A History of French Canada 1536 to 1609

Disclosure

We are very pleased to be one of the few sites offering fully searchable versions of Cyprien Tanguay’s Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Canadiennes and related research.  These documents provide authoritative historical evidence regarding the individuals who settled French Canada and are referred to in this document.

We strongly recommend using the Tanguay texts in your genealogical efforts.


Note: Several ManyRoads readers have questioned the accuracy of some of the Metis claims presented in this document by Mr. Garneau. Should you have evidence that you would like to refute the veracity and accuracy of any claims made by Mr. Garneau, which you would like us to publish on ManyRoads, please contact us directly with a copy of your “draft publication(s)”.

We are happy to present all relevant information here, in the interest of fairness, full disclosure and accuracy.

The following material is written by: R.D. (Dick) Garneau, who is solely responsible for its accuracy.

1536

(I)-Philipie Rougemont (1518-1536) died at Kebec, Canada being part of Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) crew.

Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) is believed to have named New France Canada this year. It is believed that Cartier traveled with Verrazzano to Canada in 1524 and 1528. It is also believed he was in Newfoundland prior to 1534.

Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) is impressed with the town of Monte Real (Hochelaga); a fortified Iroquois Fort, as it closely resembled European culture. The fields round about are very fertile, being tilled, and grapes are abundant. The Iroquois had amassed muskrat pelts between Quebec and Montreal from trade with the Europeans.

The first tourists to Canada are 30 gentlemen who chartered a ship under the direction of Richard Hore of London to see the strange things of the world. They ran out of provisions in Newfoundland and reverted to cannibalism. Richard Hakluyt interviewed a survivor who said the English gentlemen killed their fellow mates while they stopped to take up a root for their relief and cutting out pieces of his body who he had murdered broiled the same on the coals and greedily devoured them. A well-provisioned French fishing ship saves Richard Hore and the surviving tourists. Hore captured the French ship and, left its crew to an unrecorded fate, and sailed home.

May 6: Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) had to abandon his ship, Petite Hermine, as he lack sufficient crew to navigate all three ships.

1537

June 2″ Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World. No one listened!

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1557), the Great Spanish explorer who spent 1527-1537 exploring the interior of America, having lived among the Indians, reports the French pirates are attacking Spanish ships out of Havana. The Spanish have recently lost three ships. As they neared Spain, the French pirates again tried to take the Spanish ships but are scared off by the Spanish navy. He noted that the French ship employed slave Negroes as oarsmen, so the Spanish ships could not overtake them in the pursuit.

1538

September: The King of France commissioned the following list of men for the New Lands (Lands of Cod): 120 mariners, 40 musketeers, 30 carpenters, 10 master masons, 4 blacksmiths, 2 goldsmiths and 6 priests.

1540

The French, in 1687, claim that Jean Francois de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560) took possession of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) for France this year. Jean Alfonse of Saintonge explored the coastline of Labrador. Roberval became Lieutenant General of Canada, despite being a Protestant convert. He commanded Jacques Cartier.

Map maker, Sebastian Munster, named Canada as Francisca and assumed the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) extended down to the Carolinas based upon false information supplied by Verrazzano (1524). Basque fishermen worked the Strait of Belle Isle until 1610, hunting the boehead and right whales that migrated past Labrador and Newfoundland. A village at Red Bay, Labrador, containing nearly a thousand men, rendered the whales blubber into oil during the five month summer season. Most men, however, would winter back in Europe. The French and English would later consider this age-old universal concept of a different winter, and summer homes site a heathen practice.

A Portuguese agent claimed that many thousands of animal skins are being brought to France from the New World.

1541

The Huguenots made an abortive colonization attempt this year but abandoned the venture in 1542. Jean Francois de LeRocque de Roberval (1500-1560) was commissioned to establish a colony in New France and to construct churches and fortified towns. Jacques Cartier is employed as a guide but returned to France from Newfoundland dispite Roberval’s orders. Roberval established his colony at Charlesbourg-Royal on Cape-Rouge, where Jacques Cartier had previously built a fort. The first New France colony was named France Roy and the river (St. Lawrence) was named France Prime. They ventured to Montreal and built a strong house on river Sinagua (Saguenay River). Basque fishermen from Pyreness had built drying racks for their cod catch at the mouth of the Saguenay River. Roberval was excessively cruel, withholding food and water if his men didn’t work to his satisfaction. If someone fainted he was immediately punished. Lashes were dispensed frequently. One day six workers were hung. One was isolated on an island with his feet chained. Most of his colony was ex-convicts. The colony was abandoned in 1542.

It is noteworthy that Basque or Euskara predates the Celts and is unrelated to any other language in the world. Port aux Basques, Newfoundland speak of their presence as does Isles-aux-Basques that are islets where the Basques whalers put ashore to render blubber into oil for shipment back to Spain. The Basque word for god is Jinkoa, is a very ancient word with no known resembling word in the world.

Martin de Artalequ’s San Salvador of 100 tons set sail for Terranova.

Angel de Villagane, governor of Spanish Florida ordered Antoinio Velazquez to sail north with provisions for the Spanish colony of Santa Elena on the South Carolina coast, he was blown off course and ended up in Chesapeake Bay off the coast of Maryland/Virginia. Quejo had visited the area earlier in 1521.

January 15: Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) is appointed the first Viceroy of Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador with little regard to the Spanish claim of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.

April: Martin de Artalequ records he talked to Cartier’s men near Spear Island, not far from St. John’s where he had a barrel of cider and a cask of ship’s biscuit taken from him by Roberval’s men.

May 23: Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) left St. Malo with five ships and 1,500 men, arriving Stadacona, Quebec August 3. The Iroquois were not happy with the French as they did not return the kidnapped Iroquois from the last expedition.

October 17: Francis I appointed Roberval (1500-1560) as the superior over Cartier (1491-1557). This would later infuriate Cartier.

1542

Marguerite de La Rocque co-seigneuress of Pointpoint, a close relative of Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560), accompanied him on this years voyage to Canada. Shocked by Marguerite taking a lover, Roberval set her ashore of Ile des Demons in the Saint Lawrence River with her lover and a servant girl. The young man, the servant girl and Marguerite’s child which was born on the island, died. Marguerite managed to survive and was rescued two years five month later by French fisherman. This would represent the first recorded Country Marriage and the birth of the first European child in New France (Canada).

Hurtleberry pie is introduced into Newfoundland that is made from blueberries, blackberries, bilberries and huckleberries. The term originated about 1450.

Michel Gaillon, a companion of Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560), was hanged at Cap Rouge (Charlesburg Royal) making him the first Canadian to be executed.

April 16: Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) sailed from La Rochelle, France with three ships and 200 convicts for America to create a French settlement.

June 8: Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) encountered Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) at St. John’s Newfoundland and ordered Cartier to return to Canada. Cartier refused this direct order from his superior. Jacques Cartier snuck off in the night, fully aware that Roberval could have him executed (hanged) as a traitor.

July: Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) reached Cartier’s settlement at Cap Rouge and renamed it France Royal. Michel Gaillon was hanged for theft at France Royal, alias Cap Rouge, Quebec. Roberval lost 50 men to scurvy, indicating that Cartier had not told him of the Indian method to avoid this ailment. This first attempt to start a colony failed. It is noteworthy that competent sailors from Europe were well aware of scurvy and usually gathered the herb alexanders to cure the ailment. This herb was in use since 1 A.D. by the Romans to prevent scurvy.

September: Newfoundland sailors (Robert Lefand) reported that Jacques Cartier and Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560), after one year with three ships, had accumulated eleven barrels of gold ore and a quantity of precious stones, rubies and diamonds. This is likely the source for the current saying: false as a diamond of Canada. The gold turned out to be pyrite and the diamonds quartz. It is noteworthy that diamonds would later be discovered in Canada in the twentieth century.

September 19: Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) pardoned Aussillon de Sauverterre.

1543

Jean Francois de la Rocque de Roberval (1500-1560) wintered at France Royal (Cap Rouge, Quebec) where 60 men died. Several insubordinate prisoner colonists were hung, while others were imprisoned.

June 6: After an unsuccessful trip to explore the Saguenay, the Roberval settlement is abandoned and the colonist prisoners return to France.

1544

Tadoussac, Quebec, at the mouth of the Saguenay River on the St. Lawrence River, is established this year by the Basque. Tadoussac is an ancient Native trading center and was likely visited by many traders before the Basque made this a wintering trading and fish processing site.

