A History of French Canada 1670 to 1699

Disclosure

We are very pleased to be one of the few sites offering fully searchable versions of Cyprien Tanguay’s Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Canadiennes and related research. These documents provide authoritative historical evidence regarding the individuals who settled French Canada and are referred to in this document.

We strongly recommend using the Tanguay texts in your genealogical efforts.


Note: Several ManyRoads readers have questioned the accuracy of some of the Metis claims presented in this document by Mr. Garneau. Should you have evidence that you would like to refute the veracity and accuracy of any claims made by Mr. Garneau, which you would like us to publish on ManyRoads, please contact us directly with a copy of your “draft publication(s)”.

We are happy to present all relevant information here, in the interest of fairness, full disclosure and accuracy.

The following material is written by: R.D. (Dick) Garneau, who is solely responsible for its accuracy.

1670

From 1670 on, permanent residents were called Canadians or French Canadians.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1670 and entered into contract of marriage

Marie Angelier, married Vivien Rochereau, Vivien

Denise Anthoine, married Laurent Buy, Laurent dit Lavergne, said his name is Lavergne; 2nd marriage 1704 Mathurin Banlier dit Laperle, saaid his name is Laperle

Élisabeth Aubert, b-1646, married Aubin Lambert, Aubin dit Champagne

Jacqueline Aubry, married Antoine Gros dit Laviolette, said said his name is Laviolette; 2nd marriage 1689 Guillaume Denoyon,

Isabella Aupe, married Pierre De Lavoie

Frances Baiselat, married Laurent Cambin dit Larivière, said his name is Lariviere; 2nd marriage 1670 Pierre-François Marsan dit Lapierre, said his name is Lapierre; 3rd marriage 1693 André Corbeil dit Tranchemontagne, said his name is Tranchemontagne,

Joan Barber, married Julien Plumereau dit Latreille, said his name is Latreille; 2nd marriage 1681 François Blain,

Mary Baril, married François Sauvin dit Larose, said his name is Larose,

Martha Frances Barton, married Joseph Knight,

Marguerite Berger, married Charles Courtois,

Mary Besche, married Pierre Chaperon,

Catherine Billot, married Urbain Jagot

Genevieve Billot, married Jean Denis

Margaret Binaudière, married Symphorien Rousseau; 2nd marriage 1688 Claude Guyon,

Mary Birard, married Pierre Pivin dit Larécompense, said his name is Larécompense,

Jeanne Boucault, (illegitimate child, Jacques b-1668), married Louis Colombe, b-1641

Francoise Bourgeois, (illegitimate child, Frances Vignaux b- 1670), married Paul Vignault (Vignaux) dit Laverdure, said his name is Laverdure

Marie Briere, married Jean Guay; 2nd marriage 1678 Martin Gueudon,

Brisette, Marie (arrived 1670) not married this year

Catherine Bruneau, (illegitimate child, Mary-Anne b-about 1685), married Jean Monin,

Margaret Bulte, married Jean Robitaille,

Mary Buot, married Pierre Martin

Mary Campion, married Mathurin Dubé,

Marie Carlier, Married René Fezeret,

Nicole Chandoiseau, married Étienne Benoît dit Lajeunesse, said his name is Lajeunesse; 2nd marriage 1698 Pierre Gour dit Lavigne, said his name is Lavigne,

Joan Chartier, married Thècle-Cornélius Aubry dit Tècle, said his name is Tecle,

Margaret Chemereau, married Jean Piet dit Trempe, said his name is Trempe

Suzanne Chevalier, married Robert Foubert dit Lacroix, said his name is Lacroix; 2nd marriage 1684 Jean Maranda,

Madeleine Chretien, married Pierre Chicoine; 2nd marriage Louis-Odet De Piercot,

Mary Chretien, married Paul Perrault dit Lagorce, said his name is Lagorce

Marie-Rose Colin, ,married François Deguire dit Larose, said his name is Larose,

Margaret Collet, married Jacques Bissonnet dit Dechaumaux, said his name is Dechaumaux

Isabelle Couturier, married François Chantelou,

Michelle De Lahaye, married Étienne Pothier; 2nd marriage 1690 Stephan Lair,

Madeleine Delaunay, married Pierre Guillet dit Lajeunesse,said his name is Lajeunesse

Margaret De Nevelet, married Abraham Bouat,

Mary Denoyon, married Charles Davenne,

Marie-Madeleine Deschamps, (arrived 1670) not married this year

Margaret Deshayes, married Pierre Ménard dit Saintonge, said his name is Saintonge

Madeleine Després, b-1653, married Nicolas Audet dit Lapointe, said his name is Lapointe

Catherine Doribeau, married Jacuqes Genest dit Labarre, said his name is Labarre,

Marie Dubois, b-1642, married Michel Brouillet dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette

Jeanne Ducorps, said her names is Leduc, married Martin Massé,

Mary Ducoudray, married François Grenet,

Joan Dufossé, married Louis Doré,

Elizabeth Durand, (arrived 1670) not married this year

Francoise Durand, b-1651, married 1671Jacques Beaudouin (Beaudoin),

Margaret Dusson, married Jean Lavallée dit Petit-Jean, said his name is Petit-Jean; 2nd marriage 1694 Charles Vanet dit Le Parisien, said his name is Le Parisien,

Margaret Evin, married Pierre Richard,

Anne Fayet, married René Siret,

Anne Foubert, married Pierre Boisseau,

Catherine Fourier, married Mathurin Mercadier; 2nd marriage Jean Bousquet; 3rd marriage 1712 François Martin dit Langevin, said his name is Langevin,

Joan Fressel, b-1653 married Étienne (Stephen) Jacob

Louise Fro, married Julien Meunier

Anne Galet, married Sylvain Veau,

Anne Galet, married Michel Hébert dit Laverdure, said his name is Laverdure

Anne Geoffroy, married Charles Flibot

Anne Gilles, married François Fleury; 2nd marriage1689 Rebé Dumas dit Rencontre, said his name is Rencontre; 3rd marriage 1704 Pierre Galet dit Laliberté, said his name is Laliberté

Marie-Madeleine Gobert, married Pierre Groleau,

Elizabeth Godillon, married Léonard Ethier

Mary Grandin, married Jean Beaudet,

Mary Grandin, Mary, married Michel Morel; 2nd marriage 1672 Claude Robillard,

Marceline Graton, married Pierre Toupin dit Lapierre, said his name is Lapierre; 2nd marriage 1710 Vincemt Brunet

Anne Grimbault, married Jean Jouanne; 2nd marriage 1691 Claude Desportes,

Joan Gruaux, married Jean René; 2nd marriage 1674 Jacques Pigeon,

Catherine Guerard, married Julien Dubord dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine,

Marie-Madeleine Hebert, married Denis Brosseau

Margaret Housseau, married Jean Meunier

Marie Hubert, b-1655 married Hicolas Fournier

Catherine Humelot, married Jacques Hardy,

Elizabeth Jossard, married Jean-Baptiste De Poitiers Sieur du Buisson,

Jacqueline Labbe, married Mathurin Colin dit Laliberté, said his name is Laliberté

Marie-Anne Lafontaine, married Martin Dalleray

Anne Lagou, married Pierre Vallière; 2nd marriage Rémi Dupil,

Margaret Lamain, married Michel Rognon dit Laroche, said his name is Laroche; 2nd marriage 1685 Mercier Pierre

Joan Lecoq, married Guillaume Dubeau; 2nd marriage 1672, Martin Moreau,; 3rd marriage Jean Fortunat dit Laverdure, said his name is Laverdure,

Elizabeth Agnes Lefebvre, married François Thibault,

Marie Lefebvre, married Louis Guibault, dit Grandbois, says his name is Grandbois; 2nd marriage Pierre Gendras,

Marie-Anne Lelong, married Joseph Bonneau dit Labécasse, said his name is Labecasse,

Catherine Leroux, married René Goulet,

Claire Levieux, said her name is Dove, married Pierre Neveu,

Marie Malo, married Jacques Brin dit La Pensée, said his name is Pensée

Mary Elizabeth Marchand, married Pierre Coeur dit Jolicoeur, lsaid his name is Jolicoeur

Madeleine Marechal, married Pierre Poupardeau

Joan Marie, married François Vézina,

Anne Masson, married Robert Galien,

Agathe Merlin, married Jean Loriot,

Marie-Louise Michaud, married Jean Daniau dit Laprise, said his name is Laprise

François Michel married Gilles Dupont; 2nd marriage Paul Hubert

Marguerite Moreau, married André Morin,

Margaret Frances Moreau, married Mathieu Faye dit Lafayette, said his name is Lafayette; 2nd marriage Jean Lefort, dit Laprairie, said his name is Laprairie,

Navaron, Marie (arrived 1670) not married this year.

Marie-Madeleine Normand, married Alphonse Morin dit Valcour, said his name is Valcour

Anne Ollery, married Thomas Frérot, Sieur de Lachenaye, Kid brother, Thomas, Sieur de Lachenaye

Margaret Paquet, married Francois Biville dit Le Picard, said his name is Le Picard; 2nd marriage 1676 Bernard Gonthier,

Perrette Parema, married François Lory dit Gargot, said his name is Gargot

Marie-Marthe Payan, married Mathurin Corneau,

Frances Pednel, married Maurice Arrivé,

Louise Petit, married Charles Delaurice dit Jambon, said his name is Jambon

Marie-Madeleine Plouard, married Jacques Viau dit Lespérance, said his name is Lesperance

Anne Poitron, (Ouestnorouest ?) married Pierre Martin; 2nd marriage 1674 Jean Verger dit Desjardins, said his name is Desjardins,

Marie Pothier, married Élie Prévost dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette

Marie Prevost, married Michel Aubin,

Margaret Provost, married Jacques Venne; 2nd marriage Étienne Forestier dit Lafortune, said his name is Lafortune,

Joan Raimbault, married Étienne Raimbault,

Margaret Raisin, married Bernard Deniger dit Sanssoucy, said his name is Sanssoucy

Martha Raudy, (arrived 1670) not married this year

Mary Renaud, married Charles Petit,

Anne-Francoise Richard, said her name is Martin, married Pierre Campagna,

Georgette Richer, married François Dupuis,

Joan Rossignol, said her name is Grossonneau, married Charles Petit; 2nd marriage 1674 Jean Forget; 3rd marriage 1676 Urbain Fouquereau; 4th marriage 1704 François Huard dit Laliberté, said his name is Laliberté,

Aimee Roux, married Aimard Tinon dit Desroches, et Deslauriers, said his names were Desroches, and Deslauriers

Anne Roy, married Nicolas Bouchard; 2nd marriage 1685 Claude Guimond,

Joan Roy, married Étienne Bonnet; 2nd marriage 1670 Jean Péladeau dit St-Jean, said his name is St. John,

Marie-Anne Roy, married Mathieu Binet dit Lespérance, says his name is Lesperance; 2nd marriage 1704 Abel Simon,

Isabella Salé, married Jacques Marcot,

Madeleine Theresa Salé, married Claude Raimbault,

Margaret Samson, married Jean Beaugrand dit Champagne, said his name is Champagne,

Joan Savonnet, married Jean Soucy dit Lavigne; 2nd marriage 1679 Damien Bérubé, Damien; 3rd marriage 1692 , François Miville dit LeSuisse, said his name is LeSuisse

Mary Seigneur, married Pierre Sasseville

Catherine Senecal, married Jean Lafond,

Joan Sicard, married Vincent Guillot,

Anne Talbot, married Jean Gareau dit Saintonge, said his name is Saintonge

Martinez Tavrey, married Nicolas Marcot,

Joan Tellier, married Mathurin Gerbert dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine

Marie-Madeleine Thibierge, married Pierre St-Denis,

Noelle Tiremont, married Bernard Bertin dit Languedoc,; 2nd marriage 1673 Pierre Chaperon,

Louise Valet, married René Bisson dit Lépine, says his name is Lepine

Mary Vaqueta, married Guy Dorillard dit St-Jean, said his name is St-Jean

Mary Verger, married Jean Hus,

Joan Vilain, married Mathurin Bernier dit Lamarzelle,; 2nd marriage 1678 Jacques Chevalier,

It was estimated that 600 to 700 births were recorded in New France and Fille du Roi are no longer required.

(I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 country married Louise Sauvagesse., b-1621, two Metis children are recorded, Marie b-1667 and Jean Artaut no birth date given.

(II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married April 18, 1686, Boucherville, Pierre Goguet.

Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson d-1677 left Ville-Marie (Montreal) using (I)-Nicolas Perrot (1644-1717) as interpreter and guide to Sault Ste Marie.

(I)-Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin born June 19, 1665 d-1707, married 1670 / rehabilitated Acadia 1684. 1st married 1670 Mathilde Madokawando; He married a second time 1685, Acadia to Marie Pidiwammiskawa, sister of Mathilde. Their father was Chief Madokawando an Abenaki (1630-1696). It is believed Jean was a philander before settling down. It’s noteworthy he was in Acadia in 1665 and returned July 17, 1670 to live among the natives. Chief Madokawando an Abenaki (1630-1696) gave his three daughters to Vincent to entice him to stay among the Abenaki. Three sisters are (1)-Mathilda – (2)-Pidianske ( Pidi8ammisk8a) and (3)-Melchide de Nicosquone Jean spent most of his time in Pentagouet and Port Royal, Acadia. He became chief of the Abenakis in 1696.

CHILDREN WITH (I)-Mathilde Madokawando; married 1670 (Country liaison)

(II)-Claire Vincent Metis (1671-1744) married 1700 Acadia Paul Meunier

(II)-Anastasie Vincent Metis married December 4, 1707 Port Royal Alexander Leborgne de Belisle son of Alexandre Leborge b-1679 and Marie de St Etienne de la Tour Dec 4 1707 in Pentagouet

Alexandre Leborge Metis b-1708 married Marie LeBlanc in Grand Pre 1731

Two unknown Metis daughters born before 1739 census

Marie-Joseph Leborge Metis b-1711 married 1st Jacques-Philippe Urbain Rondeau; married 2nd Joseph Dupont Duvivier

Catherine Leborge Metis b-1724 Grand Pre

Marie Leborge Metis married 1739 in Port Royal, Francois Robichaud son of Francois and Madeleine Theriot

Francoise Leborge b-1715 married 1737 in Port Royal, Pierre Robichaud son Francois and Madeleine Theriot

CHILDREN WITH (2)-Pidianske aka Pidiwammiskawa ( Pidi8ammisk8a); married 1670 (Country liaison)

(II)-Robardis Vincent Metis b-1671 or 1672, he rejected his European heritage.

