Note: Several ManyRoads readers have questioned the accuracy of some of the Metis claims presented in this document by Mr. Garneau. Should you have evidence that you would like to present refuting the veracity and accuracy of any claims made by Mr. Garneau, which you would like us to present here, please contact us directly.
We are happy to present all relevant information here, in the interest of fairness, full disclosure and accuracy.
The following material is written by: R.D. (Dick) Garneau, who is solely responsible for its accuracy.
Population of Kebec 18 French + 1 Huron
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) and (I)-Pierre Desportes, had given birth to the first living children in New France. Arrived here in the 1610′s, these two families are counted among the first who lived on Kebec soil. (I)-Abraham is listed as married to Marguerite Langlois but birth date and location of birth not recorded.
It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is back in Acadia this year until 1613..
Pierre Desportes and Francoise Langlois, b-1600 is the parents of (II)-Helene Desportes, born July 7, 1620, married October 1, 1634 Kebec (II)-Guillaume Hebert, d-1639 and married, 1640 Kebec, (I)-Noel Morin (1616-1680). Francois Langlois, b-1600 is believed the sister of Marguerite Langlois, b-1611, died January 15, 1661, Quebec, 1st married Kebec to (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664), 2nd married February 17, 1665, Kebec, Rene Brance: ALSO the sister of Marie Langlois, d-1661, Quebec, married 1625, Jean Juchereau. It is highly unlikely that three sisters would arrive Kebec unrecorded therefore they must be Metis or Savauge? It’s interesting that folks claim a child is 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc. born in Kebec of Whitmen but no mention is made of the color of the wife?
This year Tadoussac, Quebec had too many ships and too few furs due to the great number of European vessels engaged in the fur trade. Furs were becoming more profitable than fish.
Peter Easton, a privateer in Queen Elizabeth 1st’s navy, lost his commission and turned to piracy from 1602 to 1615. This year he built a fort at Harbor Grace, Newfoundland to conduct his pirate business. He recruited Newfoundland sailors for his private navy. He destroyed a Basque fleet, intent on capturing his fort. He practiced his trade down into the Caribbean, raiding Puerto Rico and capturing the Spanish plate fleet in 1614. He was pardoned by King James to become the Marquis of Savoy, and lived the balance of his life in luxury. Barbarism is rewarded by the English.
(II)-Charles Biencourt de St. Just son Pere Poitrincourt is at Port Royal with Champlain.
Some suggest (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) arrived at New France and immediately went to live among the Algoumequins (Algonquinus). Others suggest he arrived in Kebec 1608. Brule took a country wife and is therefore the first family man in Kebec. It is believed Algonquian guides led him into the interior of New France (Canada). It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) says (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) was living among the Algonquian since 1608.
The Natives had told the French that the Great Lakes of the Interior takes 30 days to cross. They also speak of a great sea with no end on the West Coast. Some contend that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633), who arrived New France in 1610, went about this year to live among the Natives as, essentially, a Coureurs des Bois. These same people suggested he traveled as far as Lakes Michigan and Superior this year. Others suggest it was more like 1615, maybe later, before he reached Sault Ste Marie. Others suggest Champlain ordered (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) to encourage the Huron to trade with Kebec. Others suggest Brule is one of the eight survivors of the 1609 illness at Kebec. This opinion is rather strange if Champlain went to war with the Huron against the Iroquois to form an alliance last year. Why would he need to send an emissary into the Huron territory to establish a trading relationship? It is more probable that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) went native to escape being indentured to Champlain. This would be more consistent with future events. It is noteworthy that Champlain profited by Brule’s activities and likely tolerated his actions.
(I)-Jean de Godet du Parc (d-1627) is in charge of Quebec.
The Jesuits wanted to send missionaries to New France and approached Poutrincourt; a devout Roman Catholic. (II)-Jean Biencourt de Poutrincourt (1557-1615) sailed on February 10 for Port Royal, Acadia without the Jesuits using the pretext that he had to build suitable lodging for the Jesuits. It was no secret that the Poutrincourts hated the Jesuits. He is very suspicious of the motives of the ambitious Jesuits and took his own priest, Father (I)-Jesse Fleche- a secular priest, from Langres, France. Upon arriving, they were greatly surprised that the alleged savages had not molested the deserted Fort in anyway, nor its contents. They considered the savages as being very amiable and having the most humane qualities of gentleness and courtesy.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623) arrived in Port Royal with his father, (I)-Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt (1557-1615) and another priest called Josse Fleseline (Jesse Fleche) to convert the savages. (II)-Charles would effectively be given the Commander status of Port Royal this year. A Captain of the savages complained to Sieur De Poutrincourt, near Port Royal, that a ship from St. Milo has stolen his wife and was abusing her. The guilty party, (II)-Robert the son of (I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629), escaped punishment by fleeing into the forest among the savages to become a Coureurs des Bois. Later, he is accused of prejudicing the savages against the French. It is noteworthy that the term ‘Captain of the Savages’ usually referred to a mixed blood or Metis.
(II)-Jesse Fleche baptized Memberton and his nineteen member Native family. A MicMac or Mi’-Kmaq questioned the French for blowing their noses on linen handkerchiefs, asking: “For what purpose do you preserve such a vile thing”?
Thomas de la Wark (1577-1618) arrived Jamestown with 150 settlers and with Samuel Argall (1572-1626) help built two forts on the James River. Thomas would return to England leaving the tyrannical, autocratic Argall in charge of Virginia. He was cruel not only to the French and savages but to his own people. This also demonstrates that Thomas was a poor judge of character which he acknowledged too late.
January 26: Queen Marie would only support (I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Poutrincourt’s (1557-1615) voyage back to Port Royal, Acadia from Dieppe, France, and he took the Jesuits: (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622), (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646), (I)-Madame de Poutrincourt and her son (II)-Charles Biencourt de Saint Just (1591-1623). The Huguenots who owned the vessel refused to outfit it if the Jesuits were included. Marquise de Guercheville, wife of the Governor of Paris and a strong Jesuit superior, paid the Huguenots for any inconvenience the Jesuit would impose. This settlement failed because Samuel Argall, a Virginia pirate from his base in Jamestown, destroyed Port Royal, Acadie (Acadia) in 1613.
February 26: (I)- Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt et de Saint-just, (1557-1615) arrived Port Royal with (II)-Charles La Tour (1596-1665) his father (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne La Tour, (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623) and his father.
April 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed France for Kebec.
April 17: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Hudson Strait.
April 28: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived Tadoussac with 11 tradesmen. When he reached Kebec it was reported to be a mild winter and non had died. However he learned that (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) had left the settlement to live among the Huron.. Prairies (Des) de St. Malo a young man filled with courage went to help Champlain this year.
May 2: The Company of Adventurers and Planters of London and Bristol (1610-1628) is established to the colonization of Newfoundland.
June: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Ungava Bay thinking he had reached the west side of America.
June 13: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) met (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) beyond the Lachine Rapids; he records:
“I had with me a youth who had already spent two winters at Kebec and wanted to go among the Algoumequines (Algonquins) to master their language … learn about their country, see the great lake, take note of the rivers and the peoples living along them; and discover any mines, along with the most curious things about those places and people, so that we might, upon his return, be informed truthfully about them”
Translated: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) without permission abandoned Kebec to live among the Huron but I must make the best of the situation and again embellish the truth.
(I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is the first Coureur de Boise out of Kebec, the first European Canadian and many more would follow his lead..
When (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) was brutally tortured and killed by the Huron in 1633 (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) said that it was the fitting death for a traitor. He assumed Etienne led the British to Kebec but this was incorrect. He assumed the Huron killed him because he refused to accept French rule but he was executed for impropriety with women.
June 14: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) led a second expedition against the Iroquois Nation.
June 19: Near the mouth of the Richelieu River, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) again claimed a successful battle against the Iroquois.
