appropriate time and context. Recognize that any one event is rarely disconnected from a regional, cultural, or historical context.
- Events occur as a reaction to related events that preceded them. Learn about them. Event B is generally a reaction to event A; understand why B would have happened?
- People almost always act in what is termed ‘enlightened self-interest’. Try to understand why things occurred and made sense to most of those involved. This is not to say that they need make sense to you; in fact, they do not always make sense.
- Try to remove yourself emotionally from events of the past. The lower your emotional involvement, the more likely you are to get a clear picture of an event. This is not to say that you need to be an abstracted automaton but rather you need to establish observational objectivity.
If you are able to achieve some number of the above objectives, you will find that events which once seemed crazy or incomprehensible possibly look more rational or are, at least, more explainable. This is not say that you will approve of the choices or events that occurred but rather you might begin to understand the whys and wherefores of them. Most importantly, you may begin to understand what ‘really happened’ to your family.
Unfortunately when people are expelled from areas, civility is not always, or perhaps even generally, the rule. Such was the case in Poland. The Polish Communist government was eager to lay claim to its newly obtained German lands and expel all Germans not simply from the lands but also from memory and history.
Over time however even this changes, as is noted in my earlier posting about the Zeyer Cemetery. However as the following story from Fred Rump relates, it was not always that way.
“I actually found some cemeteries hidden in a forest and all overgrown out in the rural parts of East Prussia and there are some WW1 German memorial and military cemeteries because these boys died fighting the Russians who were invading Poland. Some of the old maps show where the cemeteries used to be and one needs to look for them. A suspicious sign would always be a forested section in the middle of fields and farms. The area was simply left to nature after the graves had been dug up. In the cities everything was plowed over or built upon. Today there might be a memorial stone there as civility has returned to life.
But whatever remained of what used to be a village cemetery is today treacherous walking because it was full of holes overgrown with weeds as most graves had been dug up to look for rings, gold teeth or whatever people used to put in the graves with their loved ones.[For example] In Steinort, at the estate of (Count) Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort which had been in his family for 600 years, we found such a cemetery at the end of a huge line of trees which we followed through the woods. These trees used to be an allee of oaks leading to the family crypt and chapel as well as the cemetery of Steinort. Now they were simply part of a new forest. A few iron ornaments which were anchored too well could be found among the holes the locals dug to uncover the graves. The crypt had been stripped, the chapel lay in ruins. Later we asked one of the workers who know lived at the estate (the main house had been purchased by a Swiss investor) if he knew anything about what happened to the place.
We got quite a story. Apparently when this man was a boy he and his friends used the coffins from the crypt as boats on the lake of the estate. He further went on to tell us how it used to be. How under Gomulka the standing order was to destroy anything German that was still left standing. He recalls one drunken night when they moved all the old books out of the library and had a great big bonfire in the yard. 600 years of family history was thus burned to a crisp.”
But things appear to be changing. As Poland enters the European Union and moves passed its Communist past, acknowledgements are beginning to occur. Archives are being developed and published, memorials appear, and perhaps a brighter more civil future awaits.
Yesterday was a high water mark for our readership numbers. We had 218 unique visits; our previously most active readership day was with 206.
Thank you to everyone of you who spend time with us on ManyRoads. We are immensely pleased that you take the time to visit us. If you have comments or information you would like to share or augment, please feel free to use our contact page to let me know.
Again, thank you!
Tilsit- unknown date
It seems many people believe that genealogy, or family history, is some sort of competition or contest. Their ancestors were better, were more important, traveled further, worked harder, suffered more, were more regal…
Genealogy and family history is conceptually straightforward, it simply involves accurately identifying our ancestors, family and history. Every family has had its successes, failures, highlights, lowlights. People have lived for long times or short times, in good places and bad. They have been ruled by good people and evil. There has been war and peace. Children have been healthy and sick. Such is the nature of life.
As genealogists, we seek simply to understand their stories, their journey, their lives. By understanding them, we understand ourselves. Their travails are ours.
No, it is not a contest. It is a journey. We are their children; they are our forebears. We are their hopes; they are our history, we are their love.
Vergangenheit in aller Munde (original source article has been removed)
Die Kirche und der Friedhof in Zeyer (Gemeinde Elbing) haben den Kampf gegen die Naturgewalten verloren – den gegenmenschlichen Widerwillen und Vergessenheit aber gewonnen.