(II)-Velda Therese Vincent Metis (married Dec 4, 1707, Acadia Phillippe Minus d’Entiremont son of Jacques Minus and Anne de Saint Etienne de la Tour in Pentagouet

(II)-Unknown Vincent Metis married 1695 Meuneaux dit Chateauneuf; could be from his 1665 liaison with?

(II)-Unknown Vincent Metis married 1695 Philippe Meunier, could be from his 1665 liaison with ?

(II)-Therese Vincent Metis married December 4, 1707 Port Royal, Philippe Mius d’Entremont.

CHILDREN WITH (3) Marie Melchide de Nicosquone married 1684 some suggest 1685 others suggest 1688 however she was the youngest of the three sisters. Some suggest he got religion and settled on one wife in 1684-1685..

(II)-Cecile Vincenr Metis

(II)-Bernard Vincent Metis born October 15,1688, d-1704 entered the Seminary. Godfather was Renaud de Bordenave Jeane’s man servent

(II)-Bernard-Anselme Vincent Metis b-1689 married October 31st 1707 in Port Royal, Charlotte D’Amour de Chauffours. Some suggest he first married Penobscot Abenaki daughter of Chief Madokawando an Abenaki (1630-1696) Anselme became the leader of the First Nation of the Pentagouet Abenaqui tribe in Penobscot after his Father died in 1707

(II)-Francois Xavier Vincent5 Metis

(II)-Anasthasie Vincent Metis

(II)-Joseph Marie Vincent Metis

(II)-Jean-Pierre Vincent b-1692 d-1701 entered the Seminary

(II)-Urseline (Ursule) Vincent Metis b-1696, married 1715 Louis d’Amour de Chauffours

(II)-Bernard Vincent Metis

(II)-Barenos Vincent Metis married around 1725 wife unknown died 1746 of a knife wound received from his nephew who was an Indian.

OTHER CHILDREN likely grandchildren

(III)-Joseph d’Abadie de Saint Castin Metis (1720-1746) married after 1728 wife unknown, he died after 2 March 1751

Louis Gaboury is sent to jail for eating meat during lent.

(I)-Louis Guillaume aka Ondieraguete a Sauvage is baptized this year at Quebec.

(I)-Pierre Martin married likely Bpucherville (II)-Anne Poitron daughter (I)-Pierre Poitron and Jeanne Tiberge, Anne epouse November 12, 1674 la Point-aux-Rrembles de Montreal Jean Verger dit Desjardins

(II)-Catherine Peltier Metis b-1670 daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married November 12 Sorel, Denis Foucault..

The French decision to not send colonists to Canada in 1666 had a profound impact on Canada as Acadia had a population of 400 whereas Massachusetts had a population of 40,000.

One hundred and twenty two marriages, three hundred and eleven births and eighty five deaths are recorded in New France. Some suggest that there are seven hundred births (?) this year in New France and indications that the male to female ratio is beginning to equalize. Some believe that marriages between the French and Native girls could be a useful factor to increase the population. (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694), however reported that they did not bring many children into the world because they nursed them too long. This is from a man who never married and would return to France. The average world wide breast-feeding duration is 4.2 years at this time.

St. Xavier Dez Praiz is a little above Ville-Marie (Montreal) and contains 60 settlers.

Thomas Temple (1615-1674) is forced to return Acadia ( Nova Scotia) to the French, having been in control since 1654. The Acadian population is about 400-500, and they no longer consider themselves French. Besides being composed of French, Micmac, Scottish, Irish, English and Portuguese, they all intermarried and considered themselves Acadians. The Acadians married in their early twenties and had 10-11 children, most of whom survived to adulthood. The population doubled every 20 years, much faster than New France.

Fines in New France are levied on the fathers of unmarried men 20 years old and unmarried girls 16 years old. The Sovereign Council abolished a 10% duty on dry goods and imposed duties on liquor and tobacco.

The Recollect priests are allowed to returned to New France now that the Jesuit had lost their iron grip on the colony. They are the original order, having been displaced by the Jesuit. Louis XIV ordered 100,000 Livres of silver and copper coins minted for use in New France.

The French King established a King’s gift for males who marry before age twenty and females before age sixteen. Three hundred livres to those with ten children, and four hundred livres to those with twelve.

The Northampton County of free Negroes is so successful, they are importing English and African slaves to such an extent that the assembly declared it illegal for a Negro to own a white slave or servant.

It is noted that Montreal has Indian slaves at this time.

The mission Sorel de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Acadia had less than 500 European Settlers after nearly 3/4 century of settlement. Civil war and conflicts with the English prevented and significant settlement.

The word boucaner meaning to dry and smoke meat or fish evolved to mean to hunt on the sea for booty, as a pirate or boucanier. The English changed it to buccaneer.

April: (II)-Louis Garnaud is born April 2, 1670 at L’Ange Gardien son (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue, their second child. French policy is beginning to take hold, as one hundred and fifty King’s girls arrived this year with all married except fifteen, and they are, the officials claimed, with good background and even a little education.

April 25: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Jean Cote, Metis, died March 16, 1739, Quebec son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page; married February 8, 1694, Beauport, Marie Anne Langlois

May 2: King Charles II of England creates the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England (Hudson Bay Company) to trade into the Hudson Bay as proposed by Groseilliers and Radisson. New France is shocked upon learning that Groseilliers and Radisson have led the English so far north to trade in the North Bay.

May 21: Montreal, birth (I)-Michelle Chauvin daughter (I)-Pierre Chauvin (1631-1699) and Marthe Autreuil (1636-1714); Married October 24, 1695, Montreal, Jacques Nepveu; three of Michelle’s children were taken by the savages near Ouabache

June 11: Ste Famille, marriage (I)-Michel Aubin de Tourouve to (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, born December 28. 1647, Quebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Silvestre Manitouabewich, d-1665, Marie un-named 1st marriage

June 11: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Thomas Crevier, Metis son (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648

July 7: Hector d’Andigne de Grandfontaine (1627-1696) signed a treaty of restitution with Thomas Temple (1613-1674), the English Governor of Acadia, at Boston. The English handed over Pentagouet; Jemseg (St. John) on the St. John River; Annapolis Royal (Port Royal); and Fort La Tour.

July 17: Acadia, the ship Saint Sebastien arrived in Pentagoet Bay, Acadia under command of Chadreau de la Clocheterie. There were 40 soldiers Jacques de Chambly, Pierre Joybert (seigneur de Soulanges et de Marson), Sebastien de Villieu), to name a few as well as 13 officers and several gentlemen from the Académie Royale des Sciences who were supposed to help namely Hector d’Andigne, chevalier de Grandfontaine. (I)-Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin was on this ship including his man servant Renaud de Bordenave

August 6: Sorel, birth (III)-Francois Martin Metis son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier. It is noteworthy that this is the first baptismal certificate to the registers of Sorel, Quebec.

Late summer: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) resurfaced in Quebec, claiming to have discovered the Mississippi, which was really absurd given his mental condition the previous year. Some, however, believed him and he was given a commission.

October 7: Quebec birth illegitimate child, Frances Vignaux son Francoise Bourgeois, a Fille du Roi, father unknown, Francoise married November 1670 Paul Vignault (Vignault dit Laverdure,

October 19: Ste Familie, birth (II)-Anne Rate, Metis, died December 25, 1709 Chateau Richer, daughter (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645; 1st married Jacques De Trepagny; 2nd married March 8, 1707 Chateau Richer, Jean Anglais..

November 10: All future Fillies du Roi will be required to have a certificate of place of origin and they are to be free and of a marriageable state. This is required, as 2 or 3 previous girls are known to be of double marriages (bigamous).

November 11: Ste. Familie, birth (II)-Guillaume Lemieux, Metis, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696).

November 11: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, born January 12, 1647, Trois Riveres, died February 19, 1720, la Baie du Febvre and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married (II)-Marie Baudry, b-1650, died December 1, 1734 daughter (I)-Urbain Baudry..

November 14: Sillery, Quebec, birth, (II)-Louis Durand dit Couturier, Metis, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) d’Annannontak Huronne b-1648; 1st marriage September 9, 1698, Quebec, Quebec (II)-Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon b-1682, died May 12, 1718 St. Antoine-Tilly daughter (I)-Oliver Michel; 2nd marriage January 30, 1719 St. Nicolas, Quebec Jeanne Houde, b-1685, died April 5, 1749 Lavaltrie, veuve de Jean Magnan. Catherine 2nd marriage 1672, Jacques Coutourier, b-1646;

November 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Soumande, Metis, died October 30, 1687, Montreal, son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

November 17: Quebec, birth (III)-Daniel Pinguet, Metis, son (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married November 24, 1676 Quebec (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1751.

November 20: Ste Famille, birth (II)-Pierre Aubin, Metis son (I)-Michel Aubin de Tourouve and (II)- Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, b-1647; married Marie Paradis

November 25: Beauport, birth Michel Chevalier, Metis, son Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married January 10, 1695 Beauport, Charlotie Parant.

December 15: Quebec, birth/death (III)-Marie Langlois, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

1671

The population of Acadia numbering 340 is enumerated for its first census. Others suggest Port Royal, Acadia alone numbered 361 souls, 580 cattle, 406 sheep and 364 acres of land under cultivation.

(II)-Etlienne Brault dit Pominville, b-1671 Quebec son (I)-Henry Brault b-1640 and * Claude De Cheurenville dit Lafontaine a fille du roi (1665) who said her name is Lafontaine; 1st married June 8, 1716 Quebec (II)-Marie Louis Palin (1697-1717) daughter (I)-Mathurin Palin dit D’Abonville (1649-1756) and (II)-Louise Renaud. d-1744; 2nd marriage October 15, 1718 Rimoiski, Marguerite Sauvagesse; * Tanguay says she (II)-Claude De Cheurenville is daughter (I)-Jacques De Cheuraineville and Marguerite Bauden. Claude is likely the daughter Lafontaine who drown November 6, 1646 Kebec and was sent back to France for education and possibly a Metis. Henry 2nd marriage August 11, 1692 Quebec (II)-Marie Ursule Bouduc b-1675 epouse August 11, 1700 Levis, Jeam Baptiste Drapeau

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1671 and entered into contract of marriage

Anne Adam, married Jean Poliquin,

Anne Arinart, married Jean Réal; 2nd marriage 1678 Antoine Lefort,

Mary Ariot, married René Vandet

Catherine Auger, (arrived 1671) not married this year

Joan Auger, married Sébastien Nolet dit Larivière, said his name is Lariviere

Madeleine Auvray, married Nicolas Matte, Nicolas

Anne Barillet, married Guy Vacher

Catherine Beaudin, married Pierre Coquin dit La Tournelle, said his name is La Tournelle

Marthe Beauregard, married Gabriel Lemieux

Catherine Beuzelin, married Jean Lonlabard

Joan Blondeau, married René Abraham dit Desmarais, said his name is Desmarais

Antoinette Bluteau, married David Lacroix

Marie-Louise Bolper, b-1652, married François Marceau; 2nd marriage 1687 Gabriel Roger; 3rd marriage 1701 Antoine-Olivier Quiniart dit Duplessis,

Joan Caillé, married Jacques Renouard dit St-Étienne, said his name is St-Etienne

Mary Caille, married Jacques Pepin

Mary Magdalene Canard, married Crespin Thuillier dit La Tour, said his name is La Tour,

Henrietta Cartois, married Michel Audebout dit Belhumeur, said his name is Belhumeur; 2nd marriage 1675 André Patry; 3rd marriage 1702 Jean Coutelet dit La Rochelle, said his name is La Rochelle

Marie-Reine Charpentier, married ouis Prinseau, Louis; 2nd marriage 1681Étienne Domingo dit Carabi, said his name is Carabi

Joan Chevalier, married Guillaume Lecanteur dit Latour; 2nd marriage 1679 Robert Lévesque; 3rd marriage 1701 François Deschamps de La Bouteillerie

Catherine Clerice, married Jacques Lussier

Elizabeth Cretel, married Nicolas Langlois

Mary Croiset, married Jean Laquerre dit Rencontre, said his name is Rencontre; 2nd marriage Pierre Lévesque

Anne Dailly, married Jacques Lesot

Marie De Bérunine, (arrived 1671) not married this year

Nicole De Bonin, married Damien Quatresous

Catherine De La Tour Envoivre, (arrived 1671) not married this year

Madeleine De Roybon D’Alonne, (arrived 1671) not married this year

Jeanne-Marie De Guesnel, married Jean Castineau

Elizabeth De Laguéripière, married Jean De Rainville

Catherine De Lalor, married Louis Badaillac dit Laplante, said his name is Laplante

Diane De La Motte, (arrived 1671) not married this year

Margaret De Laplace, married Pierre. Lesiège dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine; 2nd marriage 1696 Pierre Brébant dit Lecompte, said his name is Lecompte

Joan Languille, married François Allard

Nicole Philippeau, b-1655 married 1671 (I)-Mathurin Gauthier (Gautier) dit Landreville (1643-1711)

Margaret Poignet, said her name is Beauregard, married François Cousson dit Langoumois, said his mame is Langoumois

Madeleine Raclos (Raclot) (1656-1724) married (I)-Nicolas Perrot (1644-1718)

Margaret Sel, m. Contrat Noël,

(II)-Jean Martin, Metis born 1671 son (I)-Pierre Martin and Anne Ouestnorouest; married1696 Madeleine Babin b-1678 daughter Antoine Babin and Marie Mercier

THIRTEEN RECORDED CHILDREN

(III)-Claire Martin, Metis 1697, married Pierre Vinet; 2nd marriage Julien Plessis

(III)-Cecile Martin Metis, b-1698/1704, married 1720 Montreal (I)-Etienne Trunet dit Francoeur (1681-1746)

(III)-Anne Martin, Metis, 1699, married Jean-Baptiste Jehannot

(III)-Marie Josephe Martin, Metis b-1700, married Jean Bourhis

(III)-Isabelle (Elizabeth) Metis, b-1702, married Philibert Pineau

(III)-Marguerite Martin, Metis married Jean Guilton

(III)-Jean-Baptiste Martin, Metis b-1709

(III)- Metis daughter b-1707

(III)-Joseph Martin, Metis b-1713, married Julienne Paul

(III)-Francois Martin, Metis b-1715

(III)-Metis daughter b-1717

(III)-Pierre Martin, Metis b-1722

(III)-Louis Martin, Metis b-1724

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (1644-1718) married Madeleine Raclot, (1656-1724) an orphaned Filles du Roi, of mother. Nicolas was a great explorer of the Upper Mississippi, an interpreter of many languages, a fur trader having formed his own company and commandant and diplomat working out of Green Bay and Mackinac.