June 24: (I)-Jesse Fleche, who died 1611, is the first recorded Roman Catholic Missionary in Canada working among the MicMac or Mi’-Kmaq. It is noteworthy that La mic-mac is a racist term in Quebec. It means tricky, a small intrigue, a mess. These indigenous Maritime Peoples prefer the term Mi-Kmaq or MiKmaq likely derived from ni’-kmaq meaning kinfolk.
June 28: In Port Royal, the French consider it a delight to engage in trade and make such a handsome profit. Beaver and other skins should total 8,000 livres this year.
(I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts, (1558-1628) is financially ruined, and sold his proprietary rights to the Jesuits.
The savages at Port Royal can canoe to Kebec in 10-12 days, much faster than by the French in their boats.
July 5: (I)-John Guy (d-1629) is appointed Governor of Newfoundland, and his brother (I)-Phillip Guy founded an English trading post at Cupers (Cupids) Cove near St. John’s, Newfoundland, known as the Sea Forest Plantation, in August. It originally started with 39 members, peaked at 60 and then declined. The colony, however, lasted until the1630′s.
August 3: (I)-Henry Hudson entered Hudson Bay and sailed into James Bay where he decided to winter.
August 8: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed Kebec for France, leaving 16 men under command of (I)-Jean de Godet du Parc (d-1627).
Anti-coton, a sarcastic pamphlet is published attacking the Jesuit especially Father Coton, the confessor to King Henry IV, who is executed by the Jesuit or so it is claimed. This and other attacks on the Jesuit is circulating also in Canada.
December 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Monts Trading Company, who is well over forty years old, married Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645) age eleven (some say 12) died December 20, 1654 France, a Protestant and later conversion to Catholic and entered the convent, and daughter of Nicholas Boulle and Margueritte Alix of St. Germain I’Auxerrois, France. This child bride would visit New France from 1619 to 1623Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645), but basically deserted him. Some suggest (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was a homosexual and that suited Helene Bouille (Boulle), (1598-1645). She had run away just before her marriage not wanting to marry that old man.
Population of Kebec 16 French + 1 Huron
(I)-Jean Bacheland from Dieppe, Normandy, a Huguenot, is at Port Royal this year and in Acadia in 1612.
(I)-Bouvier, a competitor of the de Monts Trading Company, sent one of his boys to live among the Algonquin when (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sent (I)-Nicolas de Vignau among the Huron (some say Algonquin). It is noteworthy the the Huron were subordinate to the Algonquin Nation, both in numbers and influence. The Algonquin had previously soundly defeated the more aggressive Iroquois Nation, or so claimed the Iroquois. The Huron (Wendat), an Iroquois speaking Nation, and the Algonquin Nations were friendly neighbors. (I)-Bouvier a merchant was trading the Sault St. Louis, Acadia this year.
(I)-Etienne Brule was an intermediary for the Hurons, since 1611
(I)-Nicolas de Vignau claimed to have explored the Ottawa River to the North Sea (Hudson Bay) and seen the wreckage of an English ship where 8880 English had been killed by the Indians. The Algonkins said he was lying as he had spent the winter with them so he retracted his story. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) doubted his story from the start and forced (I)-Nicolas de Vignau to prove it in 1613.
The savages of Saint John called the French Normans, except the Malouins which they called Samaricois. They call the Basques the Bascua. The Port Royal colony only consisted of 22 men including the two Jesuits Masse and Biard.
The Company of Associates (Rouen Associates) withdrew from the New France fur trade.
The first use of the term Eskimos is by a Jesuit missionary, but not so in the technical sense as Richard Hakluyt, in 1584, used the word Esquimawes, writing about colonizing eastern North America, but it was not published until 1877. Eskimo, however, is from an Algonkian word, believed from the Abnaki meaning “eaters of raw fish”. The Eskimo prefer the word Inuit; meaning people or men that they call themselves.
The Rochelle men refused to join the Company of Associates and continued on with their illicit trade in New France. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) accused the merchants of selling arms and ammunition to the natives, exciting their hostility against the Kebec Company.
(I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Pointrincourt (1557-1615) returned to France leaving his son in command.
Monlina Perez was sent to deal with the English at Jamestown but is capture and Spain is forced to accept the presence of the English in Spanish Virginia.
The Hollanders stopped at Cap de La Heve to take on fresh water, the savages who were friendly to the French, captured 6 including the captain of the ship.
The Grand Sault Rapids were named this year Sault St. Louis after Louis who drowned while trying to run the rapids.
The Jesuits planted apple trees in Acadia 1611 to 1613.
May 21: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived in Kebec from France and traveled as far as the Lachine Rapids, choosing Point Callieres Hochelaga as the site for future Montreal.
May 22: The (I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Poutrincourt’s (1557-1615) party reached Port Royal. The first letter from Port Royal, New France to France is by the Jesuits (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622) and (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646). Timber is being exported from New France. By the fall, the Jesuit are clashing with (II)-Charles de Biencourt de Poutrincourt de Saint Just (1591-1623). Father Biard accused (I)-Charles de Biencourt (1591-1623) as being selfish and materialistic. The Jesuits are asked to leave the colony, and they, in turn, excommunicated members of the colony. The Jesuits, in July of 1613, leave to establish a religious colony on the Maine coast, but are captured by the British and returned to France. It is noteworthy that no one in Fort Kebec would receive the Jesuit in the future, save the Recollect fathers.
June 12: (I)-Hudson began his return voyage to England but his ship became locked in the ice.
June 13: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633), having been living with the Algoumequins (Algonquins), encountered (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) near the Lachine Rapids on his way to Kabec with 200 Huron to trade. Brule had learned to speak the language fluently. He immediately departed to go live with the Wendat (Huron). Many more from the small colony would follow (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) such as (I)-Duvernais, (I)-Demerais and (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642). These French would travel with the Huron into the great Lakes region to the west. (I)-Jean Nicolet would travel to the Illinoise.
June 24: (I)-Henry Hudson -an inept captain, first mate Robert Juet- a thug, John King quartermaster- a troublemaker, Abacuck Prickett- a haberdasher, and a rogue named Henry Greene, aboard the Discovery, sailed for the Bay of the North (Hudson from James Bays). His mate, Robert Juet, rebelled and is thrown in irons. Robert Bylot is promoted to mate, but later demoted. They are forced to winter in Ruperts Bay. John Williams is the first to die. An Indian traded a pair of beaver hides, initiating the Bay’s first known fur trade. The carpenter, Philip Staffe, is promoted to mate even though he could neither read nor write. William Wilson, Henry Greene and Rupert Juet organized a mutiny and forced (I)-Hudson, his son (II)-John and six seamen, including (I)-Staffe, into a scallop and cast them off. They are believed to have perished on or near Danby Island, James Bay. The crew, upon returning to England, is acquitted of murder and not charged with mutiny.
July 20: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed Kebec for France.
Population of Kebec 16 French
The French explorer (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes this year. Etienne Brule (1592-1632) explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. He probably was the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania.
The Company of Rouen and St. Malo established a far sweeping rule, prohibiting settlers of New France from trading with the Indians. A hundred year tradition of free trade between Europeans and American Natives is violated. More fundamental is the violation of ten thousand years of free trade tradition in the Americas. Trade Control is systemic in design to give power and authority to a few selected people. It tends to perpetuate poor leadership. It also discourages innovation and adaptation.
The Forbans (banished ones, outlaws or pirates) harassed the fishing fleet off Newfoundland. One thousand and eighty men were captured and carried off by force into slavery, between 1612-1620. The bulk of the English and French slave trade was Turkish pirates.
Peter Easton used Harbor Grace, Newfoundland as a base for his ten-vessel pirate fleet. He plundered 30 English ships in St. John’s harbor and raided French and Portuguese ships at Ferryland.
(I)-Nicholas de Vignau reports to (I)-Samuel de Champlain, that he discovered an English shipwreck in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) this season. The Natives claim he is a liar and eventually he confesses.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant New France, recorded Basque fishermen drying fish 25 km down river from the mouth of the Sagunenay River.