1545

A Frenchman wrote the people of Norumbega (Penobscot River in Maine), are docile, friendly and peaceful, the land overflows with every kind of fruit, wholesome orange, almonds and many sweet smelling trees. Another writer said the people were tall and fair, spoke words that sounded like Latin, and worshiped the sun.

1546

The word boucaner by the French means to dry and smoke meat or fish. They learned this new way of cooking from the Tupi People of the Amazon River in South America.

1554

Joanes de Segura records his venture to the Labrador coast between the Pinware River and Red Bay. Canada was known as Terranova or Terre Neuve by the French.

April: Three Spanish ships, San Esteban, Espiritu Santo and Santa Maria de Yciar, stuffed to the gunwales with passengers and New World treasures departed Mexico. The were sailing from Veracruz, Santa Maria de Yeiar Espiritu Santo, and San Esteban bound for Havana then Spain. A storm blew they off course northward where they ran aground and were pounded to pieces near Padre Island, Texas. The captain in a small boat with some survivors returned to Mexico to alert officials of the disaster. The balance of survivors were eventually killed by the Indians. Within a few weeks a salvage ship arrived from Veracruiz to save about 50% of the cargo.

1555

Gaspard de Coligny, a French Huguenot, established a colony at the mouth of the Rio de Janeiro. It was captured by the Portuguese in 1560.

The Portuguese named the entire Maritime region of America as Baccalaos. The name survived in Baccaro, Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland.

Richard Eden this year wrote the Decades of the Newe Worlde: “Cadot him selfe named those landes Baccalloas (Newfoundland), bycause that in the seas ther about he found so great mulitiude of certayne bigge fysshes…which th’ inhabitantes caule Baccallaos.” This entry is interesting in two ways, first it would suggest Baccallaos was first discovered by the Portuguese as this is their word for cod. Second said the inhabitants of Newfoundland called the Island Baccallaos, this suggests European ‘settlements’ preceded Cadot 1497, as the Indians are not likely to use a Portuguese word to describe their land. The word Baccallaos is traced back to earlier than 950 A.D. in Europe. That word or any possible derivation does not appear in Native American languages.

1556

The Spanish ship Ines de Soto was wrecked and sank west of Havania.

1557

Ten young Brazilian Indians were purchased by Villegaignon, and sent to France as a gift to King Henry II. The king distributed them among the nobles of his court. Lescarbot

1560

Basques Agore’s Chalupa is discovered in Red Bay, Labrador.

1562

A map by Italian Cartographer Faolo Forlani is believed to be the first known map to label Canada as Canada. It also records the Arctic Ocean, Laborador and Stadacone (later known as Quebec City) of the Iroquois confederation.

Discouraging reports of settlement prospects along the St. Lawrence River in Canada discouraged a settlement by Jean Ribault. Jean Ribault, from Dieppe, with 150 Huguenot colonists, set up a pillar (stone column) at the mouth of the St. John River (below Jacksonville, Florida). He then established a colony at Port Royal, South Carolina. Some of the colonists returned to France in 1564. In 1565 the Spanish captured the French settlement and put the people to the sword.

Ribault landed at Parris Island, South Carolina and built a small fort (Charlesfort) to defend it, leaving 27 men. He promised to return but is unable due to the infighting between the Catholics and Huguenots. At Fort Charles, a fire destroyed most of the provisions. The officer in charge hanged one of the men; the crew mutinied, built their own ship, and sailed home after some 11 months. The queen of France commanded Ribaut to bring back some of the natives. In obedience to her command, Ribaut attempted to detain two of the natives on board ship to carry them to France, but the savages managed to escape and swam to shore

Charles IX of France gave his permission to allow Huguenots to settle Florida. His motives are highly suspect.

1563

Jacques le Moyne is in the Rene de Laudonniere party when they established a trading post at Parris Island, South Carolina named Fort Caroline. John Hawkins of Plymouth called at Fort Caroline and brought home a packet of tobacco.

1564

Rene de Laudonniere led more Huguenots to Florida, building Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. John’s River. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, of Spain, sent a fleet to destroy the French colony. He attacked the Fort and massacred the French defenders including Jean Ribault who arrived to help the colonists. Some suggest the destruction of the French colony by the Spanish was in 1565.

1565

In the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador, a 300 ton Basque galleon, the San Juan, sank with 55,000 gallons of oil worth some six million dollars in present value. A Major Basque settlement existed at Tor Bay, Acadia (Nova Scotia) about this time. Another major Basque settlement was at Lesquemin (Les Escumins, Quebec).

St. Augustine, Florida is established this year by Pedro Menendez de Aviles.

1566

The Spanish discovered the French Charlesfort on Parris Island, South Carolina and built their own fort, San Felipe, right on top of Charlesfort. They didn’t want to acknowledge claim to their capital.

Bolongnini Zaltieri named Nova Scotia and New Brunswick as Larcaida (Acadia).

A French ship in search of strange adventures sailed to Terra Nova (Labrador). They met with a man, his wife and child. The French attempted to capture the family. The man was shot in the body with an arrow and wounded on the side with a sword, but he fought with increased fury. Finally he was killed, but not before he had slain 12 French and Portuguese.

1568

November 8: An English pirate named John Hawkins marooned 114 sailors just north of Tampico, Mexico. The men, starving and unarmed, split into two groups, half headed south toward Tampico. They were captured and imprisoned in Mexico after suffering devastating Indian attacks. Some lost their lives in the Inquisition of 1575. The remainder headed north, David Ingram, Richard Twide and Richard Browne survived to reach safety and freedom in Acadia ( Nova Scotia). They estimate they traveled 2,000 miles, followed the coast to the Rio Grande then north through ZAlabama, and Georgia, passing near Florida’s St. John River. The basically followed the Atlantic coast to New Brunswick, Canada. They traded pearls gathered along the way for passage on a French ship.

1569

The Mercator Map suggests that the Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay (Hudson Bay or Bay of the North) was explored some time prior to this date, likely by the Portuguese.

1570

The Basque brothers Joanes, d-1588 and Martin de Elcano made a number of fishing trips to Terranove and selling their codfish in the Azores. Many Basque fishermen reported they had spent some 20 years in Terranove waters.

Vicente Gonzalez sailed from Havana by way of Santa Elena (off South Carolina’s Port Royal Sound) to deliver Spanish Jesuit missionaries to Chesapeake Bay. Florida governor Menendez de Aviles had asked the Jesuits to investigate the possibility of a route to the mountains and to China. Gonzalez sailed three times to resupply the Jesuits but they had fallen to Indian attacks.

Louis de Quiros and Juan Baptista de Segura, two Spanish Jesuits reported reaching the south western shore of Chesapeake Bay. Pedro Menendez de Aviles and his nephew Pedro Menendez Marquez surveyed Chesapeake Bay this year.

A French ship arrived Norumberga (Maine) and sailed up the Kennebec River to establish a fort and colony. In 1575 Father Andrew Thevet, a Franciscan returned to France to report the status of the colony. George Peckham and Thomas Gerard headed up the colony. In 1583 a supply ship with more colonists sunk with all hands trying to reach the colony. The ultimate fait of the colony is not known.

1571

The Jesuits Juan de Segura and others of the Spanish Mission of Chesapeake Bay are killed by Paquiquineo renamed Don Luis de Velasco or Don Luis and his followers. Why these friendly Natives killed the Jesuits is not recorded.

1576

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), a fortune hunter, a sea dog and, as some claimed, an infamous, outrageous pirate, journeyed this year and in 1577 and 1578 to Canada, making land fall at Hall Island.

His second expedition ended in Hudson Strait, being blocked by ice. His encounter with the Eskimo led him to believe they have had previous encounters with Europeans, as the were very familiar with the ship and possessed European trade goods.

July 20: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) named this area Resolution Island, off the southeastern end of Baffin Island as Queen Elisabeth’s Forlande. Sailing north, he discovered a passage dividing Asia from America and named it Frobisher Strait (Frobisher Bay). Frobisher Bay would later be renamed Iqaluit; meaning the place where the fish are.

August 19: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) traded with the Eskimo (Inuit) Natives for meat and furs and convinced the Eskimo to pilot them through Frobisher Strait. Frobisher sent five of his men among the natives to scope a rout to the west, and they disappeared.

October 9: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) the pirate departed for England with samples of iron pyrite, believing them to be gold. He returned with a captive Eskimo, complete with kayak, but the Eskimo, he believed, had made off with five of Frobisher’s men and a boat.