RECORDED CHILDREN ARE:

(II)-Nicolas Perrot, b-1674, married Marguerite Bourdeau.

(II)-Michel Perrot b-1677, married 1712, Three Rivers, Francoise Bigot.

(II)-Marie Anne Perrot, b-1681, married 1715 Francois Bigot.

(II)-Pierre Perrot, b-1682 married twice, 2nd time 1718 Marie Anne Lescarbot.

(II)-Claude Perrot, b-1683, married 1714, Marie Goulet.

(II)-Jean Perrot, b-1690, married 1714, Marie Quintin

(II)-Claire Vincent Metis b-1671 daughter (I)- Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin and Mathilde Madokawando; He married a second time 1685, Acadia to Marie Pidiwammiskawa, sister of Mathilde. Their father was Chief Madokawando an Abenaki (1630-1696).

(II)-Anonyme Garnaud is born and died January 29, 1671 at Chateau Richer. (II)-Charles Garnaud is born August 9, 1671 L’Ange Gardien and assumed to have been stillborn. They are both the children of (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue. The population of Acadia is four hundred and forty one.

Virginia passed a law declaring that neither baptism nor conversion could affect a persons bondage or freedom.

St. Lusson

St. Lusson at Sault Ste. Marie, claiming the Ojibwa Nation to the West for France. The People were not amused when they discovered the intention of his act.

Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is ordered by Intendant (I)-Jean Talon to go to the Hudson Bay to verify reports of the presence there of French speaking Europeans in the service of the Hudson Bay Company.

France, already mistress of Acidia and Canada as far as Lake Ontario, took possession of all the regions, discovered or to be discovered, from the Northern Sea to the Southern Sea and from the Western Sea to Lakes Huron and Superior. She appointed herself the exclusive dominion of all North America except the British colonies boarding on the Atlantic and Mexican territories.

Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson, the infamous, on his return to Quebec, called for the seizure of the furs brought back by (I)-Nicholas Perrot (Pere) dit Turbal, a.k.a. Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1717), a freeman ( Coureurs des Bois). Although Perrot was in the employ of the Jesuits or maybe because of his relationship with the Jesuits, this action humbled Perrot, forcing him into debt to his creditors. It was because of Perrot that the French could make claim (although a false claim) on all lands West, North and South of Sault Ste Marie. It was he who brought the fourteen Nations together with the French at Sault Ste Marie on June 4. Nicolas Perrot, this year, married Madeleine Raclos, and like many Coureurs des Bois, settled in Trois Rivers and raised 11 children. He would continue to serve New France in the 1680′s; a true masochist. In 1696 he would retire in poverty with no recognition of his contribution to Canada. He couldn’t even afford paper to complete his memoirs. “Shame on the French Regime”.

March 20: Pointe aux Trembles, birth (II)-Joacqine Francois Lienard Durbois died February 25, 1724 Pointe aux Trenbles son (I)-Sebastien (1628-1701) and (II)-Francoise Pelletier d-1707 veuve Jean Beriau; 1st married Marie Madeleine Arpot Wabanquiquois, resulting in one son (III)-Francois Lienard Metis; 2nd marriage October 16, 1713 Marie Agnes Cormeau resulting in three children..

April 21: Quebec, birth (III)-Jeanne Miville. Metis, daughter, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687); married November 21, 1689, Quebec, Denis Boucher.

May 2: Quebec, birth (II)-Francoise Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married April 21, 1686, St. Thomas, Jacques Boule.

May 31; Quebec, birth (II)-Piere Vachon, Metis, died January 17, 1703 Beauport, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married March 5, 1696 Quebec, Marie Catherine Soulard.

August 6: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jeanne Lefebvre, Metis daughter (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers;

August 12: Three Rivers, Quebec, Julien de la Touche b-1641 at age 30 married (II)-Elizabeth Therese Bertault b-1659 at age 12, daughter (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 and (I)-Gillette Bonne, b-1636. Julien would be murdered in 1672 by (I)-Gillette Bonne and her husband.

September 7: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, arrived Lac Saint Jean where he wintered for his quest to determine the presence of Europeans on the shores of the Northern Bay. He wintered with the Mistassini Peoples.

September 14, Ste Family, birth (II)-Jacques Cordeau, Metis son (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678); married August 22, 1702, Chateau Richer Marguerite Toupin

September 17: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis, daughter, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married November 20, 1684, Ville-Marie (Montreal), (II)-Francois Prudhomme, (1651-1741).

September 27, Quebec, birth (III)-Charles Pelletier, Metis, died October 8, 1713, Quebec, son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); 1st married January 7, 1697 Riviere Ouelle, Therese Ouellet; 2nd marriage January 12, 1711 Riviere Ouelle, Barbe St. Pierre

September 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 to (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1638.

(II)-Louis Gesseron, Metis b-? and (II)-Angelique Gesseron, Metis b-?

October 21: (I)-Jean Talon, Intendant of New France, issued an ordinance compelling bachelors to marry the King’s Girls within 15 days of the arrival of the vessels bringing the women, or be prohibited from fishing, hunting and trading for furs.

November 2: (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) complained that 15 girls (Filles du Roi) of quality arrived in Quebec when only 4 were requested. He said it is difficult to find appropriate matches. (I)-Louis de Bunde, count de Frontenac (1620-1698), would also complain, later this month, that it is difficult to find appropriate matches for ladies of quality. It is not clear if ‘ladies of quality’ means the ability to read and write or of a special social standing. He went on to write that the birth of six to seven hundred babies this year confirmed the fertility of the country. He advised it would not be necessary to send more girls the next year in order for the colonists to more easily give their daughters in marriage.

1672

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;

Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1672 and entered into contract of marriage

Louise Andre, married Nicolas Bossu dit Le Prince,said his name is Prince

Antoinette Bagau, said her name is De Beaurenom, married Pierre Roberge dit Lacroix, lsaid his name is Lacroix

Madeleine Bailly, (illegitimate child, Marie-Jeanne b-1692), married Guillaume Vanier dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine; 2nd marriage 1697 Joseph Fernando

Stephanie Beaudon, married Tugal Cotin,

Renee Biret, married Pierre Balan dit Lacombe, said his name is Lacombe; 2nd marriage Jean Brias dit Latreille, said his name is Latreille; 3rd marriage 1709 François Lavergne,

Anne Blainvillain, married Louis Charbonnier dit St-Laurent, said his name is St-Laurent

Mary Charebert, married Jean Lesieur dit Calot, said his name is Calot; 2nd marriage 1694 Louis Defoy,

Marie-Reine Charpentier, married Louis Prinseau; 2nd marriage 1681 Stephen Domingo dit Carabi, said his name is Carabi

Marie-Marguerite De Provinlieu, married Jean Houssy dit Bellerose et L’Irlande, said his name is Bellerose and Ireland

Marie Deschamps, (see above 1643, 1647 & 1656), married Marin Marais dit Labarre, said his name is Labarre,

Catherine Desenne, married Jean Senécal

Catherine De Valois, married Benoît Laîné dit Leboesme, said his name is Leboesme,

Catherine Ducharme, married Pierre Roy dit St-Lambert, said his name is St-Lambert

Marie-Madeleine Duval, married Jacques Joubert

Michelle Duval, married Pierre Bon dit Lacombe, said his name is Lacombe,

Mary Halay, married ? Pierre Petit, (in France); 2nd marriage 1672 Antoine Augeron,

Suzanne Lacroix, married Jacque Savaria

Jeanne Lecomte, married Oliver De Laroux dit Desroches, said his name is Desroches; 2nd marriage 1677 Julien Averty dit Langevin, said his name is Langevin

Marie Lecomte, married Jacques Habert,

Margaret Lemerle De Hautpré, married Laurent Bory dit Grandmaison, said his name is Grandmaison

Catherine Lemesle, married Pierre Morin

Jeanne-Marie-Anne Liniere, married Louis Aumeau

Catherine Louvet, married Guillaume Brassard

Mary Masseron, married François Marset,

Mary Moitie, married Jean Magnan dit Lespérance, says his name is Lesperance,

Margaret Moutrachy, married Antoine Dupré dit Champagne, said his name is Champagne

Madeleine Papin, married Jacques Cachelièvre

Mary Pechina, married Guillaume Gourault dit La Gaillardise, said his name is Gaillardise

Jeanne Petit, married François Séguin dit Ladéroute, said his name is Ladéroute

Joan Quelvé, married Jean-Baptiste Brassard

Anne Rabady, married Antoine Lécuyer

Jeanne Renard, said her name is Lecointe married Jacques Dion

Margaret Richer, married Jean Verdon

Marie Riviere, married Ratier dit Dubuisson,

Marie-Jeanne Toussaint, married Noël Carpentiertour

Margaret Viard, married Mathurin Bénard dit Lajeunesse, said his name is Lajeunesse; 2nd marriage 1682 Jean Inard dit Provençal, said his name is Provencal; 3rd marriage 1684 Joseph Serran dit L’Espagnol, said his name is L’Espagnol,

(II)-Pierre Charron, Metis, b-1672, New France, son (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married November 4, 1697, Boucherville, Marie Robin.

(I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, married likely Sillery, Quebec Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, Anota, Annanonis, Ananontha, sauvageese, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, Quebec de (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671).

(II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-October 9, 1693 Beauport son (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1684) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) sauvagesse: 1st married most likely 1672, Beauport (II)-Aymee Caron d-October 5, 1685: 2nd marriage December 2, 1686, Beauport, (II)-Genevieve Parent.

Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) and Father Claude Dablon prepared a map of Lac Tracy (Lake Superior) likely based on maps by Etienne Brule’s expedition of 1616 and/or Grosseilliers and Radisson expeditions of 1659-1660 and likely the maps of the Ojibwa People.

Pierre de Saurel de Sorel and wife Jeanne de Giraud is granted the seigneury of Sorel, Quebec. Sorel is at the mouth of the River Richelieu 88 km northeast Ville-Marie (Montreal) on the St. Lawrence River. In 1787 it was renamed William Henry but again renamed Sorel in 1860. A mission was established at Sorel in 1670.

War again breaks out in Europe, England declared war on Holland and France joined the English against Holland. Immigration to New France stops for the next three generations. A generation is usually considered to be 15-20 years. It is noteworthy that 15,000 people came to New France between 1608 to 1672 but only 3,000 stayed in the colonies. The exodus of the French to become Coureurs des Bois ran from 40 to 50% most years. It is significant that the King’s Daughters are estimated to number some 1,000 women, and given their husbands, they account for 2/3 of the New France Colony. The Metis at this time likely outnumbered the New France Colony, but are spread over a wide territory.

The further dispatch of ‘Filles du Roi’ to New France ended because of the war with the Dutch. As a result of the war with Holland, a Dutch squadron captured New York, August 9, 1673.

The Jesuits are accused before the French King of baptizing more beavers than Indians.

The horse population of New France had risen to 100.

The French Minister wrote to Intendant Talon of New France “as after the increase of the colony, there is nothing more important for the colony than the discovery of a passage to the south sea, his majesty wishes you to give it your attention.” Talon chose Jollet and Marguette to discover the South Sea by the Maskoutens Country. It was believed the Mississippi River emptied into the California Sea. They were unaware the Spanish last century had already explored this route to Chicago. They eventually realized the Mississippi River emptied into the Gulf of Mexico that was controlled by the Spanish and aborted their mission so as not to fall into Spanish hands. They failed to reach the mouth of the river.

January 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Soumande, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

January 19: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Angelique Genevieve Cloutier, Metis, died April 15, 1699, Chateau Richer, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699);

January 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (II)-Jean Baptiste Tessier, Metis, died May 20, 1736, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); married, November 4, 1698, Ville-Marie (Montreal), (III)-Elisabeth Regnaut, b-1681, died November 11, 1747, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (II)-Antoine Regnaut.

February 3: Quebec, birth (II)-Laurent Du Bocq (Dubeau), Metis, died July 15, 1731 St. Augustin, son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq (Dubeau) b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse, d-1689; 1st marriage September 23, 1697 St. Augustin, Francoise Campagna; 2nd marriage September 10, 1718, St. Augustin, Marie Sevigny.

February 14: l’Ange Gardien, birth (II)-Elizabeth Lemieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married January 21, 1691 St. Thomas, Jacques Couillard.

February 21: Chateau Richer, marriage (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, b-1651, died May 27, 1686, Beauport, son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse (1626-1665): married (II)-Francoise Gagnon, b-1655: second marriage February 17, 1681 (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662.

March 19: Sillery, birth (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis, died May 13, 1744, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; 1st married June 7, 1688 Quebec (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641; 2nd marriage April 30, 1703, Quebec Francois Laraue.

April 6: (I)-Louis de Buade de Fontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698), godson of Louis XIII, is appointed Governor of New France and served September 12, 1672 to September 1682 and again from October 12, 1689 to 1698. It is reported that he accepted this assignment to escape his creditors. He quarreled with the Jesuits, Intendent (1675-1682) (I)-Jacques Duchesneau (d-1696) over the fur trade. All three parties were deeply involved in the fur trade to their own benefit. (I)-Louis de Bunde, count de Frontenac (1620-1698), defied the policies and guidelines established by France to pursue his own fur trade empire. Some believe his actions set the stage for the loss of New France to the English.