Das war ein wichtiges Ereignis für das ganze Dorf. An der Stelle, wo sich einmal die evangelische Kirche und der dazu Friedhof befanden, wurde am 22. August nach sieben Jahren der Bemühungen ein Denkmal zu Ehren der dort Ruhenden errichtet. Das Denkmal entstand dank den Bemühungen des ehemaligen Einwohners von Zeyer Ewald Frost, der weitere, in Deutschland zerstreut lebende ehemalige Einwohner von Zeyer versammelte, das nötige Geld organisierte und mit Unterstützung der Gesellschaft der deutschen Minderheit Elbing sein Vorhaben, die Toten zu ehren, vollendet hat. Zur feierlichen Enthüllung sind viele ehemalige Einwohner von Zeyern und Ellerwald angereist. Das Denkmal enthüllte Ewald Frost persönlich. Anlässlich der Feierlichkeit wurde auch ein evangelischer Gottesdienst abgehalten. Für die Gemeinde Elbing legten Genowefa Kwoczek (Gemeindevorsteherin) und Zdzisław Śmigielski (Schultheiß) einen Kranz nieder, angereist war auch der Vizekonsul des Generalkonsulates der BRD in Danzig Gerd Fensterseifer.Die Kirche in Zeyer entstand laut den ersten Quellen in der frühen Kreuzritterzeit und nach anderen Angaben im Jahr 1633. Sie war nicht nur ein Gotteshaus, sondern auch Zuflucht für die Einwohner zu Zeiten von Hochwasser, weil die Kirche höher als die übrigen Gebäude im Dorf gelegen war. 1945 wurde die Kirche samt Friedhof von der Roten Armee zerstört. Sie wurde nie wieder aufgebaut. Im Laufe der Zeit wucherten auf den Gelände Sträucher und Bäume. Anfangs wollten die Behörden den Plan eines Denkmals nicht akzeptieren.
Dann gab es doch eine positive Antwort und die Behörden haben sogar angeordnet, das Gebiet aufzuräumen. Als das Unkraut beseitigt war, wurden zerstörte Kreuze sichtbar. Der Anblick war sehr bedrückend. Für die Renovierung des Friedhofs hatte niemand Geld, deshalb hat man einen Mittelweg eingeschlagen: Die Pflanzen durften nachwachsen und ein Platz für das Denkmal wurde festgelegt. Am 22. August wurde dieses enthüllt.
Mark Rabideau hat auf seiner privaten Webseite zahlreiche Elbinger Addressbuecher (1847-1930) veröffentlicht. Auch ein Telefonbuch von 1937 ist dabei. Zahlreiche weitere Adressbücher aus Westpreußen (Graudenz, Thorn, Konitz) sind auf der Webseite zu finden. Einwohnerbücher von Danzig, Graudenz und Zoppot stehen zum Download bereit. (GJ)
I truly appreciate this acknowledgement. These books are here for all to use as well as to honor my Oma, Opa und Mutti.
There are a fairly astonishing number of hidden and nearly hidden functions on good websites.
In communities communication between members is essential. The same is true of the internet. Good websites speak with one another and need to be known to each other. To accomplish these objectives ManyRoads employs additional hidden and not quite hidden functions, including:
- AddToAny: Share/Bookmark/Email Button- Help readers share, bookmark, and email your posts and pages using any service.
- All in One SEO Pack- Out-of-the-box SEO for your WordPress blog.
- Broken Link Checker- Checks your blog for broken links and missing images and notifies you on the dashboard if any are found.
- Enhanced Links- Allows to get better control over the links listing. Also provides a widget view of the links. Please make a donation if you are satisfied.
- FeedBurner FeedSmith- This plugin detects all ways to access your original WordPress feeds and redirects them to your FeedBurner feed so you can track every possible subscriber.
- Google XML Sitemaps- This plugin will generate a special XML sitemap which will help search engines like Google, Yahoo, Bing and Ask.com to better index your blog.
- Newsletter- Newsletter is a cool plugin to create your own subscriber list, to send newsletters, to build your business.
- Simple Tags- Extended Tagging for WordPress 2.8 and 2.9 ! Suggested Tags, Mass edit tags, Autocompletion, Tag Cloud Widgets, Related Posts, Related Tags, etc!