1577

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) returned to Canada in search of gold with fifteen ships and 400 men, and entered into war with the Eskimo, but this time Frobisher is shot in the buttocks, likely fleeing from the Eskimo. Frobisher ambushed a number of Eskimo, taking one or two captive, but others jumped into the sea rather than being taken. A mother and wounded child were taken as slaves to England. The captured slaves died about a month after landing in England on September 17, 1577.

A Basque fleet was frozen into a harbor in the Strait of Belle Isle, forcing the men to winter. This winter 540 men died despite lots of fish and oil.

1578

It is recorded that 150 French vessels per year are fishing and trading the New World. Spain has 300 vessels and the English 30-50 vessels fishing off Newfoundland. These numbers would significantly increase each year. Another tally records off the coast of Newfoundland 100 Spanish ships, 20 or 30 Biskaie ships, 50 from Portugal, 150 of French and Britons all catching cod.

Some claim that Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) erected the first permanent European building in America this year on Kodlumarn Island. This, however, excludes the Viking and Fishermen who have been here before him.

Marquis de la Roche Mesgoues (1540-1606) is appointed Viceroy of New France with authority to colonize the region.

There is a printed reference to Penguin Island, Newfoundland but this island was occupied by the auks not penguin.

May 31: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) led a fleet of 15 ships to establish a settlement at Frobisher’s Bay (Iqaluit) to mine gold.

June 30: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) claimed Greenland for England, renaming it West England.

July 2: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) sailed up the Mistaken Strait (Hudson Strait) and tried to reassemble his fleet. One ship was lost by crushing ice but the crew were rescued, and one ship deserted back to England.

July 24: Martin Frobisher’s fleet gathered in Frobisher Bay (Igaluit) which he renamed Countess of Warwick Sound.

July 30: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) found the Judith and Michael behind Anne Warwick Island (Kodlunarn Island), having been lost. The Reverend Robert Wolfal conducted the first Thanksgiving service in North America, with 100 men. George Best was the chronicler of this expedition and also conducted a Thanksgiving meal.

August 31: Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) set sail for England, and the other remaining 13 ships departed on September 2. All returned safely by October 1 with their fools gold.

1579

Simo Fernandes, a Portuguese in English service and John Walker scouted the Penobscot, River in Maine in separate voyages and made no reference of cities filled with gold, silver and pearls as previously noted.

Richard Whitbouene born before 1564, died after 1628 and between 1579-1628 constantly visited New-Found-Land for whaling and trading with the Indians.

1580

Basque activities in the Saint Lawrence estuary and River reached its peak between 1550-1580.

Michel Montaigne (1533-1592) was a propagator on the cultural theme “noble Savage’. Most of his material was however borrowed from others.

1581

Merchants from St. Malo, France began to trade for furs up the St. Lawrence River, in competition with the Basque traders.

1582

Vicente Gonzalez with fifty soldiers in two ships sailed to South Carolina to capture the French as reported being in Charleston Harbour. He visited every possible harbors along the coast but found no Frenchmen.

1583

Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583), brother of Walter Raleigh, with 4 ships and 260 men, departed to establish a colony on Newfoundland. Within two days his largest ship had to return because a contagious disease broke out.

It is estimated that 25,000 ships have sunk off the coast of Nova Scotia since this date to the year 2000.

August 5: Humphrey Gilbert encountered 36 ships in the St. John’s harbor of Newfoundland from Spain, Portugal, France and England. He demanded they pay tribute, like a common pirate, on the pretext that he claimed the southeast coast of New Found Land for England. He refused to recognize the previous claims of the Spanish, French, and Portuguese to Newfoundland. The arrogant Gilbert claims that the English establish St. John’s Newfoundland this year, but what were 36 ships doing in the harbor? This site has likely been in use for decades. A storm resulted in the loss of more of his ships including his papers, his false claims and his very own life. The remainder of his fleet returned to England. He was considered a poor seaman. Others suggest he was incompetent. Some suggest some of his writings survived including his comments on St. John’s; “very good and full of all sort of victuall, as fish both of the fresh water, and sea fish, deere, pheasants, partridges, swannes, and divers fowles’.

August 29: HMS Delight with master Richard Clarke, under command of Humphrey Gilbert in his frigate ordered Clarke to sail close to Sable Island. Clarke protested but gave into Gilbert’s orders and ran aground, broke up and sank. Gilbert couldn’t or didn’t assist the sinking ship and most died. Sixteen men including Clarke escaped in a small boat and spent 7 days finally reaching Newfoundland and rescue by a Basque whaling ship. It is not known why Gilbert didn’t pick up the surviving crew.

1584

Walter Raleigh sent an expedition under Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to Roanhoke Island, Croatain Sound, North Carolina. The expedition reported that the natives are the most gentle, loving and faithful; void of all guile and treason. They lived after the manner of the Golden Age. Some believe Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) was included on this voyage of discovery.

1585

Ralph Lane (1530-1603) and 100 men established a colony on Roanoke Island, North Carolina. The colony however is short lived. Some suggest Ralph Lane (1530-1603) was a clumsy diplomat and aroused Indian hostility thereby dooming the colony. Ralph Lane explored northeast from Roanoke to the southern shore of Chesapeake Bay where he wintered. Humphrey Gilbert, an Englishman, lost 3 of 5 ships on Sable Island about this time.

Vicente Gonzalez sailed to to the mouth of the Sasquehanna River at the northern end of Chesapeake Bay looking for English who might be invading this Spanish territory.

Richard Grenville (1542-1591) with a Portuguese navigator named Simao Fernandes, sailed with 492 men and 108 colonists. Ralph Lane is governor of the colony. Thomas Hariot was assigned scientist/surveyor and John White named as artist/naturalist. England and Spain were at war and this counts for the high number of fighting men. They would build the short lived Roanoke Island colony.

April 9: Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) sailing for Walter Raleigh to the colony in the New Found Land of Virginia being unsuccessful in establishing a colony returned to Plymouth July 1586.

July 20: John Davis (Davys) (1550-1605) of Dartmouth, England contacted the Eskimos of Greenland, attempting to discover the descendants of the old Norse settlers. He called the Eastern Viking settlement the Land of Desolation. He then rounded Cape Farewell to visit the western Viking settlement. He then sailed to Baffin Island, then on to Cumberland Sound, but being blocked by ice returned to England.

July 22: Simao Fernandes ordered a change in plans and told the settlers to build on the remains of the old Ralph Lane’s settlement where several cottages still stood. There were 89 men, 17 women and 11 children. Among the colonists were Ananias Dare and his pregnant wife and Eleanor White Dare, the governors daughter.

July 28: The Indians killed one of the colonists as he fished for crab. White attacked the mainland Indian village only to discover it contained Indians who were friendly to the English.

August 18: Eleanor Dare delivered a daughter, Virginia, believed, the first born European on record in America. A second child was born at Roanoke a few days later. This colony became known as the ‘Lost Colony’ as supplies could not be shipped because of war between Spain, France and England.

1586

John Davis (1550-1605) conducted a second voyage in search of the Northwest passage with four ships, returning to England October 6.

1587

John Davis (1550-1605) conducted a third voyage in search of the Northwest passage with three ships, returning to England September 15.

Another colony is established on Roanoke Island, North Carolina with 117 men, women and children and by 1588, the colony is deserted. Their whereabouts is unknown.

English colonists in Virginia reported that, because Indians died in each town they passed and they themselves had not become sick, the Indians believed the English must be spirits of the dead returning to the world.

1588

Marquis de la Roche was confirmed as Viceroy of Canada, Acadia, and adjoining lands. He was empowered to levy troops, declare war, build towns, promulgate laws, and execute them, to concede lands with Feudal privileges, and regulate Colonial trade.

Marquis de la Roche set sail with 48 convicts, men and women, from French prisons to Acadia. Fearing the convicts might desert he landed them on Sable Island, a barren sand-bank, 120 miles S.E. Acadia ( Nova Scotia). He then went to explore for an ideal colony location. Bad weather drove Marquis back to France, or so he claimed, abandoning his settlers to sure death. When the Marquis returned to France he was thrown into prison for this barbarous act. see 1593 & 1598

Vicente Gonzalez surveyed the coast off present New Jersey and he considered the James and Susquehanna River as possible passages to the Pacific.

June 24: Vicente Gonzalez sailed along the Outer Banks and found debris from English colonists but failed to find evidence of the English Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island, he reported that the English had disappeared.

1590

Captain Georges sailed to the West but is turned back by ice.