April 23: Quebec, birth (III)-Genevieve Langlois, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

May 15: Three Rivers, Quebec, (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 and their daughter (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, attempted to murder Julien de la Touche, b-1641, by poison in his soup. This failed.

May 16: Three Rivers, Quebec, (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 and their daughter (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, murdered Julien de la Touche, b-1641, by beating him to death.

May 20: Three Rivers, Quebec, (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 appear in court for murder but his wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 and their daughter (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, fled into the woods.

May 20: (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 and their daughter (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, were sent to Quebec for trial for the murder of Julien de la Touche, b-1641, husband of Elizabeth.

June 8: Quebec (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 and their daughter (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, are sentenced to death for the murder of Julien de la Touche, b-1641, husband of Elizabeth. (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, was excluded from hanging because of her age, 13.

June 9: Quebec (I)-Jacques Bertault, b-1626 and his wife (I)- Gillette Bonne, b-1636 were hanged and (II)-Isabelle Elizabeth Therese Bertault La Touche, b-1659, was ordered to watch for her part in the murder of her husband Julien de la Touche, b-1641.

June 28: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, and company reached the mouth of the Rupert River, James Bay. Albanel claimed the Bay for France. He confirmed that the Coureurs des Bois, (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?), were indeed with the British. They found a British ship and two deserted houses but no Europeans.

July 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Alphonses Blanchet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; married November 18, 1699 Cap St. Ignace, Louise Gagne.

August 9: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Marguerite Cote, Metis, died March 3, 1709, Beauport son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page; 1st married Andre Parent; 2nd marriage February 2, 1701, Beauport, Noel Marcoux.

September: Louis de Baude, Comte de Palluau (1620-1698), Governor (1672-82 & 1689-98), in September, arrived in Fort Quebec as the new Governor and Lieutenant General with Intendant Duchesneau. The former Governor, Daniel de Remy, Sieur de Courcelle (1665-1672), and Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) are to shortly leave for France. Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) referred to the Coureurs des Bois as those woodsmen engaged in trading without permits and therefore are outlaws. He also wrote those traders are men without Christianity, without sacrament, without religion, without priests, without magistrates and are sole masters of their own actions and of the application of their wills. The number of permits issued each year is limited to twenty-five. Once a Coureurs des Bois, they could not return to New France. Anyone going into the woods without a permit is whipped and branded for the first offense. The directive from France set life in the galleys of the Mediterranean for second offenses. Only the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), remained of the old guard and is quick to use Duchesneau to attack (I)-Louis de Bunde, count de Frontenac (1620-1698); the Huguenot.

October 17: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) to Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family, there are no Lacroix prior to this date.

November 13: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Marie Renee Lefebvre, Metis, died December 24, 1672, Trois Rivieres, daughter (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers;

November 17: Quebec, (II)-Francoise Duverger daughter (I)-Jean Jacques Duverger and (I)-Suzanne of the Valley married and killed Simon Galbrun and then married Jean Boutin, she also aborted several children in infanticide. She was hung and strangled this day.

December 11: Quebec, birth (III)-Marguerite Prevost, Metis, died May 14, 1684, Beauport, daughter (II)-Louis Prevost (1651-1672) and (II)-Francoise Gagnon

1673

The mission Beauport de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1673 and entered into contract of marriage

Joan Amiot, married Nicolas Pion dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine; 2nd marriage 1704 François Chicoine,

Margaret Andrieu, married Pierre Augran dit Lapierre, said his name is Lapierre,

Marie-Anne Bamonte, married Vincent Morisseau

Anne Bauge, married Guillaume Corruble,

Mary Beaugrand, married Charles Marquis

Joan Beauveau, Joan, married Jean-Pierre Blet dit Gazaille, said his name is Gazaille

Mary Bellehache, married Gillis Bourret dit Lépine, said his name is Lepine

Margaret Berrin, (illegitimate child, Jean-Baptiste b-1673), married 1675 Julien Bouin

Barbara Boyer, Barbara, married Paul Cartier; 2nd married 1698 Nicolas Foulon dit Dumont, said his name is Dumont

Jeanne Braconnier, married Crespen Thuillier dit La Tour, said his name is La Tour; 2nd marriage 1675 Charles Édeline,

Helen Calais married Blaise Belleau dit Larose, said his name is Larose

Mary Chancy, married Michel Prézeau dit Chambly, said his name is Chambly

Denise Colin, Denise, maaried Roch Thouin; 2nd married Antoine Gloria dit Desrochers, said his name is Desrochers

Marie-Madeleine Charbonnier, said her name is Seigneur, married François Lenoir dit Rolland, said his name is Rolland,

Charlotte De Larue, married Jean Lavanois,; 2nd marriage Andre Morin,

Mary Leroux, married Jacques Enaud dit Canada, said his name is Canada before 1673; 2nd marriage 1691 Pierre Borneuf,

Marie Denise Marier, b-1654 married Jean Quenneville

Frances Paris, married Pierre. Petitclerc, ; 2nd marriage Pierre Élie

Barbara Roteau, married Pierre Moisan,; 2nd marriage Jacques Renaud

Marguerite Roussel, b-1646, married Mathurin Duchiron dit Deslauriers, said his name is Deslauriers; 2nd married Étienne Burel,

Margaret Rousselot, married Charles Flibot

Catherine Roy, married Pierre Salvail; another marriage before 1669 Jean De Miray, Jean, avant 1669 De Miray

Marie-Madeleine Sel, married Louis-Pierre Auriot; 2nd marriage 1681 Pierre Chaussé dit Lemeine, said his name is Lemeine

Madeleine Tisserand married Pierre Parenteau dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine; 2nd married Jean Charpentier

Anne-Marie Vanzègue, married Hubert Leroux dit Rousson, said his name is Rousson; 2nd marriage Gabriel Cardinal, Gabriel

The population of New France is 6,705.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), a would be Jesuit with mental instability, joined the coterie of Governor General (I)-Louis de Bunde, count de Frontenac (1620-1698), with whose support he obtained letters of nobility. At the French Court, two clerics, Abbes Eusebe Renaudot Renaudot and Claude Bernou, to advance their own careers on La Salle’s coattails, obtained a commission for him to explore the mid-west.

Trois Tivieres, Quebec, birth (II)-June Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699). might be an error or baptism not birth see below;

Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, b-1673, son (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690), and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine sauvagesse (1631- 1699); married before November 24, 1706, Lachine, Anne Sauvagesse (Algonkin or Sokokoi) b-1705, Lachine.

(I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698) wrote that (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) and the Jesuit Fathers suggest that the English are attempting to break the treaty between the Ottawas and Canada. (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, went to Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) on January 13 to imprison Governor Francois Marie Perrot (1644-1691) of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) for his dealings with the Coureurs des Bois.

Charles Bayly (1630-1680), Governor of the Hudson Bay Company, returned to Charles Fort then went on to establish a post at Moose River on Hayes Island.

Quebec birth illegitimate child, Jean-Baptiste b-1673 of Margaret Berrin, father unknown Margaret married 1675 Julien. Bouin, Julien, dit Dufresne

(III)-Marie Madeleine Pinguet b-1673, died June 19, 1743 Quebec, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704 and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married (II)-Francois Mercan

Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is ordered to return to the Hudson Bay to persuade (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) to return to France’s service. He is detained by the English and did not return to New France until 1676. He then went to the Western district where he served until his death.

Intendant Duchesneau contended that eight hundred men, about forty percent of the adult male population, had taken to the woods. The New France population is 6,705. (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, wanted to teach the Natives French. The Jesuit wanted to retain their control and argued this would have no spiritual benefit. (I)-Louis de Baud, count of Frontenac (1620-1698), is more blunt and said the Jesuits want to keep the Natives in their control. They think more of beaver skins than of souls. Their missions are pure mockeries. Both Frontenac and Talon sought to reduce the overwhelming religious influence and make the Roman Church obey the state. The State assumed more control over education, marriage and the keeping of registers. The bottom line issue was Papal infallibility and those who didn’t believe it was dogma.

(II)-Anonyme Garnaud is born and died October 7, 1673 at L’Ange Gardien, New France child (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue.

The Dutch being at war with France attacked and plundered Fort Jemseg at the mouth of the St. John River and went on to attack Fort Penobscot which was then abandoned by the French.

A French priest wrote his superior in France about maple sap. The first record of the French making maple syrup until 1706. The Indians have been making maple syrup for centuries. Legend suggests a lazy Indian woman was too lazy to walk to the stream for water, used tap sap for boiling venison. Her husband found the taste extremely pleasent ands by dropping hot stones into the sap it made it stronger, thicker, dark and smoky.

February 1: A four point decree is issued in New France:

* Merchants are forbidden to go to Trois Riveres, Ville-Marie (Montreal) or other places on the Upper River for the purpose of selling or delegating the sale of merchandise, in large or small quantities, to the French or Natives, directly or indirectly, and they are not allowed to be present in such locations from June 1st to the last day of October.

* No owner of a dwelling above the City of Ville-Marie (Montreal), or any other city is allowed to prevent Natives, directly or indirectly, from getting to the location of the fair, nor to stop them upon their return, under what ever pretext.

* When Natives are in Ville-Marie (Montreal) for the purpose of trading, it is forbidden to influence where and with whom they trade. They must be left entirely free to go trading where or with whom they wish (within those authorized merchants of Ville-Marie (Montreal)).

* No person without a family, except children of the land (Metis?), is allowed to trade with the Natives for his own profit or someone else’s, also under penalty of a fine of 200 livres.

February 4: Sorel, birth (III)-Antoine Martin Metis son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier; married January 16, 1698 Francoise Fevrier.

March 1: Quebec, birth, (II)-Charles Couturier, Metis, died April 25, 1699, Batiscan, Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671).

April 4: Quebec, birth (III)-Anne Miville. Metis, died March 11, 1717, Ste Anne, daughter, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687); married May 13, 1691 Riviere Ouelie, Mathurin Dube.

April 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Louis Fournier, Metis, died November 3, 1674, Quebec, son (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637

May 14: Beauport, birth Jeanne Chevalier, Metis, died April 4, 1746 Quebec, daughter Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married November 24, 1692, Beauport

June 4: Ste. Familie, birth (II)-Pierre Lemieux, Metis, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696).

June 5: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) to (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, born April 10, 1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

June 22: Quebec, marriage (II)-Nicolas Pelletier Metis b-1649 son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier (1596-1679) and Jeannie Rouset Indian/Metis (1622-1689); 1st married Madeleine Tegoussi (Montagnaise), died April 13, 1661, Quebec, veuve d’Augustin Sauvage, daughter of Grand Chief Jean Baptiste Nanabesa; 2nd marriage (II)-Francoise Lamy daughter (I)-Isaac Lamy.

June 29: Ste Familie, birth (II)-Jacques Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

July 17: The Dutch attacked Ferryland, Newfoundland.

July 23: Beauport, birth (II)-Nicolas Jacques Savariaux son (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

July 28: (I)-Louis de Baud, count Frontenac (1620-1691), built Fort Frontenac at Cataraqui (Catarakoui) (Kingston, Lake Ontario). (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) received the fur-trading rights for this military Fort. This Fort threatened the trade lines of the Mission of the Mountain of Montreal and the Iroquois. Some suggested that (I)-Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) and Frontenac are partners. Others, at the time, suggested that Katarakouy or Fort Frontenac is established as a refuge and port of entry for the Coureurs des Bois who are scattered among all the Ottawa Nations to ensure their trade does not fall to the Dutch, English and Iroquois.

September: The last shipment of Filles du Roi arrived Quebec from France, and the program ended. The population of New France had risen to 6,700 people, an increase of 168% in the eleven years since the program had begun. This didn’t include the thousands of Coureurs des Bois who took native wives and escaped to freedom of the interior (Indian Country). Not to mention the growing Metis population. Acadians who married native women numbered 400-500 about this time.

October: (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), is warned by the Kings Minister in France, never to give corporate form (Estate General) to the people of Canada. For it is God’s will that whoever is born subject should not reason, but obey. Frontenac is also ordered to quietly suppress the Syndicate of Settlers. France ordered the Governor to consolidate and concentrate the population into towns and villages for better defense and control. The Jesuit held firm to the belief that all male citizens should remain at home to become good husbands and fathers to the glory of God and mother Church. The Coureurs; those runners of the woods, debauched the Natives and endangered their own souls. The Jesuits wanted absolute control of the fur trade and these free traders are defeating their goal. The Sovereign Council ordered all beggars to leave Fort Quebec. Five women had begun begging last year. The King of France sent sixty young women to New France, but promised to give no more assistance to Canada this year.

October 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Rene Lefebvre, Metis son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, died April 28. 1749 Baie du Febvre, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres; married July 7. 1700 Trois Rivieres, Gabrielle Francoise Foucault

October 28: Beauport, birth (III)-Francois Langlois, Metis son (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685: married September 17, 1696 Beauport, Jeanne Baugis.

November 18: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Agnas Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married October 25, 1691, Chateau Richer, Joseph Fortin.

December 8: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Urbain Gervaise, Metis, son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); 1st married October 1, 1696, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Caron, died August 8, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 2nd married March 19, 1701, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Genevieve Perthus.

1674

The mission Pointe aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal) de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1674 and entered into contract of marriage

Anne Aubry, married Antoine Caillé dit Brûlefer & Biscornet, said his name is Brûlefer & Biscornet

Frances Aubry, married Antoine Mercier dit Lépine, said his name is Lepine; 2nd marriage Vincent Chatigny, said his name is Lepine

Anne Beraud, said her name is Dubreuil, married Mathieu Jarosson

Marie-Claude Chamois, married François Frigon

Frances Dufaye, married Martin Pire dit Henne, said his name is Henne

Margaret Jasselin, (illegitimate child, Jean, b-1674), married 1676 Mathurin Lelièvre (1646-1683); 2nd marriage Nicolas Lemoine

Constance Lepage, married François Garinet,

Denise Marie, married Jean Quenneville; 2nd marriage Jean Guilbert dit Laframboise, said his name is Laframboise,

(I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, arrested and imprisoned for one year Francois Marie Perrot (1644-1691), Governor of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) and nephew of Talon, for illegal dealings with the Coureurs des Bois. He is accused of sedition, illicit trade and for his violent conduct. He is sent to the Bastile in Paris but is shortly freed and appointed Governor of Acadia. Frontenac also complained to Colbert that the Jesuits stated their mission was to instruct the Indians or rather to get beavers and not to be parish priests to the French.