John Davis, being sponsored by London Merchants to mine silver, disappeared and is assumed killed by Inuit or the elements.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) a devout Christian wanted to bring the powerful Jesuit to New France but was rejected.
Thomas Button led an expedition to look for Henry Hudson and find the Northwest Passage and lost a ship in Hudson Bay.
January 26: A supply ship arrived at Port Royal, Acadia with the lay Jesuit (I)-Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) to act as administrator of the mission. Others suggest he was a priest, the paid spy for Madame de Guercheville guised as a colonist. The Jesuits instigated troubles among the colony even going as far as to excommunicate Commandant (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623). As a result Father Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) is expelled from the Colony in disgrace and Commandant (II)-Charles Biencourt set out to prevent the Jesuit from becoming predominant to the Colony.
April 14: Thomas Button (d-1634), a Welshman, for the Company of Merchants, sailed the Discover (Hudsons old ship) back to Hudson’s Bay (Bay of the North) to discover the North West Passage and the whereabouts of the Hudson party.
August 15: Thomas Button (d-1634) reached and camped in the estuary of the Nelson River.
October: John Guy explored Trinity Bay, Newfoundland to establish contact with the Beothuk People.
October 8: King Louis XIII decided to continue the New France venture after the collapse of the de Monts Trading Company. He named his nephew, Charles de Bourbon, Compte de Soisson, as the Lieutenant General in New France and De Champlain as his subordinate lieutenant
November 20: Charles de Bourbon died, and Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, replaced him. He gained the fur trade monopoly over New France and is titled Viceroy of New France. He formed The Rouen and St. Milo Company to manage his business in the New World. Gua De Monts became a stockholder in the Company, Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613), a lay Jesuit, became acting administrator of Missions in New France. (I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts (1558-1628) helped organize the new Company and continued to trade and explore until 1617. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was confirmed in his post but denied the title of Governor.
Population of Kebec 47 French
After the destruction of Port Royal by Samuel Argall and his men this year: (II)-Charles De Saint Etienne De La Tour (1595-1665), (I)-Charles De Biencourt De Poutrincourt (Biencourt), d-1623 remained in Acadia, with a handful of followers to become Coureur Des Bois. They amased a following of about one hundred Natives, whom they trained in the use of firearms. The group would be bolstered by a few French free traders and Basque fishermen, who also gave up their former lifestyle to embrace the democratic laws of the land. Many also married Mi’Kmaq women and raised Metis children, and most of these unions were love matches. The Mi’Knaq had a paternal society in nature but not as extreme as Europe.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) believed that navigation is the most useful because through it, the idolatry of paganism is overthrown and Christianity proclaimed in all parts of the world. This is the major driving force for the creation of New France, a missionary outpost sustained by a commercial base. The governor of this process was French honor (la gloire) and hate of the English.
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1601-1677) is at Kebec this year and was still here as interpreter in 1629. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) (1587-1677) is a long time interpreter for the Montagnais and Algonkin tribes. Tanguay says b-1601 but the Jesuits say b-1587 which is more accurate. He was called the ‘Little King of Tadoussac’ because he reported direct to the King and was not controlled by (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664 Kebec, married Marguerite Langlois b-1611. This is not possible as Marguerite was only 2 years old. See 1624. It is not known when this family arrived but it was before 1621 and they were here until 1629 but are listed in Tanguay but not in his 1929 list of families. They returned 1635 and had more kids. Also see 1609 & 1610
Thomas Dale, an Englishman, commissioned Samuel Argall to destroy the French settlement in the New World. This is not true as Thomas de la Warr (1577-1618) Governor of Virginia is in England at this time and Samuel Argall (1572-1626) is acting Governor. That the French and English were not at war didn’t seem to matter. They first attacked a French post at Mount Desert Island, killing a Jesuit, wounded several settlers, took prisoners and then razed the buildings. Twenty men were away at the time and avoided deportation to Virginia or England. They were later rescued by the French. Others suggest Samuel Argall (1572-1641), a pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, was only fishing when he discovered the French settlement of St. Sauveur on Desert Island and attacked for plunder like a common pirate and only later is commissioned by Virginia to clear Acadia of the French. There appears to be lots of differing opinions concerning this man.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) complained about the numerous free traders who rush through the ice to arrive first into New France to trade secretly with the Natives, vying with one another and thereby driving the price too dearly. The French suggest that greediness of gain causes the merchants of France to set out early to trade in New France, even before the ice is out of the Saint Lawrence River system. This rivalry of secret trading (Free Trade) raises the cost of goods and should be replaced with monopoly control to get the best of the Savages.
The trading ships at Tadoussac, Quebec again exceeded the supply of available furs. (I)-Samuel de Champlain’s (1567-1635) drawing shows a small settlement of (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) which included a barracks for Swiss mercenaries on the island St. Croix in Acadia.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sent two more boys to live among the Huron.
Only 3 Jesuit are in Acadia, brother Duthet is killed along with two other French and four are wounded by the English who also captured the French ship. About 30 survived with one small boat that could hold only 15 men. The English also pillaged and burned Sainte Croix.
The English expel the Jesuits from Acadia.
Pentagoët Bay Acadia was a site where a Jesuit Mission had been established around 1613
Father (I)-Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) of the Jesuit, who arrived Canada January 23, 1612 is killed St. Sauveur this year by the Englishman Captain Samuel Argall (1572-1641), a pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, acting Governor, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company,
(I)-Guillaume Couillard (Coullart) Lespinacy (1591-1663) is settled in Kebec with many others, he would marry August 26, 1621 (II)-Guillemette Hebert, b-1604/06/08, died October 20. 1684, Quebec, daughter (I)-Louis Hebert, d-1627 and Marie Rollet, or savage, or Metis, d-1649. Some suggest he didn’t arrive until 1617. It is suggested he married Marie Rollet in 1621. I think there is some confusion between (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613? *
* (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613 and who Champlain said he was one of the earliest settlers in Kebec. It was him who Champlain trusted the care of his two savage girls who hew considered his daughters, with a promise they would become foster parents until his return, being sent to France by the English. It is said (I)-William is a son-in-law to Madame Hebert. Some say Louise Couillard b-1625 is his daughter.
The English Captain Samuel Argal (1572-1626) acting Governor Virginia and ex-pirate, came upon the empty Port Royal, plundered it and burnt it to the ground. The French had taken to the woods with no winter provisions or shelter. One Frenchman was surprised that the English had not immediately killed the pernicious Jesuit Father Biard (1567-1622) who was in their custody but it was later determined he led they to Port Royal out of spite.
(I)-John Rolfe, who married Pocahontas, crossed West Indies and Virginia tobacco. He began a major industry for New England, and by 1618 50,000 lbs. of tobacco is being exported to England. The English established free ownership of land; freedom to develop diversified export and encouraged multi-culturalism. The French, in contrast, used the land to bind the people to King and God. They were prohibited in ventures that might compete with France, and multi-culturalism is not allowed.
The Company of Associates (1613-14) included (I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts (1558-1628), Champlain, Thomas Poree, Lucas Legendre, Mathieu Dusterlo and Daniel Boyer. An attempt was made to oust (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), but it failed.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt (1591-1623) and his followers scattering through the woods around the fortifications of Port Royal searching and digging for groundnuts. Groundnuts, Apios americana or Apios tuberosa, is a member of the pea family, and its dark-red or brown flowers resemble those of sweet pea. The Mi’kmaq called them sequbbun and they taste like chestnut.
Sieur de Biencourt de Pointrincourt de Saint Just (1591-1623) stayed in or about Port Royal area living among the Mi’Kmaq People and his friend (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) also lived among the Natives at Penobscot River, Acadia. Charles married a Mi’Kmaq girl 1 st, then 2nd Marie Jacquelin, d-1645; then 3rd, Jeanne Motin, wido of d’Aulnay
March: Lady de Guereheville is determined to establish her own Acadia colony dominated by the Jesuits. She sends her spy the Jesuit Fathers Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) and Quastin with orders to pick up Jesuits Father Enemond Masse (1575-1646) and Father Pierre Biard (1567-1622) from Port Royal. This expedition is under command of Rene De Coq de La Saussaye.