Acadia, since 1524, referred to the east coast of America but, about this time, it was narrowed to refer to New Brunswick, Acadia ( Nova Scotia), Prince Edward Island, southeastern Quebec and eastern Maine. The term Acadian would evolve to refer to Francophone Maritimers, regardless of their cultural background which contained a high percentage of Metis.

August 17: An English ship finally reached Roanoke Island but found the colony deserted. There were no human remains to be found. The fate of the colonists is a mystery to this day. Some speculate they were all killed but a legend persists that they fled the coast and were eventually assimilated with an inland tribe, possibly the Lumbees.

1592

The name Bay Bulls, Newfoundland was in common usage from this date. It is considered the oldest settlement in North America.

1593

The King finally sent the Marquis de la Roche’s pilot back to Acadia to determine the fait of the Sable Island colony. Of the 48 convicts only 12 survived. The limited food supply and lack of trees caused fights to break out resulting in a number of early deaths. A ship wreck provided lumber for crude shelters. No mention is made of any survivors of this ship wreck. Some domestic animals still ran wild believed to be from Baron de Lery landing of 1513. Others suggest the survivors were not recovered until 1603. See 1598.

1594

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), a fortune hunter, a sea dog and, as some claimed, an infamous, outrageous pirate, is shot by a Spaniard.

1596

The Jesuit claim the English established a colony in the Great Gulf of America Sea, formally called Mocosa, they named the colony Virginia but were forced by the natives to abandon it in 1696.

January 1: The Chancellor an English ship commissioned to attack Spanish and French ships in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence sank off the coast of Cape Breton.

1597

John Davis (1550-1605), a navigator, observed a furious overfall (riptide) ebbing out of Hudson Strait. He returned to England with cod and sealskins to turn a tidy profit.

Apostolos Valerianos, a Greek, claimed to have discovered the North Sea; the name used to define the Arctic waters at this time.

The Spanish governor of Florida Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo sent Gaspar de Salas and two Franciscans, Pedro Fernandez de Choza and Francisco de Verascola to explore Georgia for a potential agricultural settlement. The reached Tama (Milledgeville, Georgia). They went up the Oconee River for one day before returning to Tama.

June 23: The English war ship Chancewell wrecked most likely near Ingonish or St. Annes Bay of Cape Breton Island.

1598

The French, in 1687, claimed that King Henri (IV) the Great commissioned Troilus de Mesgouez, Marquis de la Roche to confirm the French claim on the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). He was appointed on January 12, 1598 as Lieutenant General of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador and Norumbega (Maine).

Francisco Fernandez de Ecija made a series of voyages to Georgia and the Carolines to negotiate the release of a Franciscan held captive by the Natives after a revolt in 1597 against Guale (Georgia coastal) mission.

March: Marqu’s de la Roche Mesgouez attempted to establish a colony on Sable Island (Iie de Sable), Acadia and introduced the first hogs (pigs, swine) to Canada. Marqu collected 60 men and women from the prisons of Brittany and Normandy for his colony on Sable Island. They were vagabonds and beggars. Forty eight died the first winter and one was hanged for theft. Roche departed for St. John’s, Newfoundland and returned to France, abandoning his settlement. They were forced to subsist on fish and wild cattle. see 1588 and 1593 for a different account. The 17 survivors are finally rescued in 1603.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain was born Brouage in Saintonge on the Bay of Biscay about 1567 and died December 25, 1635, Quebec. This year he voyaged to the West Indies and Central America as a Geographer. He also fought under Henry of Navarre (King Henry IV) in the latter stages of the French Wars of Religion (1593-1598). His lack of civic, political and military experience would cause vary serious problems, but most agree he was energetic and personable and devoted his life to New France to the best of his ability.

1599

(I)-Captain Francois Dupont Grave (1554-1619) called the Algonquin summer stopping place as Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint-Aignan (1587-1677) is appointed by King Henry IV as drogman (interpreter) to La Nouvelle France.

Some historians consider this the end of the Renaissance (rebirth) period (1300-1600). A belief emerged during this period that humans can dominate over nature. They also learned the philosophy of war. The objectives of war according to E. Pocquet are:

, Steel others possessions,
. carry off others cattle,
. burn their houses,
. kill men,
.rape women.

November 22: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont ( Pontgrave) (1554-1629) and (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit d-1603 are appointed the position of Lieutenant General of Canada, Newfoundland and Norumbega (Nova Scotia/Maine), being forfeited by Troilus de Mesgouez, Marquis de la Roche.

1600

A merchant of St. Malo, named (I)-Francois Grave Du Pont ( Pontgrave) (1554-1629), with (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1602), and Pierre Du Gua, Sieur De Monts (1558-1628) and with four ships and sixteen colonists, established a settlement at Tadoussac (meaning nipples or breasts). Pontgrave led the colony only because he had been there a number of times before and knew the people. The French called the natives Montagnais, the residents called themselves Innu meaning the people. They built a trading house. Tadoussac is a well-established fur trading and wintering site at the mouth of the Saguenay River. The Montagnais had 2nd and 3rd generation Metis at this time. About 1,000 Algonkin, Etchiman and Montagnais descend on Tadoussac each year to trade. Pontgrave and Chauven returned to France in the autumn with a cargo of furs, leaving sixteen men at Tadoussac. Eleven died that winter, and the rest went to live with the savages (native people) who were called the Montagnais Naskapi. Others suggest the Montagnais saved the remaining 5 men. The Montagnais had been trading with the Europeans for over fifty years. It is interesting that people who provide refuge during a time of need are classified as savage. This over used, European term ‘savage’ carried a powerful hidden meaning. On the surface it means an uncultivated, untamed, barbarous, crude, cruel person who is without civilization. Its hidden meaning is that a savage is less than human and therefore has few, if any, inherent rights. The Iroquois harassed the Montagnais over the years.

Early and often, casual unions between European fishermen, traders, lumberjacks and Native women from Acadia to Labrador produced uncounted progeny who matured as Natives among their maternal relatives. Many would become known as Malouidit because so many of the fathers originated from St. Milo on the Brittany coast of France. Many others would become known as capitaines des sauvages.

The Native People had names for these European peoples:

  • The Europeans in general were called Wayabishkiwad by the Ojibwa; meaning white skin.
  • The Delaware used Woapsit for white skin.
  • The Europeans were Kiowa Bedalpago; meaning hairy mouth, others called them Takai; meaning his ears stick out.
  • Later the Americans were designated as big knife or long knife.
  • The French were Wameqtikosiu or builders of wooden ships.
  • The English were Wautacone or coat men.
  • The German and Dutch were Yah Yah Algeh for those who talk ya ya.
  • The Scotts were called Kentahere by the Mohawk which referred to the type of hat they wore, reminding them of a buffalo cow and her droppings.
  • The Negroes were Madawiyas of black flesh or black face.
  • The Chinese were Gooktlam for their pig tails.

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) visited Acadia to determine a location for the first permanent French Huguenot settlement in America. They founded a Huguenot base at Tadoussac, Quebec.

The Roman Catholic Church, at this time, would not allow Huguenots to immigrate to New France. As a result, no official French colony was established in Canada, meaning village, until after 1600- or so they claimed. The reality is that no Protestants or Jews were allowed into New France according to official proclamations.

French fishermen and their families settled the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland. The 9-island was later made a French territory.

1601

(I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) sent the Esperance, a supply ship, to Tadoussac, (Quebec) and found five of the 12 colonists alive. As a result, Chauvin and (I)-Francois Grave du Pont ( Pontgrave) (1554-1629) would lose their position in New France. Others suggest (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1602) and company built 20 buildings this season

The Malecite (Maliseet) People alias Souriquois, lived in New Brunswick west of the St. John River and some believe they are Metis being decedents of Indian and European fishermen, especially the Basque. They are linked to the Algonquian linguistic family but some suggest 1/2 the original Malecite spoke 1/2 basque. It is noteworthy that the Malecite and Etchemin People are not indigenous to Acadia and only arrived this century. Malecite and Etchemin are believed to be the same Peoples. These People live in small houses and dress like Europeans. They are fair skinned as compared to the other Indians.

John Smith in search of the northwest passage, sailing from Jamestown explored the Chesapeake Bay area.

March: George Waymouth sailed from England for Virginia to reconnoiter a site for settlement. He then sailed north and made landfall off Nantucket Island, then off the Maine coast. He anchored off Monhegan Island and sent expeditions up the St. George and Kennebec Rivers. He kidnapped five Abenaki slaves and returned to England.

1602

France sent 16 ships to New France this season.