Quebec, birth Marie Therese Chevalier, Metis, daughter Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married February 1696, Beauport, Etienne Parant.

(II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain b-1649 son (I)-Jean Lamoureux; married likely Bout de I’lle, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Marguerite Pigarouiche, sauvagesse

Quebec birth illegitimate child, Jean, b-1674 son Margaret Jasselin and unknown father, Margaret married Mathurin Lelièvre; 2nd marriage Nicolas Lemoine

(III)-Michel Pelletier Metis b-1674 son (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married July 9, 1697 Ste. Famille, Francoise Meneux..

The Roman Catholic Church in New France proclaimed they are a law unto themselves, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of secular tribunals.

Jean Du Val and Thomas are habitants of Isle Jesus not far from Mont Royal.

January 1: Sorel, birth (III)-Joseph Martin Metis died July 28, 1685 Boucherville son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

January 1: Sorel, birth (III)-Marie Anne Martin Metis daughter (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

February 19: The Treaty of Westminister returned New York to the English.

February 26: Sorel, birth (II)-Therese Charron, Metis, b-1667, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married January 30, 1701, Sorel, Antoine Piette.

March 4: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Gesseron, Metis son (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657

April 29: Beauport, birth (III)-Jean Francois Prevost, Metis, son (II)-Louis Prevost (1651-1672) and (II)-Francoise Gagnon

June 3: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Langlois, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

June 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Blanchet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; married November 9, 1705 St. Michel, Marie Anne Gagne

July 15: The seigniory of Kamouraska (where their are rushes on the other side of the River), Quebec is established by Olivier Morel but he does nothing to develop the area.

July 23; Beauport, birth (II)-Anne Therese Vachon, Metis, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married November 8, 1691 Beauport, Jean Turgeon.

August 8: Boucherville, birth, (II)-Guillaume Froget, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis; married November 24, 1698, La Pointe aux Trembles de Montreal, Barbe Beauchamp

August 10: Jurriaen Aernoutsz, a Dutch privateer, captured Pentagouet in Acadia and captured Jacques de Chambly (d-1687) Governor Acadia. After plundering the French posts along the Bay of Fundy, Aernoutsz took Jemseg (St. John) and its commander, Pierre de Joybert de Soulanges et de Marson (1641-1678). Aernoutsz claimed Acadia for Holland and took his booty and prisoners to Boston.

August 30: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, was for the second time at Ruper River where the British seized him and his companions and sent them to prison in London.

August 31: The Sovereign Council ordered all beggars to leave Quebec. This is caused by five women that were begging in 1673.

October 7, Beauport, birth (III)-Marie Charlotte Pelletier, Metis, died September 3, 1699 Riviere Ouelle, daughter (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); married November 10, 1693 Riviere Ouelle, Andre Mignier

1675

The Iroquois began attacking Indian allies of the French.

From 1675 to 1680, seven colonists from Beauport established themselves and their families in the seigneury of Marie-Anne Juchereau, in La Pocatière aka Riviere Ouelle. They were:

1. Noël Pelletier, son of Jean Pelletier, husband of Marie-Madeleine Mignot

2. Guillaume Lizot, husband of Anne Pelletier, Jean’s daugther

3. Nicolas Lebel, husband of Thérèse Mignot, daughter of Jean

4. Jean Mignot, husband of Louise Cloutier and father of Marie-Madeleine and Xaintes

5. René Ouellet, who later wed Thérèse Mignot, widow of Nicolas Lebel

6. Nicolas Huot-Saint-Laurent, husband of Marie Fayet

7. Jean Grondin, husband of Xaintes Mignot

(III)-Francois Lamoureux, Metis, b-1675, died December 30, 1740 Bout De I’lle, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son (II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain b-1649 and Marguerite Pigarouiche sauvagesse, b-1647; married Marguerite Menard et Benard..

Mission Notre Dame De Foye now called Mission Dame De Lorette is for the Huron and Iroquois People.

Marriage, likely Trois Rivieres (III)-Pierre Noel Le Gardeur to (II)-Marguerite Volant, Metis born November 25, 1659, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, b-1636

Birth (II)-Louise Savariaux dit Savaria daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family; 1st Married October 29, 1697, Beauport, Louis Metivier; 2nd marriage August 17, 1712 Beauport, (II)-Joseph Fisque, b-1675.

January 28: St. Per, a Repentigny, birth (IV)-Francois Le Gardeur (godfather was brother Pierre b-1657 and godmother was Marie Makais8ing8ots, Algonquine Sauvaggesse) son (III)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur De Repentigny and (II)-Marguerite Nicolet

February 11: Quebec, birth, (II)-Jacques Couturier, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671).

March 2: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jacques Tessier, Metis son (I)-Urbain Tessier (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis (1636-1719); married May 10, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Adhemar b-1679, died May 17, 1754, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Antoine Adhemar.

April 29: Quebec, birth (III)-Jacques Miville. Metis, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687)

May 11: Jean Oudiette is awarded a monopoly for beaver trade for a period of seven years. At this time, France has at least twice the population of England and many times her wealth. The French, with their Coureurs des Bois, are better explorers and negotiators with the Native peoples; yet with all these advantages she proved incapable of peopling the American Empire that she claimed. Their Policy of one King and one faith (French and Roman Catholic) is the major factor in the decline and fall of the French Empire. This inward myopic focus, even to present times, is destroying their culture and faith.

May 30: (I)-Jacques Duchesneau de La Doussiniere et d’Ambualt (d-1696) is appointed Intendant of New France, taking office on September 16, 1675 and serving until September 1682. He had difficult relations with Governor (I)-Louis de Baude, comte de Frontenac (1620-1698). Duchesneau denounced the illegal trafficking of many of the Coureurs des Bois and suggested that the Governor’s attitude was so permissive as to smack of desire for personal gain. When he backed the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), in his fight against the sale of alcohol to the Amerindians, Frontenac accused him of being the clergy’s tool. The two antagonists were recalled to France simultaneously: their disputes had injured the colony and angered the minister.

June 5: A edict reorganized the Sovereign Council, now called the Superior Council, being, now, seven members vs. five of old.

August 6: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Lemieux, Metis, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married October 24, 1712, Quebec, Elizabeth Franquelin.

August 9: Quebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1638: married May 2, 1707, St. Francois, Ile-Jesus, Pierre Laporte.

August 11: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Cote, Metis, died April 13, 1723, Quebec daughter (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

August 20: Ste Familie, birth (II)-Pierre Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

September 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Reaume died about 1747 likely Green Bay, Wisconsin son (I)-Rene Reaume (1643-1722) and Marie Chevreau b-1652; married Michilimackinac 1720 Simphorose Puaouagoukoue (Symphorose 8a8ab8k8e born before 1695 Upper Country/Great Lakes area, died after 1747 likely Green Bay area.

October 29: Quebec, birth (II)-Philippe Du Bocq, Metis son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse.

November 26: Marie-Anne Dusauçay, Fille du Roi married Louis Rouer, Sieur de Villeray

December 5: Quebec, marriage (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis b-1648 son (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1684) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) d-1665: married (II)-Marie Cadieu, epouse June 19, 1694, Quebec Jean Gosselin.

1676

The missions Lorette & Lachine de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Birth, (II)-Jean Baptiste Froget, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis; married November 22, 1700 Repentigny, Jeanne Beaudoin.

(III)-Pierre Pelletier Metis b-1676 son (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married August 13, 1703 Ste. Famille, Marguerite Rousseau..

The French re-occupied Acadia this autumn.

The French are prohibited from smoking on the streets or carrying tobacco until 1759 for fear of fire. Unlawful to keep hay in houses, for fear of fire. All house owners must install and maintain a ladder against the house to reach the roof in case of fire. At the sound of the bell all citizens must go to the site of the fire with a full pail of water.

Unlawful to accept as payment the cloths that an Indian is presently wearing or his gun, powder and lead shot. An Indian cannot sell his wife or children to pay his debt.

Nobody can give refuge to male or female pimps, and whores.

The village of Sillery is about a league and a half from Quebek (Quebec) on the St. Lawrence River and is for the Algonkins. The Acadian Metis relocated to St. Joseph de Sillery, Quebec during the period 1676 to 1680 to avoid English harrasment..

(II)-Jean Garnaud is born October 9, 1676 at L’Ange-Gardien, New France son (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue. A church built at L’Ange Gardien on the property of Pierre Gendreau alias La Poussiere.

January 4: Sorel, birth (III)-Marie Jeanne Pelletier, Metis, daughter (II)-Nicolas Pelletier Metis, b-1649 and Madeleine Tegoussi (Montagnaise), died April 13, 1661, Quebec, veuve d’Augustin Sauvage, daughter of Grand Chief Jean Baptiste Nanabesa;

January 14: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) to (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724) daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal).

January 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Marie Lefebvre, Metis daughter (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married February 7, 1701 Trois Rivieres, Pierre Niquet

March 25: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Francois Marie Bouat son (I)-Abrabam Bouat b-1644 and (I)-Marguerite De Nevelet b-1644, voyager to Mississippi in 1703.

April 9: Boucherville, birth (II)-Nicolas Charron, Metis, b-1676, New France, son (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France:

April 15: A Royal ordinance prohibited the trading of furs in Indian villages, hopefully forcing the Indians to come to French settlements to trade. Street venders cannot sell to Indians between June 15 and August 15 in Ville-Marie (Montreal). It is unlawful to sell foodstuff door to door without first having shown it for sale at the Market until 11 am in Ville-Marie (Montreal). Restaurant owners and resellers cannot buy foodstuff in the Ville-Marie (Montreal) Market before 8 am.

May 7: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Narie Madeleine Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married May 25, 1693, Chateau Richer, Julien Maufils.

May 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Denis Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638 ; married November 19, 1699 Cap St. Ignace, Anne Gagne.

May 11: Begging is prohibited in Ville-Marie (Montreal) unless a certificate from a parish priest is obtained.

May 20: Jacques de Chambly is appointed Governor of Acadia again, serving until 1678. Nashwaak and Jemseg are granted to Pierre de Joybert. The Dutch returned and began to fortify the deserted French Fort Penobscot. The English at Boston were alarmed and sent three war ships to drive the Dutch home, which they did but the English had no desire to occupy this fort.

July 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Blanchet, Metis daughter (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; 1st married July 27, 1699 St. Thomas, Vincent Chretien; 2nd marriage May 27, 1709 St. Thomas, Charles les Destroismaisons.

.October 11: Public Markets are established at Quebec, Trois Rivieres and Ville-Marie (Montreal), hopefully to cater to the Indian traffic.

October 13: Quebec at this time is a very pretty village being divided into Upper and Lower village. The Lower Village contain warehouses and the homes of the merchants. The Upper Village houses the Bishop who is building a fine edifice for himself. The Governor and Intendent live in Upper Village, as do the Ursulin Nuns, who are magnificently lodged. Their are about 100 houses containing some 800 people.

October 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre, Metis, died July 18, 1703, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724).

November 12: Quebec, birth (II)-Francois Lemieux, Metis, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married Marie Paradis.

November 30: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, died December 13, 1674, Ste Famille, daughter (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

November 24: Quebec, Marriage (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1751 to (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis, died July 12, 1687, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis.

December 25: Ste Famille, birth (II)-Mathew Aubin, Metis, died January 1, 1677 Ste Famille son (I)-Michel Aubin de Tourouve and (II)- Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, b-1647;

1677

Louis Cous dit Montour, also Lafleur, Metis speaks French, Huron, Algonquin, Iroquois and Sioux and works as interpreter in Deluth (Michigan) and at Illinois and the Country of the Sioux.

Intendant (1675-1682) Jacques de La Doussiniere et d’Ambault Duchesneau (died France1696) established price control in Fort Quebec. White bread weighing eleven ounces was to be sold for 20 deniers, a pound of brown bread at 2 sous, and only three bakers would be given permission to sell retail bread.

Anne Bauge, wife of Guillaume Corruble, is accused of adultery, being 3-4 months pregnant by Jacques Defai. Anne Bauge is expelled from Quebec for three years and Jacques Defai is fined 20 livres.

Birth (III)-Charles Langlois, Metis, died November 29, 1699, Cap St. Ignace,, son, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu

The cow population of New France is 3,107.

(I)-Baron de St. Castin, an Indian Metis born and educated in France returned to his people to occupy the deserted Fort Pentagoet, Acadia. He married Abenakis Woman the daughter of Madocawando and had several Metis daughters all married to Frenchmen. St. Castin was consider by some to be a friend of the English but others believed every savage action against the English was instigated by Baron de St. Castin.

January 14: An illegitimate child is born to Marie Therese Viel d-July 28, 1710 and (II)-Madard Chouart, sieur des Groseilliers. a companion of (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710). Madard is ordered to pay 200 pounds and Marie was returned to her husband Etienne Boyer dit Lafontaine.

March 11: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Ignace Tessier, Metis son (I)-Urbain Tessier (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis (1636-1719); married 1704 (II)-Marguerite Luissier b-1683 daughter (I)-Jacques Luissier.

May: Based on false papers, (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) obtained the exclusive right to explore the lands between Florida and Mexico and to build forts.

May 9: King Louis XIV established a tribunal called the Prevote de Quebec, consisting of a Lieutenant Governor, a King’s Attorney and a clerk.

June 28: Quebec, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Miville. Metis, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687)

July 7: Montreal, birth Joseph Lorrain son Pierre Lorrain and Francoise Saulnier; married about 1700 Cunegonde Nagdotieoue an Illinois girl. They had one daughter Marie Lorrain Metis who married October 20, 1726 Kaskaskia, Francois Allard son Joseph Allard and Marthe Delugre (they married November 9, 1690 Sainte Anne du Petit Cap).

July 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married July 13, 1699, Cap St. Ignace, Elizabeth Bouchard.