One of the great strengths of using an open source (or I suppose for fee) web development toolkit like WordPress is the wealth of add-ons that are available for you to employ to augment your site’s functionality and reach.
As I noted in an earlier posting, I am going to attempt to highlight several adjunctive software components which are employed on ManyRoads and how they help make the site a better and easier tool to use. In this post I will focus on Plugins that are largely invisible to the end user… or so they might seem.
As you hopefully are aware, there are lots of people on the web who would use your work for their own purposes. The most common class of these are spammers. Yes, websites can be spammed and almost always are. To prevent your site from accumulating undesired Comments, Posts, emails you need ‘weapons’, you need protection. The plugins, as well as other software functions, I find extremely helpful in this realm are:
- Askismet- “Akismet checks your comments against the Akismet web service to see if they look like spam or not.”
- AVH First Defense Against Spam-”The AVH First Defense Against Spam WordPress plugin gives you the ability to block spammers before any content is served. Spammers are identified by checking if the visitors IP exists in a database served by stopforumspam.com or by a local blacklist.”
- Bad behavior- Deny automated spambots access to your PHP-based Web site.
- Global post password- Enables you to define a global password for all password-protected posts.
- HoneyPot – “Project Honey Pot is the first and only distributed system for identifying spammers and the spambots they use to scrape addresses from your website. Using the Project Honey Pot system you can install addresses that are custom-tagged to the time and IP address of a visitor to your site. If one of these addresses begins receiving email we not only can tell that the messages are spam, but also the exact moment when the address was harvested and the IP address that gathered it.”
- Secure WordPress- Little basics for secure your WordPress-installation.
- SI-Captcha- “Adds CAPTCHA anti-spam methods to WordPress on the comment form, registration form, login, or all. In order to post comments or regiser, users will have to type in the phrase shown on the image. This prevents spam from automated bots. Adds security. Works great with Akismet. Also is fully WPMU and BuddyPress compatible.”
WP-Scanner Activator- This Plugin adds <!- wpscanner -> to enable wp-scanner to scan your blog.
We are seeking to complete our collection of all known Elbing Prussia (Kreis Elbing Westpreussen) Address and Telephone Books. Please note we are only interested in obtaining copies of texts which were printed before 1945 prior to the ethnic cleansing and expulsion of the German population after the end of World War 2.
A complete inventory of the texts in our possession are freely available and accessible on this site. If you know of additional texts, texts we do not currently list, please let us know and we will make very effort to identify and/or create an electronic copy to make available on ManyRoads.
Once we have a completed collection, we will place copies of all of our texts in the public domain on a site other than ManyRoads for redundancy and preservation purposes. It is our hope to preserve this piece of Elbing history for genealogical and historical purposes. Rest assured a copy of these documents as well as other Kreis Elbing documents will remain on ManyRoads for as long as I am able to keep the site operational.
Everyone one needs a good home. Your family website is no exception.
There are lots of reasons to choose one method over another, we have settled on having a company ISP- Internet Service Provider) run our web-site operations (data center and network) for us.
We tried running our own server in our home for several years before arriving at this junction. What we learned is:
- Internet bandwidth is an ever increasing problem as interest in a site improves. More people (visitors) need more bandwidth.
- Your site needs to be backed up regularly and have its contents stored off-site (or somewhere really safe).
- Uptime needs to be predictable. People get upset when your site is down for long periods. They want to visit when they want to visit.
- Running a server 24 hours a day costs electricity. Our electric costs ran about $10 per month.
- Unlimited Disk Space
- Unlimited Domain Names on one account
- Unlimited Bandwidth
- Personal Website Tools
- 30-day money-back guarantee
- email accounts (smtp & pop service)
Whatever you choose, you need to find a safe home for your family genealogy materials, somplace secure, reliable, and offering good ethical values. Hostpapa works well for us and a $5.00 USD per month we find it to be a comfortable and affordable home.
If you were watching closely, you probably noticed a new logo at the bottom on the ManyRoads web pages.
Although the image links to the single most popular piece of open source software that I use on ManyRoads, there are numerous additional tools employed in the creation and management of our website and family history.
Included among these are the following:
- WordPress (the software with which the ManyRoads website is constructed- A semantic personal publishing platform with a focus on aesthetics, web standards, and usability).