(I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) married 1602?, France, Marie Rollet dir Rolet (1588-1649) arrived Kebec 1617

FOUR CHILDREN ARE RECORDED:

(II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis, b-1604-1610, Acadia, d-1639, Kebec, married October 1, 1634, Kebec, Helene Desportes (Tanguay no date given)
(II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis, b-1606 or 1608, Acadia, d-1684, Quebec, married August 26, 1621, Kebec, Guillaume Couillard (Tanguay says b-1606 & 1608)
(II)-Anne Hebert, Metis, b-1603 – 1605 – 1607, Acadia d-1619, Kebec, married 1618, Kebec, Etienne Jonquest. (Tanguay no date given) if b-1607 then age 11 married? Highlighted dates are most probable if we believe Tanguay?

#1 (I)-Louis was in Acadia 1603 to 1607, without Rollet? He arrived early 1603 & returned to France in the fall of 1607.
#2 (I)-Louis was in Acadia 1610-1613, without Rollet?
#3 (II)-Guillemette, b-1606 couldn’t be daughter, if Tanguay is to be believed?
#4 It would appear researchers invent fact to meet the possibility of France born?
#5 It’s possible the children are Mi’Kmaq Metis, born Acadia and taken back to France?
#6 In 1610 (II)-Guillaume was age 35 and Rollet age 22, yet no more children? Most likely last birth 1607?
#7 Mi’Kmaq Metis of Basque and French traders were in Port Royal when (I)-Louis arrived this area early 1603.
#8 The claims for this family are very strange? It would appear the girls were born Acadia?

A supply ship was sent out to Sable Island, the first in two years and only found eleven remaining colonists.

Peter Easton, a privateer in Queen Elizabeth the 1st’s navy, lost his commission and turned to piracy from 1602 to 1615. By 1610 he commanded 1,400 men and 10 well-equipped warships. His headquarters was in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland. It is estimated his personal fortunate was close to $600 million Canadian.

(I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) traveled to Tadoussac, Quebec and brought two Natives to France. When they were returned they said: “King Henri”, “he wished the Canadian people well”.

George Weymouth ventured to the Hudson Strait looking for the North West Passage to India for the East India Company, returning to England on September 5.

Sheila Nagaira of Ireland is captured by the Dutch who in turn are captured by the English Captain Peter Easton who was on his way to Newfoundland. During the voyage Sheila fell in love with Gilbert Pike and were married aboard ship. The settled into Mosquito in Conception Bay.

Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo, governor Florida sent Juan de Lara to investigate if the Spanish soldiers from New Mexico had reached Tama (Milledgeville, Georgia). It is not recorded if the overland expedition from New Mexico reached Tama.

Bartholomew Gosnold (1572-1607) of England with a crew of 31 sailed to southern Maine to Narragansett Bay. He sailed to Cape Cod into Nantucket Sound. He then built a fort on Elizabeth’s Isle, now called Cuttyhunk and explored the north shore of Buzzard’s Bay.

February: (I)-Aymer de Chaste d-1603 is named Lieutenant General of New France by King Henri IV of France. He is commissioned to establish a colony and is given a trading monopoly. He formed the De Chaste Trading Company.

April: Tadoussac, (Quebec) (I)-Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603) took two ships with (I)-Francois Grave du Pont ( Pontgrave) (1554-1629) and made his last trip to the ‘New World’, trading for furs at Tadoussac

1603

France sent 80 vessels or boats to Newfoundland and New France this season.

A Spanish Basque ship is captured in Placentia menor (Argentia, Newfoundland) by Flamencos rebeldes.

(I)-Aymar de Chaste (d-1603) had obtained the trading monopoly for New France, Newfoundland and Larcadie (Acadie) in 1602 and had (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) appointed as his representative in New France this year and Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) to govern Acadia..

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) received royal patents for the colonization, commercial exploitation and government of Acadia for the next ten years. He would learn the Royal patents were worthless as the Basques ignored them and made off with most of the fur trade. He also found Jean Rossignol a French free trader working the Acadia area so he seized the pelts and the ship for illegal trading.

(I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727) is with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) this year.

Acadie (Acadia) appears to be a Micmac or Mi’Kmaq name meaning place of plenty. Others suggest (I)-Pont-Grave of St. Milo (1554-1629) had obtained the same authority of Marquis de la Roche and sent 3 barks that arrived safely in Acadian waters.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) published his 80 page “Des Sauvages” and freely admits that many people have written about Canada before he set down his account in 1603. What he doesn’t admit is his habit of recording the observations of others as his own without giving credit. This is fairly obvious in his brief narrative of 1599. It is noteworthy that the French and Basques had been fishing the St. Lawrence for the past 100 years and provided him with valuable navigation information. He met another Basque fisherman at Tor Bay, Nova Scotia who said he had been coming there since 1563. This fisherman in the ship Savalette that his father also fished this area as did his grandfather. Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) confirmed in 1535 that fishermen had indeed preceded him to America. It is noteworthy that Champlain chose the word Savage rather than Indian to describe the peoples of the New World.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) records the story of the Mi’-Kmaq (Micmac) concerning Gougou a 200 foot colossal woman who wades through the waters off Canada’s east coast catching unwary mariners.

Some suggest George Pophan of England established the Popham Colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River which was to be later called Maine. He built Fort St. George on Sabino Head with a stone walls, turrets and 20 buildings. Funding dried up and it was abandoned by 1608. Some suggest he built the fort in 1607 but I find it hard to believe you can build a stone walled fort with 20 buildings plant crops in one season. It is also suggest the (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was aware of the structure in 1605.

February: (Canada meaning village) King Henri IV of France, named (I)-Aymer de Clermont de Chaste (d-1603) as “Lieutenant General of New France”.

March 15: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) of the De Chaste Trading Company sailed for New France from Honfleur, France and allowed (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to join his expedition.

May 13: (I)-Aymar de Chaste (died May 13, 1603) and France granted (I)-Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts (1558-1628), the New France trade monopoly.

May 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) landed on the east coast of Nova Scotia (Acadia) and called the spot La Heve. Down the coast they encountered Jean Rossignol, a Spanard who was trading with the Indians. Champlain considered this illegal activity and seized the furs and his ship. In recognition of this event he named the area Port Rossignol.

May 24: The two ships of the De Chaste Trading Company are anchored at the mouth of the Saguenay River near Tadoussac, Quebec. The Montagnis Tabagies festivals were being conducted at this time in this ancient trading location. They had ten kettles, likely received in trade, filled with moose, bear, seal and beaver, positioned twenty feet apart. Anadabijou and 80-100 savages attended the Tabagies. They had no French manners and ate with their fingers, which they wiped on themselves or on their hunting dogs.

May 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is told that the Etchemins, the Algonkins and the Montagnais- numbering 1,000 men- had warred against the Iroquois at the mouth of the Iroquois River and had killed and scalped a hundred of them. Anadaabijou said that they had to rely wholly on surprise, for they are outnumbered by the Iroquois and wouldn’t dare to attack them openly. This sounds more like exaggeration in an attempt to impress the French in order to demonstrate what they had to offer the French for an alliance. Champlain also believed them to be great liars (exaggeration of the facts).

June 9: Tadoussac, at this time, numbered 1,000 men, women and children. Dancing (the girls at times naked) , races, feasting and gift giving is evident. Champlain discovered that they believed in the Great Spirit who created all things including the world and the people. They believe in the immortality of the soul.

June 11: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by (I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored up the Saguenay River for 35 miles. They then journeyed up the St Lawrence River looking for Stadacona, but there was no sign of the village. The Savages told them of the saltwater Bay of the North, and Champlain believed it to be part of the Atlantic Ocean.

June 24: On the Sainte Croix River, on an Island (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) established a colony of 79 people but 35 died of scurvy the first winter. This is hard to believe as European sailor have know how to treat scurvy for over a thousand years, especially using the herb alexanders. It was some times called Scotch lovage or sea lovage.

June 29: (I)-Francois Grave du Pont, accompanied by (I)-Samuel de Champlain, explored Lac Saint Pierre and entered the mouth of the Richelieu River. They journeyed up the river to the Saint Pours Rapids and learned from the Savages of other lakes upstream which were later named Lake Champlain and Lake George. They were also told of the Great River that leads down to the coast of Florida, but more likely the Hudson River that empties at New York.

July: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) acquired a captured Iroquois woman from the Montagnais at Tadoussac and sent her to France, likely for education. He wrote at this time; “I must say however, that though Florida may have a more favorable climate than anything I’ve seen and it’s soil may be more fruitful, you could hardly hope to find a more beautiful country than Canada”.