September 12: Trois Rivieres, birth (IV)-Genevieve Francoise La Gardeur, died July 25, 1690 Boucherville daughter (III)-Pierre Noel Le Gardeur and (II)-Marguerite Volant, Metis, b-1659

September 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Blanchet, died 1681 I’llet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

September 18: Montreal?, birth (III)-Elizabeth Pelletier Metis daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau

October 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Francois Gesseron, Metis son (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657

November 4/11: Ste Famille, birth/deth (III)-Pierre Cote, Metis, son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

December 21: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Pierre Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

December 27: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Geoffroy Lefebvre, Metis, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724); married June 30, 1704, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Madeleine Michel Michaud b-1681, died March 25, 1745, Ville-Marie (Montreal), veuve Jacques Leduc, daughter (I)-Jean Michaud..

1678

Uknown Amerindien married Abt. 1678 Acadia and MARIE Amerindien married, Acadia, date unknown Phillipe d’Azy MIUS.

Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) began establishing a chain of trading posts.

(II)-Louis Garnaud is born March 23, 1678 at L’Ange Gardien, New France and assumed to have died at birth, the son of (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue.

(III)-Francois Mius, Metis, b-1678, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married 1700 Port Royal, Acadia Jacques (Beaumont) Bonnevie, b-1678, Port Royal, Acadia.

(II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660, Acadia, son (I)-Philippe Mius d’Entremont, b-1601, Normandy France and Madeline Nelie (Elie) du Tillet; 1st married 1678, Acadia, Indian woman, 2nd marriage Marie Mi’Kmag.

The Jesuit Bishop Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) again attacked the Huguenot by attempting to trap (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, and demanded the brandy trade be stopped.

When Du Lhut was in Montreal in 1678, the savages gave him three slaves.

January 17: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage Jean Dupuis to (II)-Jeanne Gervaise, Metis, born May 5, 1659, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699).

February 2: birth (II)-Genevieve Rate, Metis, daughter (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645; married 1704 Jean Sicard.

February 9: Cap St. Ignace, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; married June 14, 1701 St. Thomas, Louise Rousseau

March 30: Boucherville, birth (III)-Catherine Martin Metis daughter (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

April 19: Quebec, birth (II)-Marthe Lemieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married November 5, 1698, St. Ignace, Joseph Bouche.

April 25: Beauport, birth (II)-Marguerite Savariaux daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

June 5: Sorel, birth (II)-Francois Charron, Metis, New France, son (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married January 30, 1701, Sorel, Marguerite Piette.

August 28: Sillery, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Anne Du Bocq, Metis daughter (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse; Ursuline dite Ste Marie Madeleine, Metis, died August 20, 1734, Quebec.

September 22: Montreal?, birth (III)-Louise Pelletier Metis died November 26, 1703, Montreal?, daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married Montreal? Jean Baptiste De Blois.

October 26: The Brandy Parliament of twenty of the most important Seigneurs and merchants met at Chateau Saint Louis to discuss the brandy trade. The result is a vote of fifteen to five that went against the Roman Church to make no change to the brandy trade, with (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, agreeing to limit permits to go to Native villages to the smallest possible number. The parliament challenged the Bishop’s reserved case, where traders in brandy to Natives resulted in exclusion from the sacraments of the church. The Church decree remained in force. Two young men had been hanged, at the instigation of the Church, for trading brandy only a few years before, and a third had been flogged. This sparked indignation against the Church.

September: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), with 30 frenchmen and Father Louis Hennepin- a Recollet, built Fort Niagara on the east side of the Niagara River at Lake Ontario.

October: The so called Brandy Parliament met and voted 15 to 5 that no restrictions be placed on the liquor trade in New France.

October 6: Quebec, birth (II)-Leonard Hervieux, Metis, died May 29, 1747, son (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687); married February 3, 1705, La Pointe aux Trembles, Catherine Magnan.

November 9: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth/death, (III)-Paul Tessierm Metis son (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), 1st married November 21, 1686 (II)-Laprairie Jeanne Leber (1671-1687) 2nd married April 21, 1688 Laprairie (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703) 3rd marriage August 27, 1703 Laprairie (II)-Marie Catherine de Poitiers, (1671-1745).

November 21: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Marie Madeline Langlois, Metis, daughter, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu: married January 11, 1699 Cap St. Ignace, Jean Gagne.

1679

(III)-Marie Mius, Metis, b-1679, Acadia daughter (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married 1697 Acadia Francois Viger, b-1662.

The following missions de la Province de Quebec are established this year: Levis, St. Thomas, Cap st. Ignace, Islet, St. Pierre, Ile d’Orleans, St. Laurent, Ile d’Orleans, St. Francois, Ile d’Orleans, Charlesbourg, Pointe aux Trembles, Quebec, Cap Sante, Champlain, Repentigny, and St. Jean, Ile d’Orleans..

Philippe Énault de Barbaucannes married 1679, Acadia.Unknown Micmac (Mi’kmaq)

(II)-Jacques Garnaud is born May 1, 1679 at L’Ange Gardien son (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue.

The population of New France is 9,400 persons.

The Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal) has been imprisoning people arbitrarily, and King Louis XIV issued an edict forbidding this practice. If any person is imprisoned without being duly charged by a court of law, the officials shall suffer the pain of severe penalties.

February 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Louis Lefebvre, Metis, died November 14, 1707, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724).

March 28: Sillery, Quebec, birth, (II)-Genevieve Couturier, Metis, died March 24, 1715, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671); married October 31, 1701 Quebec, Jean Metivier

April 2: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Anne Cote, Metis, died October 15, 1754, Quebec daughter (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

April 14: Quebec, birth (III)-Charles Miville. Metis, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687); 1st married April 16, 1703, Beauport, Marie Savarias; 2nd marriage January 10, 1708, Beauport, Madeleine Tardif.

May 3: Quebec, birth (II)-Angelique Blanchet, died November 28 I’llet, Metis daughter (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

June 17: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Nicolas Tessier, Metis, died January 4, 1757 L’Hopital General, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Urbain Tessier (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis (1636-1719); married January 27, 1716, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (III)-Genevieve Auge b-1699 died October 30, 1748, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (II)-Jean Auge.

August 7: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) set sail for Michillimackinac, having built a brigantine.

August 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Fournier, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637:

August 27: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) began exploring Baie des Punts (Green Bay) and Lake Michigan. Upon reaching the mouth of the the Miami River (St. Joseph) he built Fort Miami.

September 13; Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jean Baptist Crevier Metis son (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 and (II)-Marguerite Hertel; married April 30, 1708 Champlain, Madeleine Babie

October 9: Champlain, birth (II)-Adrien Robillard, died January 4, 1721 Kaskakia, son (I)-Claude Robillard and Marie Binard; married Domitide Sacatchi8c8a sauvagesse, Illinoise

October 15: St Thomas, birth (II)-Louise Prou Metis daughter (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638 ; married June 22, 1700 St. Thomas, Pierre Gagne

October 23: Trois Rivers, the unpunished murder this date of (III)-Jeanne Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, b-1657, Trois Rivers, daughter, (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur and Marie Mitedmeg8k8e, Algonquine, by Jean Rattier dit DuBuisson, marks the beginning of the end of the peaceful coexistence between the French Administration and the Metis of the greater area of Trois Rivers. A farm laborer Jean Rattier says Dubuisson is the murder of Jeanne and wounds inflicted to his father. The lord of Saint-François of the Lake, close to Three-Rivers, Jean Crevier, and one of his servants are for their part marked of complicity after the fact. Jean Rattier undergoes two lawsuits. He is condemned each time to be hung. One offers however the life to him saves if he agrees to act as torturer.

November 10: Intendant Jacques Duchesneau de la Doussiniere et d’Ambault (1650-1796) estimated the Coureurs des Boise as between 500 to 600 not counting those who leave every day.

1680

Richard (de Fronsac) Denys married 1680 Acadia to Anne Patarabego sauvagesse She first married Richard Denys.

Levis, birth (II)-Marie Gesseron, Metis, died May 21, 1756 daughter (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657; married June 15, 1699, Levis Charles Carier

(III)-Joseph (Dazi) Mius, Metis, b-1680, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag: married 1699, Acadia, (II)-Marie Amirault, b-1684, Acadia, daughter (I)-Francois (Touangeau) Amirault, b-1664, and Marie Pitre, b-1666.

Champlain, marriage (II)-Michel Desrosiers born September 3, 1652 son (I)-Antoine Desrosiers (1619-1691) and (II)-Anne Du Herisson; married (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 and Louise Sauvagesse, b-1621

St. John at Menagoeck/Mirligueche, Acadia, marriage Claude Guedry dit Grivois dit Laverdure b-1648 2nd wife an Amerindienne girl named Kesk8a

(II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, b-1660 son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, sauvagesse (1626-1665): married 1680 (II)-Francoise LeBlanc, b-1662, epouse February 18, 1700 Montreal, (I)-Pierre Delorme (1674-1755).

The missions Grondines & Contrecoeur de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

New France has an estimated population of 10,000, 800 Acadians and 1,100 English in Newfoundland.

The number of Coureurs des Boise is estimated as 800 up from 600 a year earlier. It is suggested there is at least one Coureur des Boise in every family.

Michel des Rosiers, dit St. Michel b-1727, died January 27, 1759, Montreal, married 1680 (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667 daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut b-1630 and Louise sauvagesse b-1621.

Baron de Lahontan wrote: One is indeed surprised at the disorderliness, the feasts, the games and expense incurred by the Coureurs des Bois, both in clothing and women, as soon as they arrive. Those who are married go to their homes, but those who are not act like sailors returning from India. They spend, eat, drink and gamble everything as long as there are beaver pelts. When these are gone, they sell their gold, lace and clothing. Then they must go back on a trading journey to survive.

The New France slave code reads: If a slave tries to escape, we cut off his ear and we brand a fleur de lis on his shoulder with a hot iron; If he tries to escape a second time, we cut the hamstrings on the back of the legs; If he is so bold as to try again, death.

Tithing is set at one thirteenth of the crop, and the habitants find this tax excessive.

A trading post established at the mouth of the Pigeon River called Du Luth. The King of France does not accept the contention of (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, that the Intendent authorizes the Coureurs des Bois. The King suggests Frontenac is at fault, as he favors those engaged in a trade that is totally contrary to the well being of Canada.

Jean Rattier murdered Jeanne Couc and is condemned to death. There is no executioner and he is offered his freedom if he accepts the office of executioner. He accepted the office.

Intendent Duchesenau wrote that the Missions and the Jesuit fathers bring peltries, but the Governor, sieurs Perot, Boisseau and De Lut and Patron, his uncle, sell peltries to the English, getting twice what the French offer.

The French plan was to Frenchify the Indians but were horrified to discover that about 40% of the young men were disappearing into the woods with their Indian wives. About this time the criminals called Coureurs de Boise are given the respectable name of Voyageurs.

Oliver Morel sold the seigniory of Kamouraska, Quebec to Charles Aubert of Chesnaye but neither men did anything to develop the area and by 1683 only one family lived in the area.

January: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) reaches Peoria, Illinois where he builds Fort Crevecoeur (Fort Heartbreak).

January 4: Ange Gardien, birth/death (II)-Marie Savariaux daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

January 4: (I)-Francois St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 married January 4, 1680 Quebec (Tanguay says to Marie Madeleine Berthelot b-1662 however (II)-Marie Madeleine b-1662 daughter (I)-Andre Berthelot (1633-1687) and (III)-Marie Gasnier married 1st. 1677 Pierre Prevost, 2nd January 9, 1685 Joseph Pare and 3rd November 5, 1725 Noel Delessard) It is more likely he married (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667 who claims to have married Michel des Rosiers 1680, being the daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut b-1630 and Louise Sauvagesse.

January 8; Beauport, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Vachon, Metis, died February 18, 1703 Beauport, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married November 23, 1699, Beauport, Pierre Vallee

February 18: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Michel Crevier, Metis, died January 19, 1760 Cap de la Madeleine son (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648; married (II)-Angelique Masse

April 14: St. Ignace, birth (II)-Anne Lemieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married October 25, 1694, St, Ignace, Charles Bernier.

April 21: Beauport, birth (III)-Madeleine Louise Langlois, Metis, died October 7, 1682 Beauport, daughter, (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685:

August 22: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Nicolas Lefebvre, Metis, died July 2, 1750, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married February 9, 1711, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (III)-Marie Anne Decharme b-1690 daughter (II)-Louis Decharme.

May 19: St. Pierre I.O., birth (III)-Joseph Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau: married August 11, 1705 St. Thomas, Louise Nolin.

June 25: Boucherville, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Martin Metis died May 4, 1698 boucherville, son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

October 14: Indian Mission (Mission des Sauvagus de Montagne) Montreal, marriage (I)-Abraham Cote (Botte dit Sorak8a) from St. Jacques Dieppe, Normandie, France, son Abraham Cote and Jacqueline Caille; married Marie A8enda, Onontaise (Indian). There is some question whether Abraham was really a Cote because his children were baptized under the names of Botte or Sorak8a. It’s possible he was assimilated into the Indian culture and lost their real name. It’s more likely some of the children are illegitimate French Metis taken in by Abraham & Marie.

Children born/baptized Indian Mission (Mission des Sauvagus de Montagne) Montreal,

(II)-Jacques Cote (Botte dit Sorak8a) Metis born/baptism February 7, 1685 filleul de Mr. Jacques Le Moyne, de Ste Helene (Lemoyne & Lemoine)

(II)-Jeanne Cote (Botte dit Sorak8a) Metis born/baptism February 10, 1688 filleule de Dile Jeanne Le Ber

(II)-Jean Baptiste Cote Metia , born/baptism November 26, 1689

(II)-Simon Cote Metis born/baptism January 5, 1699

1681

The missions Baie St. Paul & St. Ours de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

25 fur-trading licenses (cunges) were issued in Quebec to private persons to restrict the number of persons deserting the colony..

(I)-Francois Chagnon (1645-1693 married 1681 Quebec (II)-Catherine Charon, Metis, born September 29, 1686 Montreal daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, Indian or Metis.

(II)-Louis Couc, b-1659 married 1681 Sorel, Madeleine Sacokie sauvageese; 2nd marriage January 7, 1688 St-Frs-du-Lac, Jeanne Quigesig8k8e.

Anne Hard born 1681 Chitto, Pres Douvres, baptized April 10, 1694, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter Benjamin Hard an English from Chitto and Elizabeth Roberts; Ann was captured by the savages, Loops January 25, 1692, and is now in the care of Pierre Prudhomme.