March 6: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), with (I)-Nicholas de Vignau, investigated Vignau’s claim that he had seen a shipwrecked English ship in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) in 1612. Four French and one Indian was on this trip. (I)-Sieur Georges a merchant of La Rochelle, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and (I)-Nicholas de Vignau were named. Vignau would later recant when the Algonquin said he had wintered with them in 1611..
March 12: Rene Le Coq de La Saussaye departed Honfleur for Acadia, arriving on May 16. He sent Antoinette de Pons, Marquise de Guercheville, to stop the discord between (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622) the Jesuit, (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646) Jesuit and (II)-Charles de Biencourt, (1591-1623) commandant Port . This and the following statement is likely not true as their orders are to remove Biard and Masse from Port Acadia.
May 21: Rene Le Coq de La Saussaye expelled (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622), Jesuit, and (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646), Jesuit, from Port Royal, then sailed to Frenchman’s Bay, Maine to establish of Saint Saveur (Sauveur) on Mount Desert Island.
May 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) with (I)-Nicolas de Vignau, sailed to Lachine Rapids then traveled up the Ottawa River. At Allumette Island, the natives denied Vignau’s story. Vignau confessed that he lied in order to have the chance of coming back to Canada.
June: Thomas Button (d-1634) crossed the Bay of the North and erected a cross, naming the area New Wales, as he was a Welshman. They discovered the Churchill River and returned to England in August, not finding a trace of Hudson nor the north west passage.
July 2: Samuel Argall (1572-1641), acting Governor of Virginia and a former pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, is sighted in Frenchman’s Bay, Maine, contesting the French claim to Acadia which included Maine at this time. Argall fired the first shot killing the Jesuit Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) and seriously wounded 4 others and two men were drowned. He captured and plundered the French ship. The colony surrendered and were informed they were on English soil and therefore classified as freebooters and Pirates. He took 15 citizens back to Virginia in chains. He told the citizens to flee in a shallop and find a French fishing ship to return to France. The prisoners were spared execution for piracy because they were in Acadia by French orders.
August: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at St.Malo, France were he deposited his account of his journey in New France along with his maps.
October: The Virginians equipped two ships for war to clear the French from Acadia. Samuel Argall (1572-1641) returned first to the St. Sauveur colony to burn it to the ground. They then sailed to St. Croix Island to steal the French fishermen’s salt supply. Argall had taken the Jesuits Biard and Quantin. It is believed the Jesuit Biard, out of spite, directed the English to Port Royal providing they would kill (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623). Port Royal was empty as the inhabitants are five miles away taking in the harvest. Samuel Argall (1572-1641) ordered his men to plunder and burn the settlement to the ground. Samuel Argall returned to Virginia in November making himself infamous in American Annals. Among their loot was horses which they captured and ate.
November 13: Samuel Argall (1572-1641), acting Governor of Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, conducted a campaign of terror against the French Acadian settlements of Saint Saveur (Maine), Port Royal (Nova Scotia) and other French settlements in Acadia. The English reign of terror had begun in America. After this incident, neither England nor France showed much interest in this Acadian region until 1629. (II-Charles Biencourt de Saint Just (1591-1623), would, however, re-establish the settlement? The infamous Samuel Argall (1572-1641) was considered a tyrannical, autocratic man who vented himself not only on the French, the savages but even his own people. This harsh attitude would infect Virginia for years to come. This evil man was knighted in 1623 and promoted to admiral in 1625. The implication is that England were by their actions an evil culture.
The Acadian colonies fled into the interior, some making their way to the St. Lawrence and some joining the Indians to create a unique Acadian Metis culture. Very few returned to France that had no interest in defending their rights.
(I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Pointrincourt (1557-1615) abandoned any future Acadia activities blaming the Jesuits for the destruction of Acadia.
(I)-Claude La Tour, (1570-1736+) the elder, a Huguenot lost his Fort at Pemboect, Acadia.
Population of Kebec 47 French
(II)-Anne Martin, Possible Metis, b-1614, died December 4, 1683 Quebec daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage Marguerite Langlois, b-1611? not possible; married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 an Englishman.. Some suggest she was born March 23, 1621 in La Rochelle, Charente Maritime, France. See 1624. Also see 1609 & 1610
The Company of Associates attempted to oust Champlain. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) formed the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo. The Company agreed to settle six families in Canada each year. He also approached the Recollect order of priests to send four missionaries to Quebec.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623), son of (I)-Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt, (1557-1615) is appointed the Commander Port Royal, Acadia ( Nova Scotia). He was considered as being tactless in his dealings and had violent quarrels with the Jesuit missionaries. This is most likely a Jesuit assessment as they had tried to have him killed by the English.
The fur trade became profitable enough to consider upgrade the trading shacks to a real Fort Kabec.
A visit to Port Royal, Acadian says the colony is in ruins and the settlers are starving.
The English colony at Conception Bay Newfoundland has 60 residents.
Allen Block, a Dutchman discovered The Fresh River aka. Quinnehtukgut the soon to become New Holland.
The Dutch trading post is established close to the city of Albany, on Castle Island.
Population of Kebec 33 French + 19 Huron
Peter Easton, a forban (pirate) from 1602 to 1615, is considered the King of the Pirates with 10 ships under his command. He was considered the master of the seas. He imposed a levy, the first regular tax on fishing vessels to America. He destroyed a Basque fleet, intent on capturing his Harbor Grace Fort. He attacked the Spanish shipping in the Caribbean, raided Puerto Rico and captured the Spanish plate fleet in 1614. He is eventually pardoned by King James, abandons his Newfoundland base, buys a castle and becomes Marquis of Savoy- living in luxury.
(I)-Jacques Hertel d-1658, some suggest he died August 10, 1651, arrived Canada this year, became an interpreter and took refuge among the savages when Kebec was taken..
The Recollets established Ste Marie mission among the Hurons. The French had named them Huron as an insult, meaning wild boar’s head or lout. They called themselves Wendat. It was common practice to ask tribes to name their enemies so as to record these insulting names.
The French learned survival skills from the Natives, including the use of the canoe, snowshoe, toboggan, moccasin and Native foods. They also taught the French agricultural methods, including cultivation of maize, beans, pumpkin and squash. It is noteworthy that the Native farmers of the Americas developed over half of the cultivated crops of the world. They showed them how to make maple sugar and to gather wild berries; especially blueberries. The Algonquian, however, still would not allow the French access to the Ottawa River. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo, learned that the tribe control was done by the women, that the children are of the mother’s clan and that inheritance of possessions and power is through the females. After all this hospitality, the French still consider the Natives savage.
Some believe that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) first met the Ojibwa in Georgian Bay on this expedition. It is also interesting to note that Basque fishermen have been aware of Lake Ontario since the middle of last century. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) made note of the fields of corn in Georgia Bay.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo, petitioned the Algonquian high council to lift the four-year travel restriction on the Ottawa River. The Algonquian council met and after long debate, compromised and allowed the Wendat (Huron) to trade down river to Fort Kebec (Quebec) and allowed the French, on payment of a toll, restricted passage up the Ottawa river. This decision pleased the Wendat, as it ensured their historic trading position. The Algonquian, as a show of good faith, conducted (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to Lakes Huron and Ontario, as well as the Wendat settlement of Cahiague.
Champlain helped to create war between the Wendat and Iroquois, not only to make them love us more, but to pave the way for exploration that would require the Wendat help. If peace remains between the two, the Iroquois will lead the Wendat to trade with the Dutch.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), upon seeing a Huron (Wendat), is fascinated when he discovers a very complex and fascinating society. The City of Cahiague, located on Lake Huron, has two hundred wooden buildings, some of which are as long as two hundred feet. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) noted that the protection of the city is by triple palisades, thirty feet high. Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635) presumed he is the first European to see these sights, and he marveled at their splendor. This is hard to believe, as at least four Coureurs des Bois had spent years in this region and further west. Even the priests are aware that a Frenchman preceded Champlain.