July 11: By canoe, the party went to Sault Saint Louis or Lachine Rapids and the site of Hochelaga (Montreal), which no longer existed, and met with several bands of Algonquian. Everyone tells them of the great rivers and gigantic lakes. The savages described Niagara Falls, Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, as well as the Detroit River to the St. Lawrence. He did not report encounters with the Iroquois as the Algonquian had displaced them to the south. Champlain believed the Three Rivers area would make an ideal place for settlement. He also believed in the monster Gougou, as he did of the dragons of Mexico. He also believed you could hardly hope to find a more beautiful country than Canada.

September 20: The De Caste Trading Company expedition returned to France and learned of the death of Chastes on May 13, 1603.

November 8: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), Governor of Acadia and owner of the fur trade monopoly of New France, for the next 10 years engaged (I)-Francois Graves and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), from 1604 to 1607, to search for the best location to establish a fur trading post before settling on Stadacona (Quebec city) which is a historic Native trading location. The venture is funded by Calvinists, as there are none among the Roman Orthodox with whom they could bargain. It is noteworthy that Cartier did not share the knowledge of avoiding scurvy, and it plagued the de Monts Acadian venture.

November 15: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) published his account of Des Sauvages. These friendly, hospitable people told (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi River system leading to the Gulf of Mexico. It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) used an unnamed interpreter to converse with the inhabitants.

1604

The war with Spain made it difficult, if not impossible, to establish colonies in America until this time.

It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is in Acadia (1603-1607), A conflict with birth of Guillemette of 1606? (see 1602)

The Norman, Basque and Breton fisherman are regularly fishing for cod on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and along the coast of Nova Scotia.

Jean Rossignol a French trader was working the Port Royal area when the De Monts Trading Company seized his pelts and ship.

Some claim (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) visited the mouth of the Penobscot River (Maine). Samuel de Champlain sailed into the river estuary at what later became the seaport of St. John in New Brunswick, Canada.

The Saint Lawrence River (Quebec) was rejected as a possible French colony site because of the great number of free traders using that area and because they refused to yield to a French monopoly. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) named Prince Edward Island, Ile de Saint Jean.

(I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) sailed to La Heve (Halifax) Acadia and discovered a vessel whose Captain is named Rossignol and he captured the ship as a violation of his territory. The secular Priest Nicolas Aubrey went ashore at St Mary’s Bay and became lost but turned up 17 days later. Sieur De Poutrincourt of Picardies obtained a grant for Port Royal from (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) that was later confirmed by the French King.

February: The De Monts Trading Company is formed to fur trade and colonize New France. Members include de Monts, du Pont and de Champlain.

March: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) commanded 4 ships with both Catholic and Huguenots but only Catholics are allowed to evangelize the savages. Two ships were to go to Tadousac and two ships to Acadia.

March 7: Two ships departed Havre-de-Grace for an expedition to Acadia New France. The De Monts Trading Company had sent du Pont from Havre de Grace, France to New France. Swiss guards were members of the first French expedition to launch a colony in Acadia. (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615) asked (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) if he could join the expedition to Acadia. They arrived Acadia at Saint Croix, which was a poor location and many settlers died of starvation, scurvy, or the cold winter. Monts sent Biencourt back to France with a load of furs.

April 7: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and company departs for Acadia, his party includes (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615), Pontgrave, L’Escarbot, Champdore, Rossignol, Guillaume des Champs, Etienne Maitre, (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627), 120 men in total.

May 13: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), of the de Monts Trading Company, named Port au Mouton (Port Mouton, Nova Scotia) because a sheep had jumped overboard. Meanwhile (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and Jean Ralluau explored the coast as far as the Bay of Fundy. De Monts and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) explored in a longboat, looking for the site for a settlement and for mineral deposits discovered in 1603 by de Prevert.

June: The French wintered on an island in the St. Croix River, Nova Scotia, marking the beginning of Acadia. St. Croix Island actually is in the the St. Croix River that separates New Brunswick and Maine but is eventually claimed by Maine. The Colony was attacked by a certain malady called the mal de la terre (scurvy). The majority of them could not rise nor move and could not even be raised up on their feet without falling down in a swoon, so that out of 79 who composed our party, 35 died and more than 20 were on the point of death. They opened several of them to determine the cause of their illness (performed autopsies). De Monts, a military man, said the decisive factor of location was that it could be made secure from attacks by the Indians.

June 24: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Mont (1558-1628) and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) skirted the New Brunswick shore and entered the Saint John River then continued westward along the coast until they reached a desolate, sandy Island which de Monts named Ile Sainte Croix. They built a palisade, houses for 80 colonists, and planted wheat (rye). The Island had no fresh water or firewood, which indicates their level of incompetence. They would pay a terrible price for this mistake. (I)-Guillaume des Champs and (I)-Maitre Etienne also practiced medicine. (I)-Pierre Du Gua Monsieur de Monts (1558-1628) was a Huguenot and expected the promised religious freedom but received orders to convert the Natives to the Catholic faith. The first resident, Christian missionary is Father (I)-Nicholas Aubry, a secular priest who, with thirty-six other immigrants, died of scurvy during the first winter.

Early Fall: (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615) and 40 men returned to France.

October 2: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returned to St. Croix Island, the dwellings were completed and 4 days later the snow began to fall. The storehouse had no cellar and air that entered through the cracks was more severe than that out side. Ice flow cut them off from a wood supply. Champlain wrote the colony was hit by landsickness (scurvy)- – of 79 of us, 35 died, and more than 20 were very near it – - we could find no remedy with which to cure this malady. A group of eleven remained well – - a jolly company of hunters who preferred rabbit hunting to the air of the fireside; skating on ponds, to turning over lazy in bed; making snow balls to bring down the game, to sitting around the fire talking about Paris and its good cooks.

1605

The Danes hire the Englishman James Hall to make a trip to Terra Nova. He seized three Eskimos, along with their kayaks, as slaves.

Grand-Pre, Acadia was first settled in 1605 through 150 years to the deportation in 1755 when it was burned to the ground by the British.

Francisco Fernandez de Ecija is dispatched by the governor of Florida to investigate an Anglo-French exploring and trading expedition. In Saint Helna Sound on the Carolina coast, he captured the expeditions two ships.

(I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just, (1557-1615) returned to Acadia with (I)-Louis Hebert, (1527-1627), others suggest he was in charge in Poutrincourt absence. (I)-Marc Leslarsot and others hoping to create an agriculture center. Those who went to Acadia colony numbered 19 including their minister (I)-Nicolas Aubry a Huguenot. It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is in Acadia (1603-1607), A conflict with birth of Guillemette of 1606? (see 1602)

June 18: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, sailed south as far as Massachusetts Bay and Nauset Harbour, Massachusetts, searching for a better site for their colony. He visited Cape Cod, hoping to establish a French colony here, but abandoned the idea because too many people already lived there. When they returned, the St. Croix river settlement was already dismantled and moved to Port Royal, Acadia. A new supply ship had arrived from France with 40 new colonists.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) discovered that the savages were growing ‘sunchokes’ in their vegetable gardens and thought they tasted like Artichokes. The People however called them ‘sun roots’.

Fort Port Royal (1605-1613)

Port Royal The French trading post of St. Croix River moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Acadia.

March: by this month, thirty six settlers perished leaving only 44 men and they would have perished if the natives hadn’t provided them with food.

June 15: (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615) returned to Acadia just as the colony was relocation to Port Royal. As they were relocating they were greeted by Basque Metis and St. Malo trader offsprings.

September: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) returns to France to attend to finances, leaving (I)-Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) in charge of the Monts Trading Company. A storm blew de Monts landward where five men disembarked at Cape Cod and 4 are killed by the savages. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was commissioned to conduct exploration. The forty some men who remained behind planted gardens and built a pond with trout. A Roman Catholic and a Protestant Huguenot minister are among those who remained. These clerics even came to blows at times, but scurvy claimed them both at the same time. They are buried in a common grave to see if they could rest in peace when dead. The outlay exceeded the receipts and, thereby, doomed the venture. The French had failed to either establish sufficient trading relationships with the Natives or discover harbors suitable for settlement. They blamed the Natives for being uncivilized. They contend the people of the interior are more civilized. The Company grant is revoked, they say because of the jealousy and importunity of certain Basque and Briton merchants.