(III)-Francois Mius, Metis, b-1681, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius and Marie Mi’Kmag, married 1700, Acadia. Marie Mi’Kmag.

Louis XIV (1638-1715) decreed that the first offence of being a Coureur des Boise is flogging, a second offence was branding with the Fleur de Lys, and a third offence was life in the Galleys. This policy was not successful and the Coureur des Boise were continually blamed for corrupting morals, disorderliness with the native women and above all, the fact that they openly displayed the kind of free spirit that was naturally associated with bad behavior. It is noteworthy that they only wanted freedom, and democratic rule, like the savages.

Virginia had a population between 70,000 and 80,000 people. It is noteworthy that Virginia had 3,000 black slaves and 15,000 white slaves. There are a considerable number of free Negroes, some of whom had become wealthy.

The Intendant (1675-1682) Jacques de La Doussiniere et d’Ambault Duchesneau of Quebec wrote that the English are still in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) and do a great deal of harm to the French trade. They should be driven out by armed force. He also recommended the Iroquois be subdued by armed force to reduce the fur trade to the English. Duchesneau denounced the illegal trafficking of many of the Coureurs des Bois and suggested that Governor (I)-Louis de Bunde, count de Frontenac (1620-1698), is so permissive as to smack of desire for personal gain. Frontenac accused Duchesneau of being the tool of Bishop Lavel. The two antagonists were recalled to France simultaneously, their disputes had injured the colony. The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency, (1623-1708) however, was not recalled. Bishop Laval was noted as a man who listened to no one, and his zeal bore him well beyond his mandate. It is noteworthy that Count Frontenac could not get along with the Jesuits, the fur traders, civil authorities and even the Sulpitians. The religious could not tolerate a Huguenot as the Governor of New France nor a Coureurs des Bois as Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal)..

Most churches in New France are not heated due to the risk of fire. Only 7 churches were made of stone.

By this date 77 horses and 19 mares are recorded in New France.

January 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jacques Lefebvre, Metis, died April 15, 1744 Baie du Febvre (noye=drowned) son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married May 2, 1735 Baie du Febvre, Marguerite Lanel.

January 23, Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) to (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660 daughter (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678); 2nd marriage August 19, 1711 Quebec (II)-Marie Selle veuve Jean Flibot

February 1: Repentigny, marriage (I)-Jean Baptiste Fonteneau dit St. Jean, b-1650 married (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis, b-1640, epouse February 6, 1653, Quebec (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620; daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis

February 3: St. Pierre, I.O., birth (III)-Jean Langlois, Metis, died March 16, 1681 St. Pierre, I.O., son, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu:

February 17: Chateau Richer marriage

February 17: Chateau Richer, marriage (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, b-1651, died May 27, 1686, Beauport, son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse (1626-1665): married February 21, 1672, Chateau Richer, (II)-Francoise Gagnon, b-1655: second marriage February 17, 1681 (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662.

February 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Blanchet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

March 20: Lorette, Quebec, birth, (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646 and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne, Sauvageese, b-1649, veuve 1662 de Jean Durand (1636-1671); 1st married January 11, 1712 Becancour (Batiscan), Quebec, Catherine Proteau born June 28, 1691, died March 31, 1717 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans l’eglise) dauighter (I)-Luc Proteau (1668-1752) and (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain (1670-1757); 2nd marriage February 21, 1718 Cap-Sante, Quebec, (III)-Angelique LeTellier (Tellier), (1699-1729), daughter (I)-Francois Letellier; 3rd marriage April 13, 1733, Deschambault, Quebec (II)-Therese Hamel, b-1707, died March 14, 1737 St. Pierre les Becquets, veuve de (II)-Jean Joseph Tousignan (1678-1732), daughter (II)-Jean Francois Hamel..

May 22: France, Royal Ordnance by Louis XIV at Versailles dated May 22, 1681 gave authority to grant ‘Conge de Traite’ for 25 canoes with three men to go into the interior to trade with the Indians.

June 2: St. John at Menagoeck/Mirligueche, Acadia, birth/baptism JeanneGuedry Metis daughter Claude Guedry dit Grivois dit Laverdure b-1648 2nd wife an Amerindienne girl named Kesk8a. Witness/sponsors were Claude Petitpas and Jeanne de la tour, wife of Martin.

June 4: birth, Francois Couc dit Montour, Metis, born Saint Francois du Lac or Sorel, baptised August 30, 1682, Sorel and died December 9, 1700, Trois Rivers son Louis Cous dit Montour, Metis d-1708 and Madeleine Sacokie of the tribe of Sokokis, a subgroup of Abenakis.

June 16: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Pierre Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; married Agathe DesTroismaisons

June 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Catherine Du Bocq, Metis son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse; married May 6, 1709, Ville-Marie (Montreal), (I)-Jean Ride b-1680.

July 22 : Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Marie Anne Lefebvre, Metis, died December 27, 1735, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): 1st married October 28, 1697, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Jacques Picard; 2nd married Seur dite St Michel, congreg de N.D. died May10, 1717, Ville-Marie (Montreal).

August 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Anne Hervieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687); married September 28, 1699, Quebec (I)-Jean Molay b-1669.

August 17: I’Iiet, birth (III)-Jean Francoi Miville. Metis, died October 18, 1703, Beauport, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687)

October 13: Quebec, marriage, (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine, Metis, born February 5, 1651, Ville-Marie (Montreal), died April 26, 1730 Longue Pointe, son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); married October 13, 1681 Chateau Richer (III)-Madeleine Cloutier b-1660 died February 12, 1748 Longue Pointe.

November 3: St. Pierre, I.O., birth (III)-Elizabeth Cote, Metis, daughter (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

1682

The mission Batiscan de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, (1644-1687) at the juncture of the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, took possession of the Mississippi Valley and all land watered by its tributaries in the name of France.

Unknown Cellier dit Charet (Memchaaret) d-1708 married 1682, Acadia, Marie Amerindien.b-1663, died March 7, 1727, Port Royal, Acadia

Recorded children

Jacques Cellier dit Charet, Metis b-1683, married Elisabeth

Pierre Cellier dit Charet, Metis b-1687 (the elder) married 1st Louise Innocent; married 2nd Francoise Minus daughter Philippe Minus and Marie

Pierre Cellier dit Charet, Metis b-1692 (the younger) married Madeleine Ouaouamintetces

Marguerite Cellier dit Charet, Metis b-1695

(II)-Richard Denis married 1st, Anne Parabego Sauvageese; 2nd marriage October 15, 1689 (II)-Francoise Cailteau, b-1665.

(III)-Nicolas Denis, Metis, died February 3, 1732 Beaumont, son (II)-Richard Denis and Anne Parabego, Sauvagesse; married Marie Sauvagesse.

(I)-Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) abandons Fort Frontenac, and Governor Joseph LeFebvre de La Barre (1682-85) assigns the post to Sieur de la Chenaye who sends Sergeant Champagne to occupy the post and restore trade with the Coureurs des Bois.

(I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) falsified geography, situating the mouth of the Mississippi over 600 miles to the west of its true course to convince the French King of the feasibility of establishing a base for the conquest of Mexico. An expedition under the joint leadership of (I)- Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) and Captain de Beaujeu departed La Rochello, France, with 300 men and women, was to establish a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River and make the French masters of the whole known North American continent. La Salles brother- Jean Cavelier, La Salle, Henri Joutel and a friar named Anastase Douay is among the crew.

(III)-Maurice (Mieusse) Mius, Metis, b-1682, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius and Marie Mi’Kmag, married 1702, Acadia, Marquerite Mi’Kmag.

(III)-Mathieu (Emieusse) Mius, Metis, b-1682, Acadia daughter (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married 1704 Acadia Marie Madeleine Mi’Kmag.

(III)-Maurice (Mieusse) Mius, Metis, b-1682, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married 1702 Acadia Marguerite Mi’Kmag.

Grand-Pré located in Minas is founded. It will become the bread basket of Acadia.

The Bishop, the Ecclesiastics and the Jesuits all complained and conspired to remove (I)-Louis de Baud ,Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, for encouraging the Coureurs des Bois and exploration among his Huguenot friends; such as Nicholas Perrot (1644-1717), Du L’hut, Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687)- a would be Jesuit who is mentally instable, de La Mothe, Cadillac and Henri Tonty (1649-1704), much based on the impudent liar Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705). The Jesuit considered the Coureurs des Bois as reprobates beyond help, either spiritually or physically having merged with the children of the forest and become lost to civilization. That the Recollets sided with Frontenac the Huguenot, further infuriated the Jesuits. The Members of the Society of Foreign Missionaries attacked the practices of the Jesuits.

The women and girls of New France are excluded from the sacraments for their indecent apparel. They appear at mass with displays of Satan, nudity of arms, shoulders and throats and heads bared, unworthy of a Christian person.

Joseph Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre (1622-1688), Governor New France (1682-85), with his Intendant Jacques de Meulles, (1682-86) replaced (I)-Louis de Baude, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, one-month after the Fort Quebec fire of August 4 that destroyed fifty-four houses and warehouses. The Jesuit spy, Father Jean de Lamberville, in a Iroquois village, reported the Iroquois will destroy the French colony if they start another war. A council of war is conducted on October 10 by New France Governor Lafevre de La Barre (1682-1685), Intendant Jacques de Meulles (1682-1686), the Jesuit Bishop Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), Father Dollier of St. Sulpice, Father Beschefer, Father Fremin, Mayor Quebec, Governor Varenne of Three Rivers and de Brussy, Dalibout, Duquet, Lemoine, Ladutantais, Bizard, Vieuxpont, Duluth, de Sorel, Derepentigny, Berthier and Boucher.

(I)- Lefevre de La Barre (1622-1688), Governor New France September 1682 to August 1685, like many Governors of New France, desires to enrich himself in the fur trade. He joins forces with several Quebec merchants to attempt to secure the Illinois trade by confiscating the posts of (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), protégé of the previous Governor Frontenac. Some suggest the attack on the Iroquois is part of his plan to steal the Illinois trade. His reign would end in infamy.

(I)-Jacques de Chevalier, de Meulles (d-1703), was Intendant New France from September 1682 to July 1686. De Meulles, despite explicit instructions, was embroiled in confrontation with Governor La Barre (1622-1688) throughout his term (1682-1685). Governor Denonville (1637-1710) accused de Meulles of greed and illegal trafficking, thereby causing his recall to France.

Governor La Barre organized a 800 man army and marched on the Iroquois. The French are defeated and forced to accept Iroquois terms of peace to abandon their Savage allies. King Louis XIV is appalled with the terms of the treaty granted to these naked savages.

About 120-150 families of Mohawks move to Sault Saint Louis (Caughnawaga) near Ville-Marie (Montreal), and by 1700, two thirds of all Mohawks had settled in Quebec.

The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), issued a pastoral letter condemned the wearing of indecent gowns revealing scandalous views of their nude shoulders and bosoms. Eventually, Bishop St. Vallier ordered the priests to refuse absolution to those women who wore these fashions, either in their own home or in public. The French Government is quick to order the New France clergy to quit harassing the women in this fashion. It is noteworthy that the women in New France are only following the fashion trends of France.

January: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) departed Fort Crevecoeur with 23 French and 18 Indians via Chicagou (Chicago), Renard (Fox) and Illinois Rivers.

February: The (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle’s (1643-1687) party reach the Mississippi near Memphis where Fort Prud’homme is built.

March 1: Beauport, birth (III)-Madeline Langlois, Metis, died December 12, 1702, Quebec, daughter, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu:

March 4: Beauport, birth (III)-Agnes Langlois, Metis, died August 1, 1683, Beauport, daughter (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685:

March 7: Beauport, birth, (III)-Vincent Prevost, Metis, died April 12, 1758, Beauport, son (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, (1651-1686) and (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662: married L’Ange Gardien, (III)-Marie Agnes Vesina (1679-1766)

March 7: Beauport, birth (II)-Marie Savariaux, died September 30, 1707 Beauport, daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family; married April 16, 1703 Beauport, Charles Miville

March 30: St. Ignace, birth (II)-Guiliaume Augustin Lemieux, Metis, died June 11, 1703, St. Ignace, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696).

April 6: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) and party sight the mouth of the Mississippi River.

April 9: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), near Venice, Louisana, erected a cross with a name plate reading “in the name of Louis XIV, King of France and of Navarre, this ninth of April 1682. The Country of Louisiana is hereby proclaimed:

“The mighty, invincible, and victorious Prince, LOUIS THE GREAT, by the grace of God, King of France and Navarre, 14th of that name, this ninth day of April, one thousand six hundred and eighty-two, I, in virtue of the commission of his Majesty (Louis XIV) which I hold in my hand, and which may be seen by all whom it may concern, have taken, and do now take in the name of his Majesty and of his successors to the crown, possession of this Country of Louisiana, the seas, harbors, ports, bays, adjacent straits; and all nations, people, provinces, cities, towns, villages, mines, minerals, fisheries, streams, and rivers comprised in the extent of Louisiana, from the mouth of the great River St. Louis on the easterb side, otherwise called OHIO, Alighinsipou (Alleghany), or Chickagoua, and this with the consent of the Chouanons (Shawanoes), Chicachas (Chickasaws), and other people dwelling therein, with who we have made alliance; as also along the River Colbert or Mississippi, and rivers which discharge themselves therein, from its source; beyond the Country of the Kious (Sioux) or Nadouessions, and this with their consent, and with the consent of the Motantees, Illinois, Mesigameas (Metchigamias), Akanas, Natches, and Loroas, which are the most considerable nations dwelling therein, with whom also we have nade alliance either by ourselves or by others in our behalf”.

The French monarch, on hearing the news, however, proclaimed it is utterly useless.

May 1: (I)-Joseph Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre (1622-1688) is appointed Governor of New France (October 9, 1682 to July 31, 1685). Jacques De Meulles d-1703 is appointed Intendant (October 9, 1682 to September 23, 1686).

July 24: The French King, based on false reports, dispatched 228 recruits, including several women, to set sail from La Rochelle, France aboard four ships for the Louisiana Territory. One ship is lost at sea, another turns back to France, seriously undermining the venture.