Father (I)-Joseph le Caron (1586-1632), Recollet and Father Jarney, Recollet, established a mission at Three Rivers as it was a historic trading post of the Natives. Father Caron then proceeded to Huron Country and wintered with the Tobacco Nation and adjoining tribes. The Huron village was called Carhagonha (Thunder Bay; later known as Toanche).
The Dutch commenced construction of Fort Amsterdam, New Holland on the River Maurice.
Jews are officially excluded from the territories of New France.
March 15: William Baffin (1584-1622) explored Hudson Straitwest end Southhampton Island and Foxe Channel, then returned to England in the fall.
April 24: The first Recollet missionaries departed France for Kebec. They established a mission at Three Rivers this year.
May 25: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at Tadoussac, Quebec, having left Honfleur on April 24 to learn of the renewed Iroquois retaliation. Father (I)-Joseph le Caron (1586-1632) and Father Jarney also arrived Tadoussac and proceeded to Three Rivers.
June: Having departed Old France April 15, four Recollects, including (I)-Denis Jamet (d-1625), Superior of the mission arrived Fort Quebec. They included one lay brother and three Recollect priests. (I)-Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632), the Recollect, is said to have visited Georgin Bay and the Huron before the Champlain visit. The visit is cordial, but the Recollects are not allowed to return until 1623. The Recollects, with their fanatic religious zeal and lack of religious tolerance, would not be considered as civilized guests. (I)-Gabrial Seguard, a Recollect, is astonished to learn the reaction of the Indians to the French. The Indians see the French as feeble minded because of the hair growing on their face. He also noted that religion and trade do not go well together. Most French traders did not want religion taught to the Indians. The Recollects say the traders hold the beaver in higher regard than their souls. It is noteworthy that the Kebec trading post usually only contains some 50 people. During the winter season it was reduced to some 20 people. They did little farming, only a few vegetables and salad greens.
July 9: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) traveled to Huronia accompanied by ten Indians, and he claims (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) to lend his support to the Huron. It is highly unlikely he traveled without a few of his men. Subsequent events suggest he had at least 14 Frenchmen with him.
August 1: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrives at Huronia and meets up with (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) on Lake Huron. He claims he gave him permission to go to the Andastes, south of Iroquois Country.
August 3: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) guided (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to the village of Carhagonha (10 miles west Penetanguishee, Ontario). There they met Father (I)-Joseph La Caron (1586-1632).
August 12: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and his party left for the village of Cahiague on Lake Simco to plan a campaign against the Onondage of the Iroquois Nation.
August 30: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) departed Cahiague to enlist the aid of the Susquehannahs; a People living south of the Iroquois in Pennsylvania.
September 1: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), with 14 Frenchmen and 500 Huron, departed from Cahiague. They crossed Lake Ontario, entering Iroquois country near Stony Point, New York. They marched toward the Iroquois fort near Syracuse.
September 8: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) departs Lake Simcoe with his Huron guides and goes to Buffalo at the junction of Lakes Erie and Ontario. He went as far as the Susquehanna River.
October 10: The Onondagas, aware Champlain’s invading army, lay in ambush. The fighting lasted for three hours with the Huron receiving the worst of the fight. Champlain withdrew his army the next day and fled for safety.
December 23: The defeated Champlain army returns to Cahiague.
Population of Kebec 64 French
(I)-Claude de Lecoutre dit Lachaisnee de Rouen arrived Kebec this year.
(I)-Louis Hebert while still in France is granted 10 acres of land at Kebec.
The Northern Virginia Company employed John Smith to explore the coast of Northern Virginia (New England) and, this year, his report praised the region. He visited the mouth of the Penobscot River (Maine) which (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) had visited in 1604
France’s North American claims are now known as New France but all areas along the St. Lawrence River and around the Gulf are still commonly called Canada.
The Hugeunot traders in Kebec refuse to supply the Récollets and warn the Indians not to work with them.
The parish Kebecr aka Notre Dame de Kebec is established this year.
January 5: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of Marchands de Rouen, with Father Le Caron, visits the Tabacco Nation, south of Nottawasaga Bay.
March 24: Kebec, death (I)-Michel Colin, who was bury by Father Dolbeau.
March 26: William Baffin explored Ellesmere Island and Baffin Bay.
May 22: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departs Huronia and arrives, on July 11, in Kebec with Le Caron.
June 15: The French opened schools for Indian children at Trois Rivieres and Tadoussac, hoping to convert them to European cultures.
June 17: William Vaughn purchased the Avalon Peninsula where he established a Welsh colony at Trepassby Bay, Newfoundland.
July 15: (I)-Marguerite Vienne arrived Kebec with her husband (not named) and died July 19, 1616, Kebec.
July 20: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of Marchands de Rouen, only spent 9 days in Kebec before departing for France and humiliation.
November 16: France (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort is believed to have traveled to Kebec shortly after his father died this date. It is assume he arrived Kebec 1617.
Population of Kebec 67 French
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort likely arrived this year Kebec.
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1580-1664) arrived Kabec this year. Others suggest it was 1619. (see 1609 & 1610) They say he arrived with wife Marguerite Langlois b-1611 (b-1592) and their child (II)-Anne Martin b-1614 as they were married 1612 but Marguerite claims they were married 1620, Kebec. Tanguay doesn’t list birth place of either party but list second child (II)-Eusiache Martin born 1621, Kebec. Others claim Eusiache was born in France. Some claim Abraham was born 1589, Edinburgh, Scotland son of Jean Martin and Isabelle Cote others claim he was born France. The alleged prize is the Plains of Abraham were named after Abraham. Some claim Marguerite was born 1592 Xiste, Mepelier, France and married 1612 Aunis, France. Others suggest married 1620 France. It is alleged that Champlain in his will dated November 1635, gave Abrahams daughter Marguerite 600 livres in his will, discovered August 1959 by Olga Jurgens , “to help him get married to a man of this country of New France and not otherwise”. This is rather strange as no mention is made of his other daughters. The will could be a forgery, or Marguerite is not the daughter of Abraham, maybe of Champlain himself. It should be noted that Abraham on February 15, 1649 was imprisoned for debauching a girl age 16. Some called him this old pig Abraham. It would appear highly likely that Abraham or his wife Marguerite has savage blood. See 1609 &1624 Marguerite Langlois was born 1611 and not married at that time, she is likely a savage. Also see 1610 to add to the confusion.
Father (I)-Le Caron (1586-1732) became superior of the Recollet in New France replacing Father Jamay. At this time Father Paul Huet, Recollet is at Kebec. Father (I)-Mathieu a Recollet arrived Kebec and went to live among the Huron.
Récollet priest Pacifique Duplessis offers schooling to Indian children.
A marriage between (I)-Stephen Marie Etienne Jonquest de Normandie and (II)-Anne Herbert, died 1619 in childbirth, performed by Father (I)-Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632), is considered one of the first by a Priest. Some suggest this marriage took place 1618.
(I)-Pierre Magnan, baptised 1627, arrived Kebec 1617, is killed by the Iroquois 1627
(I)-Destouches Peronne de Paris arrived Kebec.
(I)-Jean Pinet Desmarets dit Binet was born Kebec 1617 and married Anne Lesong, b-1625, possible Indian? and had one child birth not recorded (II)-Gabrielle Pinet, d-1715 married 1699 Charles Du Buisson.
It is estimated that 1,000 ships a season spent the summer on the Grand Banks, along the North Atlantic Coast, and in the St. Lawrence, fishing or trading for furs. Kebec could only attract one farmer, and they had to trick him to get him to agree to immigrate. He was offered 200 crowns a year, but when he arrived, they said it would only be 100 crowns. He was only allowed to farm in his spare time and had to sell to the Company at controlled prices.
The few colonists had to learn survival skills from the Indians; such as snowshoes, toboggans, canoes and agriculture. In short, how to survive and move around in the hostile Canadian environment.
The Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo would not give settlers the equipment for agriculture. Even (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) had to sell any surplus to the Company at their price. It is noteworthy that Hebert had planted his first crop in Acadia in 1603-1607. The Priests, however, were allowed to do agriculture to teach the savages by example to form a sedentary life. This is an interesting notion, given the savages have been involved in agriculture for some 5,000 years or more. Other accounts suggest the savages were master farmers who taught the French Canadian agriculture. It is very clear that the various New France Fur Companies did not serve the interests of the settlers, but only their own interests. It is also believed the Priests traded in furs.
Three Rivers (Fort Trois Rivieres) is established as a trading post this year.
March 15: (I)-Jean Nicollet (1598-1762) signed on with the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo to go to New France, arriving in1618.
June 14: (I)-Louis Gaston Hebert (1575-1627), a retired Paris chemist, arrived in Tadoussac, Quebec with his wife, (I)-Marie Rollet (1580-1649), and their three Metis children, (II)-Anne, (1607-1618) married 1617, Etienne Jonquest, (II)-Guillaume b-1604, and (II)-Marie Guillemette, b1607: Rollet, epouse May 16, 1629, Guillaume Hubou. . He is considered by many to be one of the first Europeans to arrive with a primary focus on agriculture. He did make note that there were a few small gardens planted by the inhabitants when he arrived. He died from a fall in 1627. They say he cleared a small plot of land 10 acres for cultivation and began raising cattle. Others suggest agriculture didn’t start until 1628 and that Hebert is only allowed to emigrate if he promised not to serve the Natives as (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) didn’t want the Indians hanging around a (drugstore) settlement. It is noteworthy that the Indians taught Hebert the use of Indian herbal medicines. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), however, said he is the first man in Kebec to live on what he grows. It is noteworthy that (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663), at this time, is also classified as farmer. It is noteworthy that Hebert had planted crops in Acadia in 1603-1607. It is suggested that (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is in Acadia (1603-1607), and 1610-1613, a conflict with birth of Guillemette of 1606? Tanguay says birth date is 1606, not 1608 and didn’t date birth of other children? Tanguay tends to indicate that Anne is the youngest possibly born 1607? All is not well with the history of this family? (see 1602)
Population of Kebec 70 French + 1 marriage
Estache (Eustache) Boulle b-1600 arrived Kebec 1618, afterwards surrenders at Quebec November 19, 1629. Estache is the brother of Helen Boulle wife of Champlain.
Father (I)-Joseph le Caron (1586-1632) wishing to work among the Natives turned over the function of superior to Father d’Olbeau and went to work with the Montagnis at Tadoussac.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo returned to New France for a brief visit before returning to France.
De La Mothe is in Kebec this year.
(I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) arrived in New France but is back in France on May 10, 1619 and returned 1620.
(I)-Eustache Boulle, b-1600 and brother of Hellna Boulle, wife of Champlain arrived Kebec.
De Lamothe is recorded in Kebec.
(I)-Jean Nicolet, (1598-1642) an interpreter arrived Kebec, it is said he was a man of a happy nature with an excellent memory.
The first know marriage by a priest in New France is between (I)-Joseph Marie Etienne Jonquet de Normandie marriage in Kebec to (II)-Anne Hebert, Metis, b-1607, died 1619 in childbirth, daughter (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1627) and Marie Rollet d-1649. (See 1602)
Port Royal, Acadia is abandoned and the colony was converted to Cape Fourchu (Port La Tour)
(I)-Modestre Guines a Recollet is at Tadoussac this year.
March 20: The paper was finally created to support the verbal authority for the Recollet to create a mission in New France that included Father (I)-Joseph le Caron (1586-1632) and three other Recollets. It is noteworthy that the Recollets arrived New France 1615.
Population of Kebec 80 French + 1 birth
(I)-Gaspard Boucher married Nicole Lemaine (Lemoine).and had one son (II)-Pierre Boucher some say born before August 1, 1622 Montagne, Perche France? he was Governor Trois Rivers, Kebec.
(II)-a child is born this year at Kabec, child of (I)-Joseph Marie Etienne Jonquest of Normandie and (II)-Ann Hebert, Metis,.b-1607 or, died 1619.
Kebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) married (II)-Marie Guillaumette Herbert, daughter of (I)-Louis Herbert, (1575-1627) and (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649), some say they married 1621.
Tadoussac, marriage (likely 1609) (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) and Montagnais Woman or Women and they had a number of Metis children. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) likely also country married and likely also had a number of Metis children about the same time. There is little doubt that these men had the first recorded New France families and their children were Metis. Some consider (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) as the first New France family but this is highly unlikely.
The beauty of the native women, which none could resist, and which kindled the fires of youth in the veins of age.
Other families in Kebec claimed to be at this time are recorded on the monument to (I)-Louis Hebert, (1575-1627). This list however is full of errors as noted: Tanguay only lists four families in Kebec in 1629 namely: Jonquest – Couillard – Hubou and Hebert.
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) married 1613 France (not possible he was in Kebec at this time) or Anne b-1614 is Metis (likely arrived Quebec 1621?) married to (I)-Marguerite Langlois b-1611, epouse February 17, 1665 Rene Branche, They had 3 children born Kebec to 1627 and many more after 1635.. Tanguay is wrong on this one, she is likely savage see 1609 – 1610 & 1624
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677), married 1636 to (I)-Marie Le Barbier b-1619
(I)-Nicolas Pivert married after 1629 to (I)-Marguerite Lesage, died November 29, 1643.
(I)-Pierre Desportes married to Francoise Langlois, (not listed Tanguay)
(I)-Etienne Jonquest married 1618 to (II)-Anne Herbert daughter (I)-Louis Herbert, ( 1575- 1627) and (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649)
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) married 1637 to (II)-Louise Couillard (1625-1641) daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) married 1621 to (II)-Marie Guillaumette Herbert (1608-1684). Oliver is believed to have come to Kebec as a young boy.
(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642), arrived Kebec 1618, 1st married 1620-1631? a Nipissing savage, 2nd married 1637 to (II)-Marguerite Couillard daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) and (II)-Marie Guillaumette Herbert,
(I)-Noel Morin (1616-1680) married 1640 to Helene Des Portes, veuve Guillaume Herbert, daughter Pierre Des Portes and Francoise Langlois.
(I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1684) married 1634 to Francoise Garnier (Grenier) d-1665
(I)-Guillaume Hubou married 1629 to (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649), epouse 1602 France, (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627)
(I)-William Couillard, arrived Kebec 1613, he and his wife took care of Champlains savages that he considered as daughters, during the English occupation.
The passenger list of 80 New Settlers sponsored by Henri de Montmorenct to Kebec in 1619 are:
(I)-Robert Anet (Anest), Tanguay has his birth date as 1616 an obvious error, married 1645 Elisabeth Ratte (Lerat) and had a son (II)-Jacques Anest (1646-1696) who settled La Durantay, Quebec and married Marie Anne Bourgeous (Dalonne) the daughter Antoine Bourgeous and Marie Bloquet; 2nd marriage Marie Dhallon; Marie Anne epouse April 19, 1694 St Michel Pierre Hublee.
Claude Aubert, Tanguay has his birth date as 1614 an obvious error, his future wife born 1612, his first son named Felix b-1642?
(I)-Felix Aubert, this is likely Francois Auber married Anne Fauconnier English
(I)-Charles Belanger, b-1612, married Kebec 1637 (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696)
(I)-Francois Belanger, b-1612 likely son Charles Belanger; married (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696)
(I)-Jean Guyon Bisson, died May 3, 1663, Quebec, married 1620 Mathurine Robin, died April 17, 1662 Quebec.
(I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671), married 1625 Julienne Barry, one child recorded (II)-Francois Boucher b-1626
Zacharie Cloutier, b-1589, married to Xaintes Du Pont (1596-1680) widow Michel Lermusier, she arrived August 8, 1634
Mace Gravel Bindeliere
Jean Guyon, possibly (I)-Jean Guton (Guyon) (Dion) dit du Buisson (1592-1663)??