1606

(I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is claimed by Kebec but his first venture to New France was at Port Royal, Acadia (Annapolis, Nova Scotia) from early 1603 to September 1607. It is believed he experimented with agriculture, the first known crops by Europeans, in Canada. It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is in Acadia (1603-1607), A conflict with birth of Guillemette of 1606? and his other children (see 1602)

John Knight, an Englishman hired by the Danes, in search of the Northwest Passage, got stuck in ice off the coast of Labrador, north of Nain.

The coast of New England is officially called Northern Virginia, and King James I, in 1606, granted the entire region to the Northern Virginia Company. The first charter of the Virginia Company declared that all colonists and their descendents would enjoy all liberties. This contrasts with French rule that demands absolute obedience to King and God.

The English believe the French viewed the New World as a potential source of raw material.

The English, in contrast, is overpopulated, saying the land grows weary of its People. Emigration is therefore encouraged in order to form self-supporting agricultural communities. Agriculture is not a high French objective, but they are eventually forced into farming.

Word reaches Port Royal, Acadia that the Company of Merchants had broken up and therefore no new supplies would be sent to Port Royal. They were on their own.

Francisco Fernandez de Ecija led an expedition to find and remove the English settlers at Croatoan along the North Carolina coast. He search the Carolina coast from Santa Elena (Port Royal Sound) and Cape Fear. He found nothing and was unaware of the English at Jamestown.

March 16: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) set out on an abortive expedition, reaching only as far as Port aux Coquilles on the St. Croix River.

May 13: (I)-Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Pountrincourt (1557-1615), joins the de Monts Company. He arrived in Acadia with his son, (II)-Charles de Biencourt, Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623), and (I)-Jean Ralluau, (I)-Marc Lescarbot (1570-1642), (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727). (I)-Louis Herbert grew herbs to use as medicine to treat sick settlers and returned to France in 1616, but would return to New France in 1617.

July 27: The de Monts Company ship reached Port Royal, Acadia and they planted apple trees from Normandy. They began to construct a road from Port Royal to Cape Digby.

September 5: De Poutrincourt and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) explored south as far as Martha’s Vineyard before returning on November 14.

1607

(I)-Louis Herbert was in Port Royal from the summer of 1606 through the winter of 1606/1607. Others who wintered were Poutrincourt (Lord of the Manor), Champlain, Biencourt, Marc L’Escarbot, (the lawyer), Pontgrave Champdoré, and Daniel Hay (surgeon)

Merchants ignored the trade monopoly, and free trade contributed to the collapse of the Monts Trading Company.

(I)-Marc Lescarbot (1570-1642) wrote: by all accounts everyone ate well at Port Royal: stone-ground whole wheat bread, sturgeon, lobster, crabmeat, mussels, vegetables including corn, squash, beans and cabbage. Of all their meats none is so tender as moose and none so delicate as beaver tail. A bottle of wine topped off the menu.

Six men die at Port Royal from the exertion of grinding grain by hand, so de Pountrincourt built a water driven mill on the Allains River.

(I)-John Popham and (I)-Ferdinando Gorges of the Northern Virginia Company, established a trading post on an island in the mouth of the Kennebec River. One hundred English settlers established Fort St. George (Popham Colony) (I)-Raleight Gilbert is appointed Governor. Confronted by numerous well armed Indians, the settlers abandoned this project within a month. Some suggest Thomas Dale was the Governor of the failed Virginia colony and that he quit upon hearing of the French settlement, that America was not big enough to contain both the French and English.

Others suggest The Plymouth Company under command of George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert established an English colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River, Maine. They report that the French were in the area. The cold winter of 1607/08 discouraged this venture. They all returned to England in 1608.

Still others suggest Captains Popham & Gilbert established a colony on the River Sagadahock New England (Maine) and with 100 men built Fort George. The colony was abandoned in 1608 as their patron had died.

King James of England extended their right of occupation from 33rd degree of north latitude up to the 45th degree giving them power to attack all foreigners whom they might find within these limits of 50 miles out to sea. They thus claimed the southern half of Acadia (Nova Scotia) and the southern half of Maine. To the south they claimed the northern 2/3 of South Carolina. The actual Royal patents reads “we give them all the lands up to the 45 degree, which do not actually belong to any Christian Prince. This French king already claimed and possessed the said lands to the 39 degree and that included New York and New Jersey. The Jesuit claim in 1523 the French through discover had claimed to the 33 degree to include the Carolina’s and North. The maps of this time issued by Spain, Italy, Holland, Germany, and England her self acknowledged New France down to the 38 degree or New Jersey North. The English Kings proclamation established the rules to ensure war would be inevitable between England and France.

From 1607 to 1613 no European remained in Acadia, the area however was visited by traders and fishermen during this period.

Bartholomew Gosnold (1572-1607) carried 52 of the original Jamestown colonists to the Virginia coast.

May: John Smith and Christopher Newport ventured up the James River as far as Richmond from Jamestown.

May 24: The forced collapse of the Monts Trading Company resulted in the employees being ordered back to France, including all colonists. Which they did in the fall of this year.

August 11: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed for Canso, Acadia ( Nova Scotia).

December: John Smith (1579-1631) led an expedition up the Chickahominy River from Jamestown and was captured by the Powhatan for three months. He wrote in 1616: “New England is that part of America in the South Sea, and here are no hard Landlords to racke us with high rents, or extorted fines to sonsume us, no tedious pleas in law to consume us, so freely hath God and his Majesty bestowed those blessings on them that will attempt to obtaine them, as here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land, or the greatest part in small time.”

1608

Population of Kebec 31 French, 28 being workmen building the trading post.

The Virginia Company on the Kennebec River is abandoned, as the Indians refused to trade.

(I)-Bonerme, the first surgeon in Canada accompanied (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) this year. He died Kebec the winter of 1608-1609.

(I)-Jean Duval arrived Kebec. Some suggest Nouvelle-France was started with 6 families totaling 28 people. Twenty would die the first winter. Duval conspired against Champlain and is executed in Kebec. His three companions are returned to France.

A settlement ship to Jamestown included five Poles. Their numbers would rise to forty-five. This clearly indicated that non-English was allowed in the colonies.

France, on the other hand, only wanted Roman Catholic French in their Colony.

Kebec Settlement (Kebec means Narrow Passage)
Quebec Settlement This drawing is based on a sketch by Champlain. The population of Quebec is some 25-28 persons. Others suggest Fort Quebec, at this time it, is no more than a minor trading post. This is likely, based on the fact that 16 men died of scurvy, leaving a crew of 9-10 men. The name Quebec is from the native word Kebec which means narrowing of the waters. The first task is to build a storehouse, three main buildings and then to plant a garden. This Stadacona location, where the waters narrow, is an excellent location, designed to restrict free trade and impose a French monopoly on the trade route. Stadacona, in 1535, was a well constructed town of 500 Iroquois. There is some evidence to suggest they were absorbed into the Huron culture.

(I)-Jean Duval, d-1608, a workman, and four others arrived Kebec 1608 and are plotting to kill (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). They hoped to become agent and intended to turn the trading post over to the Basque or Spanish to encourage free trade and, thereby, profit. Others suggest the Basque had bribed Duval and company. (I)-Jean Antoine Natel, d-1608, a sailor and locksmith also arrived Kebec 1608, one of the conspirators, told the French of the plan, resulting in the hanging of (I)-Jean Duval, d-1608. His severed head is impaled on a pike and placed in full view. Three other conspirators are sent home (to France) in chains. Unknown to the French, the St. Lawrence River valley is a disputed territorial zone. The Algonquian people, having recently recovered their lands from the Iroquois, easily enter into alliance with the French. This is probably the reason they did not challenge the (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) settlement at Stadacona (Kebec).

Champdore visited Port Royal saying it was in good order.

Mathieu da Costa, an African Blackman signed a contract in Amsterdam to provide service in Canada or Acadia to Pierre du gua de Monts for the years 1609 to 1612.

January 7: The de Mont Trading Company monopoly is extended for one year. Three ships are sent out; one to revive the colony at Port Royal, one to the lower St. Lawrence, and one to found a post at Quebec under the direction of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635).

April 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed France aboard the Don de Dieu.

June 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived Tadoussac, Quebec. Some suggest (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is on this ship but others suggest he didn’t arrive until 1610. Basque traders are working Tadoussac, Quebec at the mouth of the Saguenay River when the de Monts Trading Company arrived. Some suggest (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) and (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1633) were on this ship with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and became the best of friends. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) reported to the King of France and was not subject to Champlain. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) remained at Tadoussac from 1608 to 1635 remaining even during the English occupation. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) lived in a building constructed in 1600 by (I)-Pierre Chauvin, d-1602 and lived among the Montagnais and Saguenay peoples as interpreter/trader. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) was called the Little King of Tadoussac and he fathered a number of Metis children among the Montagnais.