- 50+/- WordPress Plugins (add-ons, which I will discuss in separate posts later on…)
- GRAMPS (Gramps is a free software project and community. We strive to produce a genealogy program that is both intuitive for hobbyists and feature-complete for professional genealogists. It is a community project, created, developed and governed by genealogists.)
- The GIMP (GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed piece of software for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It works on many operating systems, in many languages. )
- Geany (Geany is a text editor using the GTK2 toolkit with basic features of an integrated development environment. It was developed to provide a small and fast IDE, which has only a few dependencies from other packages. It supports many filetypes and has some nice features.)
- Ubuntu- Linux (An Open Source- Free- computer operating system based on the Debian GNU/Linux distribution and is distributed as free and open source software with additional proprietary software available.)
- DJVU (DJVU is a digital document format with advanced compression technology and high performance value. DjVu allows for the distribution on the Internet and on DVD of very high resolution images of scanned documents, digital documents, and photographs.)
Obviously, I use software in addition to the aforementioned but these are among the tools most used in delivering, creating and maintaining the ManyRoads web presence.
Sometimes you just want a copy of a text. If that text is published using DJVU, here’s a fairly quick method for capturing and downloading a copy. By the way, this should work on all the ManyRoads DJVU files as well.
DJVU files can best and most predictably be downloaded from within the DJVU document itself. Unlikle PDF, DJVU publishers have the option of preserving and presenting their materials as many files not just a single large file (Bundled versus unbundled). As a result, what you are reading may simply be the initial link to a DJVU directory not a single bundled file.
To achieve your objective of copying a DJVU document, do the following:
- open the Document using your browser DJVU plugin (Here’s an example document. )
- once the document opens move your mouse cursor onto the body of the page and right click
- on the pop-up that opens, simply select save as and direct the file and style (bundled or unbundled) to your PC
That should get you a copy, this of course assumes your are using version 4 of DJVU or newer. DJVU version 3 and earlier is a lot more difficult (at least for me).
All of us have DNA. Even if we do not know the names of our ancestors, we have DNA.
Our family has decided to gather and analyze its DNA materials (matrilineal and patrilineal lines) and see what these DNA lines have to say. We have elected to do this through the genographic project, a partnership between the University of Arizona Research Labs Family Tree DNA association, National Geographic Society and IBM rather than to switch to the program offered by Ancestry.com. Our reasoning is fairly simple; my father-in-law’s DNA is with NatGeo. Also, the Genographic program is older and more established; and, this seems like the lowest risk approach.
Information on Family Tree DNA may be found on their site. To quote FTDNA:
Family Tree DNA is the world leader in Genetic Genealogy. Since its inception in April of 2000, we have been constantly developing the science that enables genealogists around the world to advance their family’s research. Family Tree DNA works in association with a scientific advisory board and the University of Arizona Research Labs. The Arizona Research labs are led by Dr. Michael Hammer, one of the world’s leading authorities in the field of Genetics.[...]
Family Tree DNA provides the tests for this partnership between the National Geographic Society, IBM and the Waitt Family Foundation.
To quote National Geographic:
With a simple and painless cheek swab you can sample your own DNA and submit it to the lab. We run ONE test per participation kit. We will test either your mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down each generation from mother to child and reveals your direct maternal ancestry; or your Y chromosome (males only), which is passed down from father to son and reveals your direct paternal ancestry. You choose which test you would like administered.
What to Expect
Your results will reveal your deep ancestry along a single line of direct descent (paternal or maternal) and show the migration paths they followed thousands of years ago. Your results will also place you on a particular branch of the human family tree. Some anthropological stories are more detailed than others, depending upon the lineage you belong to. For example, if you are of African descent, your results will show the initial movements of your ancestors on the African continent, but will not reflect most of the migrations that have occurred within the past 10,000 years. Your individual results may confirm your expectations of what you believe your deep ancestry to be, or you may be surprised to learn a new story about your genetic background.
You will not receive a percentage breakdown of your genetic background by ethnicity, race, or geographic origin. Nor will you receive confirmation of an association with a particular tribe or ethnic group.