Louis Francois Herert
Les Heriters Jolliet
Charles La Francois
Claude Bouchard D’Orval
Pierre St. Denis
Oliver Le Tardiff (1601-1665)
Toussaint Toupin du Sault
(I)-Vincent Verdum dit Verdon (1613-1663)
(I)-Jacques Vezina dit Visinat
Pierre Voyer.dit Boyer
Sixty two (62) men landed Kebec, you can be sure that many Metis children were born as a result.
Two French Companies one for fishing and the other for trading on the St. John River, Acadia are established. Three Recollects were assigned to these ventures.
Several Recollects are working on the Baie des Chaleurs and Saint John River, sponsored by Bordeaux merchants. This Company would fold in 1624 and the Recollets would move to Kebec..
The original Acadian inhabitants from 1613 are still living among the Savages having taken Micmac (Mi’kmaq) wives. Acadian settlers came chiefly from the French Provinces of Aunis, Poitou and Saintonage. The Acadian Metis would evolve their own language called Acadian French. Acadian would eventually be spoken on the east coast of Quebec, in New Brunswick, Acadia ( Nova Scotia), Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island and in some communities of the St. Lawrence and the Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The term Acadia was used to describe all these lands including Maine.
Father (I)-Joseph le Caron (1586-1632) is back at Kebec 1619-1622, likely attending to the Orders business.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain’s (1567-1635), Governor (1619-29 & 1633-35), contingent includes 80 persons, including three Recollect Fathers, clerks, officers, craftsmen and field laborers. Some contend that agriculture didn’t commence until much later, but field laborers with their sickles, scythes and spades suggest planting is in progress from the beginning. This colony had millstones, bulls, heifers and sheep, along with all kinds of grain for sowing.
The first recorded Negro slaves were imported into the Americas by the Dutch in Virginia. The European methodology, based on inherent racism, is to first isolate the slaves from their cultural and their traditions, then to instill in them a sense of inferiority using legal, philosophical, religious, biological and scientific rational. Dehumanization is the objective in order to make them powerless by creating a stereotype of thief, liar, simple, suspicious, inefficient, irresponsible, lazy, superstitious, and loose in sexual relations. The patriarchal domination of all women compounded the misery of the slave woman. It is noteworthy that this was the same strategy employed by the Jesuits against the North American Indians and by the Roman Catholic Church, well into the late 20th century in Canada.
(I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) joined the Algonquin on Allumette Island for the next two years, going where ever they went. He was with 400 Algonquin who entered into peace with the Hiroquois.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was a Frenchman who years after his death is remembered by the Savages as he who practiced chastity and continence with respect to women, not so the other Frenchmen in New France who practice immodesties and the debauches of several women.
May 24: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) of the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo arrived in Kebec, staying the summer then departing for France on August 28.
July 7: Kebec, arrival (I)-Helene Bouille (1598-1645) wife of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and stayed for 2-3 years
August 15: Kebec, (I)-Francois Le Blousart Duplessis a noble Briton arrive Kebec, was killed by a rifle September 1, 1649, Kebec.
Population of Kebec 83 French
(I)-Adrien du Chesne (Duchene), a surgeon, from Dieppe arrived Kebec this year. He remained in Kebec with his wife during the English occupation.
Pierre Antoine Pastedechouan a young Montagnais is taken to France for an education in French, Latin and is baptized.
(I)-Abraham Martin dit l’Ecossais, (1589-1664) the father of the bride, (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679) was one of the earliest colonists of the country. Having arrived before 1610, with his wife, he practiced the trade of royal pilot. His presence in New France, during the occupation by the Kirke brothers, between 1629 and 1632, is not unanimous with historians. Some, following Benjamin Sulte, affirm it strongly. Archange Godbout doubts it. Marcel Trudel and Rene Jette are of the opinion that, he and his family returned to France, which seems to be the case if we believe the observations held by Father Le Jeune, in 1632. (II)-Eustache Martin, Metis, b-1621 the eldest son of Abraham and his sister, Marguerite, were baptized respectively in 1621 and 1623, were the second and third children of White men born at Quebec, the first having been their cousin Helene Desportes, born in 1620, to the marriage of Pierre Desportes and Francoise Langlois. See 1609 – 1610 & 1624.
Guers a commission agent of the Duke Montmorency is in Kebec.
Kebec, baptism (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) son (I)-Louis Hebert, Metis (1575-1727) and (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649; married October 1, 1634, Kebec, Helene Desportes .
(I)-Oliver Tardif dit LeTardif, b-1601, died January 28, 1665, Chateau Richer was in the employ of Samuel de Champlain as interpreter to the Huron Nation. Tardif joined forces with Roch Manitouabewich of the Huron Nation as a guide, scout and traveling companion. Roch and his Huron wife later had a child who they named Marie Oliver Sylvestre, b-1626 in honor of Tardif. Tardif adopted the girl so she could receive a Christian education and at 10 years of age, in 1636 was placed with the family of (I)-Guillaume Hubou, d-1653, and Marie Rollet,d-1649, epouse (I)-Louis Herbert.
(I)-Noel Morin aka Morini (1609-1679) (Morini means brown of skin) arrived Kebec 1619 or 1620, married December 27, 1639, Quebec (II)-Helene Desportes (1620-1675) daughter (I)-Pierre Desportes and Francois Langlois.
Most Frenchmen who took Indian wives, this century in New France, did so a la facon du pays (according to Indian customs), regardless of French marriage laws and customs. Unfortunately most were not recorded or their Metis offspring.
The pirates dominated the coast of New France from 1612 to 1620, having stole 40,800 L and 1,080 fur traders and fishermen who were sold into slavery. This is astonishing considering Kebec only has 60-67 colonists at this time. The Hurons are supplying 50-60% of the French furs, and their other major industry for trade is agriculture.
John Nutt of England with his wife and family lived at Torby, Newfoundland. He captured a French fishing boat and became a pirate 1620 to 1623 and then captured two more French ships.
(I)-Jacques Archambault (venu de France avec sa famille) b-1604, died February 15, 1688, Montreal. married 1629 France, Francoise Toureau, sauvageese, b-1600, died December 9, 1663 Montreal. Some suggest Jacques Archambault married January 24, 1629, France, Francois Toureau, b-1600 France, died December 1663. Others suggest he married Francoise Chanveau b-1599 on January 24, 1629 in France. Others suggest 1st married, January 24, 1620, France, Francois Toureau (Touraude) daughter Francois Toueaude and Marthe Noel; 2nd marriage, June 6, 1666, Trois River, Marie Denote. The children attributed to Jacques and Francoise are Anne b-1621, likely Metis, Marie (I), b-1636, Louise, b-1640, Laurent, b-1642, and Marie (2), b-1644. It is reported that Jacques, Francoise and family arrived Quebec 1645. Also see Tanguay for Francois Toureau. As I see it there are three possibilities, 1. Tanguay made an error, 2. There are two Jacques Archambault in New France, 3. Jacques was in New France in 1620 and returned to France then returned to New France in 1645 and had 3 marriages one a country marriage to a sauvageese in 1620. This may account for one child born 1621 and the next child born 1636. It’s possible (I)-Denis Archambault died, August 25, 1651, Montreal, when a canon exploded, and he might be mixed up in this genealogy? Why would Tanguay post this under 1620 and say he came with his family, he had no family at this time? Every time I look at this it gets more messed up. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646. My best guess is we are dealing with more than one Jacques Archambault. The (OMFR) Ontario Metis Family Records identified Francois Toureau (1559-1663) as aboriginal.
The PRDH and Fischer Original, state the family all came from De Lardillière À Dompierre-Sur-Mer, Aunis, France, and Notary Adhemar reports their birth place as France, also.
SHARLENE BELL-HAUSSMANN says:
The first child I have is Jacques born c1629, (no other mention of him, so may have died in France) then Denis born 1630 then Anne I. the last child, of nine, is Marie II born 1644 in France.