April 13: Tadoussac, A Basque fur-trader is told to stop trading by (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) and the Basque set upon Pontgrave with musket and cannon, killing one man and severely wounding two others, including Pontgrave. However upon (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrive the Basques were greatly outnumbered and agreed to a truce, not to molest Pontgrave or De Monts. It is noteworthy that Pontegrave was in command and Champlain was a geographer.

April 13: (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint-Aignan (1587-1677) is appointed by King Henry IV as drogman (interpreter) to La Nouvelle France. He arrived with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) who disliked Nicolas because he reported directly to the King. To ensure he didn’t interfere with his domain he assigned him to Tadoussac where he stayed from 1608 to 1635. He took a country wife and fathered Metis children. It is noteworthy that Tanguay was well aware of Nicolas Metis children but made no mention. His second marriage 1636, Kebec to Marie Lebarbier age 16 was well noted with their 10 children.

HABITATION AT KEBEC Quebec Settlement

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returning from an exploration up the St. Lawrence River. This Hanitation at Kebec was built by 30 men in only three months.

July 3: (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628), (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629), and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, established the first permanent official French settlement and some claim it to be the oldest city in Canada- Quebec City. The first French settlement in Canada, however, is Port Royal (1605-1613).

July 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) lands at Acadia with 30 carpenters, stonemasons and artisans and builds a permanent fur-trading post at Place-Royale, thinking the spot allows him to control the St. Lawrence R. Not everyone wants him to succeed. Some of his men are bribed by Basques to kill him and steal his provisions. One of them, (I)-Antoine Natel informs and they are captured and tried. Their leader (I)-Jean Duval is hung and his head is piked.

July 4: Kebec: Sieur Jean Duval and four others conspire to kill Champlain and turn Kebec over to the Basque and Spanish for great profit. Sieur Natel told sieur Testu who told Champlain of the plot. Jean Duval was piked and the remaining three conspirators sent back to France. The piking was deemed necessary as an example to the Basque and Spaniards who were about in large numbers in New France.

September: (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) returned to France, leaving (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) as his agent. Over the winter, out of twenty-two (others suggest 27 or 28) men, all but eight of the colony died of scurvy and dysentery. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1633), a sixteen year-old lad, is among the survivors. They had brought cows, but no one knew how to assist in their calving and they died. It would appear that women in France did the calving. Champlain worked on his maps this winter.

November: Kebec, death (I)-Antoine Natel, a sailor.

1609

Population of Kebec 25 French

(I)-Claude De Saint Etienne De La Tour and his son (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) arrived Acadia and built a fort at Penobscot River, Acadia, later he would move to Port Royal, Acadia. His friend (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623) settled near Port Royal, Acadia.

Joseph Martin, b-1609, a Matchonon (Huron) Savage, possible Metis son (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664). (I)-Abraham and Marguerite Langlois, likely a savage, had a daughter (II)-Anne b-1614, no birth location given and a son (II)-Eustache b-1621 Kebec, and daughter (II)-Marguerite b-1624, Kebec, and (II)-Helene, b-1627, Kebec.

CHAMPLAIN’S WAR AGAINST THE IROQUOIS

Champlain’s WarA French engraving from 1613, made from a drawing supplied by Champlain with his arquebus (harquebus). Some suggest his placement of himself between the apposing forces is highly unlikely. Some suggest Champlain entered into war because the Algonquian people said there would be no trade without a military partnership. This is highly unlikely as the French have been trading with the Algonquian people since at least 1599 and this is not consistent with their trading culture. The Iroquois and Algonquian people have been trading for centuries. It is more likely that Champlain wanted to demonstrate a superior power for his own glorification. However Champlain was accompanied, in his expedition against the Iroquois, by bands of Huron, Algonquins, Iroquets, and Montagnais. As a result the Algonquins were attracted to the St. Lawrence, and settle chiefly at Three Rivers.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) entered into a trading partnership with the Herons hopefully to stimulate the fur trade.

Nicolas du Vignau was sent to live among the Algonquins on the Ottawa River.

Étienne Brûlé (1592-1633) was sent by Champlain to live among the Hurons

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the de Monts Trading Company, solidified his alliance with the Algonquian by participating in a battle at Lake Champlain against the Iroquois. Others suggest that (I)-Samuel de Champlain supported the Huron (a Wendat-Iroquois speaking people) to attack the Iroquois Nation at Richelieu River, thereby starting a hundred year war. Still others suggest that 9 French and 300 Huron marched south to attack the Iroquois. Many returned to Kebec, and Champlain says, with 6 men and 60 Huron, they faced 200 Iroquois (likely a highly exaggerated number). (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) claimed to have killed three Iroquois at 27 meters, but this is an obvious lie as his gun is incapable of the feat. arquebus (harquebus) were slow and cumbersome in their action, taking several minutes to prime, load and fire. It was said an expert could shoot his weight in shot before killing anyone. The kick was so heavy, sometimes it dislocated the shoulder or collar-bone of the shooter. It wasn’t until 1670 that the gun became superior to the bow and arrow. Champlain likely fired from an ambush position, and the sound frightened the Iroquois, but this would only work once. Native historic conflicts usually did not result in death to either side. It was a time to demonstrate superior strength and skills. The French word Huron for the Wendat people is a contemptuous term, also used to describe peasants in France.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) claimed to have defeated the Iroquois, but it is more likely the Iroquois withdrew to debate in council why the French did not follow the century old rules of conduct between rival cultures. Hundreds of French would pay with their lives, but the Huron would be annulated for the stupidity of this man.

What ever the real truth is, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sealed his alliance with the Huron in blood and, for almost a century the, Kebec settlers would pay the price of making the Iroquois their mortal enemy.

Unable to renew his trading monopoly, (I)-Gua de Monts is forced to form a partnership with Rouen merchants.

Hendrik Hudson discovered the South River aka. Delaware to become the Southern limits of New Holland and northern limits of New Sweden.

Samuel Argall, an Englishman (1572-1626) sailed to Jamestown basically as a pirate.

Francisco Fernandez de Ecija again sailed the Atlantic coast looking for English settlements. He spotted smoke signals along the Carolina Outer Banks but no Europeans.

February: Ten men are dead and 18 are sick at Kebec. Only 8 men out of 28 would survive the winter. 14 died of scurvy and 18 from dysentery.

April: Only eight men of the Kebec colony remain alive. Kebec received supplies from France after a disastrous winter marked by severe scurvy. Twenty of twenty-eight traders died. Two thirds died from scurvy and one third as a result of dysentery.

April 6: (I)-Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company up the Hudson River as far as Albany, New York. He traded liquor with the Mohawks.

June 28: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) set out to explore the Iroquois country with 11 Frenchmen and 60 Natives. He made a strategic decision to support the Algonquin and Huron Peoples against the Iroquois in the hope of furthering his trading and exploration activities. It is amazing that Champlain, so far, has survived on a series of failures: first, by selecting St. Croix, resulting in serious loss; second, in failing to find a colony site; and now creating an enemy when in a vulnerable condition, having nearly lost the infant Colony last winter.

July 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) recruited 20 men from Tadoussac but only 4 guns (arguebus).

July 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) traveled up the Richelieu River with two Frenchmen and their Indian allies, reaching Lake Champlain and Lake George.

July 24: Francisco Fernandez de Ecija tried to enter Chesapeake Bay but is blocked by an English ship. He returned to Saint Augustine by September 24.

July 29: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and his war party met a large party of Iroquois near Ticonderoga, New York, and both parties accepted a challenge to do battle. Champlain had no ideal of the nature of engagement in America, nor of the diplomatic process to avoid serious conflict. Again Champlain shows his ignorance and commits France and New France to a century long war. Some suggest it wasn’t his fault, and the clash is, or would be, inevitable, as an ongoing European clash exported to the New World. This European religious and cultural pathology could have been avoided by a more astute authority. Champlain greatly embellished his role in the encounter and the number of Mohawks (Iroquois).

September 5: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed from Tadoussac, arriving France on October 13. His gifts to the King included a Mohawk scalp.

September 24: Francisco Fernandez de Ecija reported finding the English Jamestown and also reported the strategic importance of Chesapeake Bay as an English base from which to takeover Spanish lands in North America.