Furthermore, this is not a genealogy study. You will not learn about your great-grandparents or other recent relatives, and your DNA trail will not necessarily lead to your present-day location. Rather, your results will reveal the anthropological story of your direct maternal or paternal ancestors—where they lived and how they migrated around the world many thousands of years ago.
This post contains the content of the ManyRoads Newsletter:
Welcome to the first ManyRoads Newsletter!
First let me thank everyone for signing up to our little ‘news’ service. I promise not to over crowd your email with tons of messages. My intention is to write one or two of these per month. Each will attempt to provide a brief synopsis of the recent happenings at ManyRoads.
Since this is the first of these messages I would also encourage you to tell me what changes, additions, deletions, or modifications you might like to see in either the newsletter or on ManyRoads. Without your thoughts and input things tend to get a bit one-sided! Anyway, here’s the news…
- This past week we celebrated my parents 60th wedding anniversary. Genealogy in the making! See the post at:
- I have been trying to figure out if anyone uses the Zotero tools for genealogy work. It seems like a good idea but thus far I have come up empty. More at:
- I have begun a series of posts on digging through the past when the information is scare or bad. I don’t know how many of these articles may evolve but right now there are two:
- In a similar vein, I created and placed my next public presentation on genealogical research – What’s in a name? at:
Areas where I am a bit stuck include:
- Vertreibung photos and stories… they have reduced to a small trickle. Any pointers are most appreciated.
- Kreis Elbing Fotos (the same story)
- I was denied permission to publish Peter Gagne’s materials on my family members from his texts. I apologize that this needs to remain under wrap.
ManyRoads most active areas of research:
- Rabideau line (my paternal grandfather’s family)
- Deyo line (my paternal grandmother’s line)
- Senger-Recht (my maternal line)- I have to place orders for more Elbing ev. Kirchregisters (probably from Sankt Ahnen and Heilige Leichnamm- pre-1750 births)
I think that covers the highlights. Again please let me know if this newsletter seems useful and what you’d like to see both here and on ManyRoads.
Not all genealogy is in the past. Some of it happens before your very eyes.
This is one of those events and weeks for us. This week is my parents (Fred Rabideau & Luise Senger) 60th Wedding Anniversary. Today we are taking them out for a small dinner celebration.
In those 60 years a lot has changed… the family has grown… life has progressed.
But as you can see, the love remains.
Do you use Zotero in doing your genealogy research work?
This is a question I have toyed around with for quite a while now. I don’t have a good answer for myself although the toolset seems well suited to gathering web-based information, collating, and processing it. It is also tightly coupled with the browser I use most frequently, Firefox. Still I have been unable to find and good roadmap on how to make this toolset work to my advantage. I am constantly in search of tools that link tightly with websites (i.e., Ancestry.com, etc.), online documents, image libraries, etc. Zotero claims to do all that and more. Sounds good to me, especially since it should also gather and log attribution, footnote, and bibliography data as well.
Rather than providing an answer to this query, I am in search of leads and comments. Does anyone out there have experience(s) they are willing to share? Any links on how-to use Zotero in the genealogy & family history realm?
Any pointers are most welcomed. Please use our contact page or comments below to share your insights.
Acknowledge your sources!
Today I received a note from a very important genealogy friend. She asked me if I hadn’t perhaps confused two family members who had similar names thereby giving erroneous credit to the ‘wrong’ person rather than the ‘right’ one. A very important question.
It is absolutely essential to provide good and clear attribution to those from whom we source our data. It is important to be as correct as possible in any quotations, images, bibliographies and links. Accuracy requires proofing by your readership (proof-readers, if you are lucky enough to have them) and modification by the family genealogist to reflect appropriate corrections, etc.
It is also, unfortunately, impossible to be always accurate.
So what can be done, well there are a few options open to you:
- Be receptive to corrections. Any person generous enough to report a potential problem needs to be treated with care. They are a very valuable resource.
- Make it easy for people to get in touch with you. I can’t tell you how many sites I have found for which there are no contact links, email or otherwise. This certainly makes it hard to ask questions, get permission or provide corrections.
- Protect but be generous with your information. Share as much as you can, all the while trying to find out who needs and/or wants your data. Knowing this may provide you with future sources of data as well as some new genealogy ‘friends’.
Remember, genealogy and family history is about gathering as much truth and factual data as you can. Acknowledging sources provides credibility and weight to your research not to mention ‘it being the right thing to do!’