Anne Archambault I – Born 1631 France.
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Archambault I, Anne
Naissance 1631/01/01 (Dompierre-sur-Mer, Lardillière)
Décès 1699/07/29 (Montréal)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
inconnue 1678/07/16 1699/07/28 administration civile
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Chauvin dit Sainte-Suzanne, Michel 1647/07/29 1650/09/30
Gervaise, Jean 1654/02/03 1690/03/11
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Naissance 1642/01/10 (Dompierre-sur-Mer, Lardillière)
Décès 1730/04/19 (Pointe-aux-Trembles)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
cultivateur et charpentier 1672/03/03 1693/03/24 agriculture-grande
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Marchand, Catherine 1660/01/07 1713/02/24
Marie Archambault I
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Archambault I, Marie
Naissance 1636/02/24 (Dompierre-sur-Mer)
Décès 1719/08/16 (Pointe-aux-Trembles)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
inconnue 1668/04/26 1702/01/21 agriculture-grande
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Tessier dit Lavigne, UrbainI_ 1648/09/28 1689/03/20
Port La Tour, Acadia, birth Andre Lasner, Metis son Louis Lasnier of Dieppe and Indian woman. Some believe this is the first recorded Metis birth in North America.
(II)-Anne Herbert, died Kebec, 1620, daughter, (I)-Louis Herbert, born 1575, died January 25, 1627, and (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649); was married to (I)-Etienne Jonquit.
There is only sixty-seven official colonists, including women and children, in Fort Kebec (Quebec) at this time. Included are four French Recollects that are an offshoot of the Franciscan. The Franciscan or Minoritie are an old order, being established in 1223. The Franciscans are not popular with the Curia, as they demanded absolute poverty to awaken popular piety and scientific works. The Franciscan established themselves at St. Charles River. These first priests are Father’s Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632), Jean D’Olbeau, Dennis Jamey and Pacifique du Plessis. Father Jean D’Olbeau said the first mass in New France, then removed himself to the Tadoussac Trading Post. Carbon attached himself to the Wendat Nation. This would imply that 15 colonists either died, returned to France or are in the country as free traders?
Kabec begins to fortify their fort.
The free fur traders established a trading post called Palace Royal at Hochelaga (Ville-Marie Montreal). The Catholic Priests would later consider these free traders as having the instincts and morals of pirates. They would call them Coureurs des Bois. The priests would come to believe that free thinking and free trading pose a considerable threat to the fur trade and religious monopoly. Their thinking is consistent with the rising French philosophy of absolutism; one King, one Religion. Because of this absolutism belief, the Church historians largely ignore the contribution of the early Coureurs des Bois in opening up the continent. Unfortunately, they had to glorify some lesser men or claim the glory for themselves. Meanwhile, the Wendat (Huron) are building upon their farming and trading empire and are the major merchant center in New France. They would supply New France with beans and corn. Later tobacco would become a major trade item.
Few European women survived in New England, and the Company of Virginia undertook the recruitment of young and uncorrupted maids for Jamestown. The population of Jamestown, Virginia drops from 1,000 to 866 due to death or abandonment. The English Puritans who seceded from the Church of England exiled in the Netherlands, obtained patent for a settlement near the Hudson River in Southern Virginia. The Mayflower arrived on November 9, 1620 at Cape Cod (Provincetown) harbor. This location is outside Virginia, making their patent useless, so they claimed their own liberty, as none had the power to command them. They established a civil body politic, claiming submission and obedience to just and equal laws. They relocated to Plymouth on December 16 and, by spring, 52 of the 102 died. The Wampanoag Indians showed them how to plant and cultivate corn. They eventually would trade corn for beaver pelts.
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) lived among the Algonquians of Allumette Island on the Ottawa River and Nipissing until 1620-1621. He spent the next 8-9 years(1622-1630/31) with the Algonquin Nipissiriniens at Lake Nipissing.. The French called the Nipissings the Nation des Sorciers. He traveled Green Bay and the Fox and Illinois Rivers. He had his own cabin which likely suggests he had a family. He married likely about 1622-1630) a Nipissing woman b-1610 and had a daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet. Metis, born 1623-1631) and a 2nd marriage October 7, 1737, Kebec, (II)-Marguerite Couillard, Metis, b-1626
Father Joseph de la Roche, a Recollect, became a missionary to Kebec.
The Company of de Caen is created led by the De Caens, Guillaume Robin, Jacques de Troyes and Francois Herve, merchants; Francois de Troyes, chief of Royal Finances at Orleans, Claude le Ragois, receiver general of finance at Limoges; Pierre de Verton, counselor secretary of the King and others.
The first fort to occupy the top of the cliff at Quebec City was the one (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) constructed in 1620. It consisted of a few wooden buildings surrounded by a palisade.
New France begins formal registration of births, marriages and deaths at Kebec. Country marriages are not acknowledged.
The Recollets built a convent and chapel in 1620-1621 on St. Charles River, about one half a French league from Fort Kebec. They named it Notre Dame des Anges (on the site of the future General Hospital).
February 25: (I)-Henri II, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), is appointed Viceroy of New France, and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is confirmed as his lieutenant. He began construction of Fort Saint Louis on the cliff at Fort Kebec (Quebec). Henri II, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Grand Admiral of France, had bought Prince de Conde’s interests, and he established Compagne de Montmorency for la Nouvelle France that gave a trade monopoly to Guillaume William de Caen, a merchant, and Calvinist and his cousin Emary, a naval Captain. He had an eleven-year trade monopoly that required he established six Recollects at Kebec and settle six French families per year. He is told to not annoy the Fathers or any of the Orthodox Christians. The Company of De Caen included Guillaume Robin, Jacques De Troyes, Francois Herve, Francois De Troyes, Claude Le Ragois, Pierre De Verton and others.
May 8: (I)-Helene Boulle born 1598 and married 1610 to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at Kebec with her husband and four women servants.
June 3: The Recollets laid the cornerstone of the first stone church and convent in Kebec, Notre Dame des Anges on the St. Charles river, about 1/2 league from Fort of Kebec.
July 20, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), an employee of The Company of De Caen, arrived in Kebec and began construction of Fort Saint Louis on Cap aux Diamants, on the cliff at Kebec.
August 30: family arrived Quebec, (I)-Abraham Martin, dit I’ecossois (1589-1664) a Scotsman, with 2nd wife Marguerite Langlois b-1611 he married this year in France, (not likely see 1609 – 1610 & 1624) her sister (I)-Francoise Langlois b-1600 who married December 31, 1620, France, (I)-Pierre Desportes, b-1600 and daughter (II)-Anne Martin. It is noteworthy that the Plains of Abraham is named after Martin. (I)- Pierre Desportes, b-1600 married December 31, 1620, France (I)- Francoise Langlois (1599-1629). This appears highly unlikely as Francoise was already in Kebec. Others suggest Martin & Desportes arrived Kebec in 1619 or 1620. Some suggest both families stayed in Kebec during the English occupation, while others say they were deported. It is noteworthy that (II)-Helene Desportes (1620-1675) daughter (I)-Pierre Desportes and (I)-Francois Langlois arrived this date, this year so it not likely they were married in December this year in France. This conflicting information could suggest Francois might be Indian or Metis?? Some suggest Tanguay made an error and (II)-Helene Desportes was b-1601?
August 30: Kebec (II)-Anne Martin (1614-1684) arrived with father (I)-Abraham Martin, a Frenchman and stepmother Marguerite Langlois, a shipmate aboard the Le Sallemande. Her biological mother was Guillemette Couillard. Anne married 1636 Kebec, Jean Cote d-1661, who arrived Kebec July 20, 1635.
November 8: Henri, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Viceroy of New France, bought the Prince de Conde’s commercial interests and established the Compagnie de Montmorency pour la Nouvelle France which gave a monopoly to Guillaume de Caen and his cousin Emery.
December: Gape Cod, the colonists discovered a corpse with blond hair and assumed he was from a French shipwreck a few years earlier.