August 3: Sorel, marriage (I)-Francois Singerny also St. Cerny and Delpee b-1640, died December 15, 1725 Trois Rivieres married to (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, b-1661, died January 7, 1750 Pte du Lac, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699).

August 3: Sorel, marriage, Francois Delpee (1640-1725) to (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, b-1661, died January 7, 1750 la Pte du Lac., daughter, (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690), and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine sauvagesse (1631- 1699).

August 18, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Catherine Beriau Metis daughter (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married June 5, 1702 Quebec, Michel Fournier.

August 30: Sorel, birth (III)-Francois Couc, Metis, Son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, b-1659 Madeleine Sacokie sauvageese..

August 30: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Charles Tessier, Metis son (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748).

October: St. Pierre, I.O., birth (III)-Clement Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau: married June 25, 1704 Chateau Richer, Marie Anne Prevost

October 10: The Jesuits hold an assembly at Quebec to discuss the Iroquois war that had occurred for the past 5 years against the Illinois was was instigated by the Jesuits themselves. The Jesuit at this time are blaming the English for supplying guns, powder and lead to the Iroquois over the past four years. The Jesuits finally appreciate that the war they started would in future be turned upon themselves and they would deprive us of all the trade and destroying, at the same time, all Christian Missions that are among the nations the Iroquois are attacking.

November 3: Boucherville, birth (II)-Helene Charron, Metis, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France:

November 14: The Recollet Father Zenobe had a dispatch from (I)-Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) to be taken to Colbert of France. (I)- Joseph Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre (1622-1688) is not allowed to read the dispatch, suggesting it includes his support of the Jesuit atrocities. He admits the Iroquois are trying to kill (I)-Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687). He also advises the Iroquois have killed a few Frenchmen this autumn and suggests they they will begin open war against the French next Spring. He fails to place the blame of war on the Jesuits and mildly suggests La Salle maybe the cause. This clearly suggests La Barre maybe involved with the Jesuits.

December 13; Beauport, birth (II)-Guiliaume Vachon, Metis, died December 28, 1702 Beauport, son (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697);

December 20: Boucherville, birth (III)-Marie Anne Martin Metis daughter (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier; married November 12, 1703 Boucherville, Pierre Voisin.

December 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Gatien, Metis, died June 3, 1711 Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702); married April 23, 1703, Quebec (II)-Jean Michelon (1669-1724).

1683

The mission Lachenaye de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

120 fur-trading licenses (cunges) were issued in Quebec instead of 25 to private persons

Acadia, birth Jacques Cellier dit Charet Metis son Unknown Cellier dit Charet (Memcharet)d-1708 married 1682, Acadia, Marie Amerindien.b-1663, died March 7, 1727, Port Royal, Acadia ; married Elisabeth

Birth (III)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis, daughter, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu: married November 10, 1700 St. Thomas, Jean Blouin.

About 95,489 pounds of beaver pelts are shipped to France but by 1685 this dropped to 23,568.

Three quarters or more of the French peasants heard mass only four times a year. When they did attend, they walked out of the church as soon as the priest began his sermon, standing in the lobby arguing, brawling during the service and even bringing their dogs into church; so reported the priests. The Intendant complained that at least 60 heretics (Huguenots) have left the colony for neighboring English Protestant colonies.

The church also operated institutions for the chronically ill, the insane, and for women of loose morals. Louis Franquet observed that due to fear of punishment, the illegitimate (enfant du Roi) French children are given to the Wendat natives at Lorette near Quebec, the Abenakis from present day Maine at St. Francois east of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and the Iroquois at Caughnawaga (Kahnawake), St. Regis and the Lake of Two Mountains both west of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). These locations also raised English children taken as captives during French raiding parties. Most (engant du Roi) illegitimate children are the result of the master of the house taking sexual privilege of his servants, a long standing practice adopted from Europe.

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac born March 5, 1658 died October 15, 1730 both in France son Jean Laumet, arrived in Acadia and is quickly labeled as a man with an evil mind. It is rumored that he was kicked out of France.

This year the Intendant complained to the authorities in Versailles that at least 60 “heretics” had left the colony for neighboring English Protestant colonies.

The whole of Acadia only has 600 souls, not counting the Indians.

January 23: Champlain, birth (III)-Marie Jeanne Desrosiers, Metis daughter (II)-Michel Desrosiers b-1652 and (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis

February 1: A four point decree is issued in New France:

* Merchants are forbidden to go to Trois Riveres, Ville-Marie (Montreal) or other places on the Upper River for the purpose of selling or delegating the sale of merchandise, in large or small quantities, to the French or Natives, directly or indirectly, and they are not allowed to be present in such locations from June 1st to the last day of October.

* No owner of a dwelling above the city of Ville-Marie (Montreal), or any other city, is allowed to prevent Natives, directly or indirectly, from getting to the location of the fair, nor to stop them upon their return, under what ever pretext.

* When Natives are in Ville-Marie (Montreal) for the purpose of trading, it is forbidden to influence where and with whom they trade. They must be left entirely free to go trading where or with whom they wish (within those authorized merchants of Ville-Marie (Montreal)).

* No person without a family, except children of the land (Metis), is allowed to trade with the natives for his own profit or someone else’s, also under penalty of a fine of 200 livres.

February 15: Quebec, birth, (II)-Jeanne Angelique St. Michel, Metis died April 13, 1746, daughter (I)-Francoise St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 and (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667; married 1699 Rene Frerot.

May 14: Marie Quequejeu, a Kings Daughter is executed and on the same day her son-in-law Pierre Doret, a coureor de bois is also executed.

June 17: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Pierre Lefebvre, Metis son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers;

June 20: Levis, birth (III)-Angelique Miville. Metis, daughter, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687); married April 26, 1702 Cap St. Ignace, Louis Gamache

June 30: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Jacques Godfroy b-1653 married Jeanne Brunet b-1665 illegitimate daughter Marie Catherine Cotton who married 1666 Pierre Brunet.

July: Trois Rivers, birth, or January 5, 1684, Trois Rivers, Jacques Montour, Metis, baptised May 1, 1684 Nicolet, son Louis Cous dit Montour, Metis, and Madeleine Sacokie, of the Sokokis tribe, a subgroup of Abenakis.

August 18: Beauport, marriage (II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Metis b-1659, died May 12, 1737 St. Augustin son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665); married 1st August 18, 1683 Beauport, (II)-Marie Anne Giroux, (Girou) b-1667; 2nd marriage February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, Genevieve Sedilot

August 18: Beauport, marriage (II)-Michel Giroux b-1661, died August 6, 1715 Beauport, son (I)-Toussaint Giroux; married (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis b-1665, died May 20, 1743 Beauport, daughter (I)-Martin Provost (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Sauvagesse, b-1626, died September 10, 1665 Quebec,

August 29: Ste Pierre, I., birth (II)-Ignace Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

September 1: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Marie Anne Prou Metis daughter (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert Metis, b-1638; married July 10, 1703 St. Thomas, Jacques Tibaut

September 18: Sorel, birth (III)-Marguerite Crevier Metis daughter (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 and (II)-Marguerite Hertel

September 19: Beauport, birth, (III)-Ange Prevost, Metis, died August 2, 1753, Charlesbourg, son (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, (1651-1686) and (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662: married February 1, 1719 L’Ange Garden, (II)-Marie Brisson, b-1675, died October 21, 1750, Charlesbourg, veuve Nicolas Julien

October 6: St. Ignace, birth (II)-Genevieve Lemieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696): married November 5, 1698 St. Ignace, Gabriel.

October 17: Beauport, birth (II)-Joseph Savariaux son (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

October 23: Quebec, birth (II)-Ursule Hervieux, Metis, died August 29, 1692 Quebec son (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687).

1684

Trois Rivieres?, marriage (III)-Marguerite Crevier, Metis born likely Trois Rivieres? daughter (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648; married (I)-Laurent Baudet

Governor Dongan of New York wrote Governor (I)-Joseph-Antoine La Febure de La Barre (1622-1688) disputed the French claim of 25 years possession of New York by sending Jesuits among them as very slender. The Jesuits have no right to title.

Martin Lejeune dit Briard, married 1684, Acadia, Jeanne Marie Kagigconiac sauvageese.

Julien Talua killed Antoine Roy dit Desjardins at Lachine when he found Roy in bed with his wife.

January 5: Trois Rivieres, (III)-Jacques Couc aka Jean Montour, son (II)-Louis Ciuc dit Montour, b-1659 and Madeleine Sacokie.

February 24: Beauport, Quebec, birth (III)-Therese Francoise Prevost, Metis, died January 17, 1722 Montreal, daughter (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, b-1660 and (II)-Francoise LeBlanc, b-1662: married January 17, 1712, Montreal (III)-Jean Baptiste Menard, b-1690 son (II)-Jean Baptiste Menard.

March 8: St. Pierre I.O., birth (III)-Pierre Martin Cote, Metis, son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

March 21: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Blanchet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

April 10: An ordinance is passed to prohibit emigration from Few France to the English colonies, with a penalty of death. This is an attempt to prevent the Coureurs des Bois and Metis from trading with the English.

April 13: Boucherville, birth (III)-Leger Martin Metis son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier. 1st marriage November 28, 1663 Montreal, Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682);

May 2: Beaupre: (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d’Arce de la Hontan (1666-1710/15) wrote: In truth, the peasants here live much more comfortably than do many gentlemen in France. When I say peasants, I am in error. One must say habitants since, here, the word peasant is no more welcome than it is in Spain.

June 2: Beauport, birth (III)-Marie Therese Langlois, Metis daughter (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685:

July 10: Antoine Roy, a.k.a. Desjardins, a retired soldier of the Carignan Regiment, is killed by Julen Talua, a.k.a. Vendamont who had found him in his wife’s bed, in Ville-Marie (Montreal)..

July 31: King Louis XIV ordered de la Barre to send all Iroquois prisoners to France to serve in the galleys, because, said the letters royal, “these savages are strong and robust.”

September 2: Beauport, birth (III)-Louise Giroux, Metis, died January 9, 1740 L’Ange-Gardien son (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743): married May 11, 1705 L’Ange-Gardien, Angelique Garnier

September 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Francois Lucien Gatien, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702).

June 5: Boucherville, birth (II)-Jean Charron, Metis, New France, son (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France:

September 7, Quebec, birth (II)-Claude Beriau Metis son (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660

November 19: Beauport, birth (III)-Louis Langlois, Metis, son, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu: married Madeleine Guyon

November 20: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Francois Prudhomme (1651-1741) to (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis, daughter, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699).

1685

The mission Riviere Ouelle de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Birth (II)-Marie Anne Bruneau out-of-wedlock to (I)-Catherine Bruneau, a Filles du Roi of 1670 who married September 3, 1670, Jean Monin

Marriage (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-July 13, 1662 Quebec son (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; married about 1684/85 likely Cap St. Ignace.

Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Hervieux, Metis, son (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687); married Marie Tullia.

(I)- Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin married 1670 / rehabilitated Acadia 1684. 1st married 1670 Mathilde Madokawando; He married a second time 1685, Acadia to Marie Pidiwammiskawa, sister of Mathilde. Their father was Chief Madokawando an Abenaki (1630-1696).

The Edict of Nantes forced the removal of some leading Huguenot merchants and their return to France if they did not renounce their religion.

Sumptuous, magnificent meals and dances or balls are dangerous and licentious recreations in New France. Moderate dances with people of her own sex in the presence of her mother may be permitted, but never in the presence of men or boys. Comedy plays, no matter how holy the subject matter, are not permitted.

January 1: (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay de Denonville (1737-1710) is appointed Governor of New France, serving August 1, 1685 to October 12, 1689 (August 12, 1689).

February 19: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Paul Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

March 26: Riviere Ouelle, birth (II)-Marie Barbe Prou Metis daughter (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Herbert Metis b-1638; married June 11, 1704, Louis Isabel

May 7: Sorel, marriage (III)-Francois Pelletier Metis (1663-1692) killed by the Iroquois son (II)-Jean Pelletier Metis (1647-1692) and (II)-Marie Genevieve Manevely de Rainville; married (II)-Genevieve Le Tendre daughter (I)-Pierre La Tendre, and epouse December 9, 1693 Sorel Etienne Volant

May 8: Beauport, birth (II)-Marie Anne Savariaux daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

June 4: Champlain, birth (III)-Marie Anne Desrosiers, Metis daughter (II)-Michel Desrosiers b-1652 and (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis

June 8: Intendant of Canada, Jacques de Meulles (1682-86), introduced playing cards as money due to a lack of His Majesty’s funds needed to pay the troops and maintain commerce. This was withdrawn on September 5.

June 9: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Blanchet, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638; 1st married April 7, 1712, Marie Genevieve Gagne; 2nd marriage 1740 Genevieve Rousseau

June 14: Sorel, birth Catherine Garand, (Indian or Metis) daughter (I)-Joseph Garand (sauvage) and Anne

November 17: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Francois Fournier Metis son (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

August: (I)-Lefevre de La Barre (1622-1688), Governor New France September 1682 to August 1688, is recalled in disgrace, and his successor (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710), Governor (1685-89), arriving in Quebec on August1, is ordered to humble the Iroquois and is given 1,600 regular troops with adequate supplies. The French marched against the Iroquois, burning their villages and crops. The King of France expands the fir trade by allowing permits to the nobles and gentlemen of New France to engage in commerce on land and sea. The population of New France is 10,725 French and 1,538 settled Savages. Sieur Samuel Bernon of Rochel has the great warehouse at Quebec, containing merchandise for the fur trade. There are, however, independent men in Quebec who run their own warehouses and ships and are not part of the Quebec Merchants.

August 30: Beauport, birth, (III)-Simon Prevost, Metis, died September 1, 1685, Beauport, son (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, (1651-1686) and (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662:

December 8: Montreal, birth, (III)-Francois Prudhomme, Metis son (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671; married November 17, 1710, Montreal (II)-Marie Anne Courreau daughter (I)-Cybar Courreau

December 12: Boucherville, birth (III)-Jean Louis Bourgery pour Bougis son (II)-Pierre Bourgery et Bourgis, d-1703 and Marie Bouttard b-1643; married August 6, 1717 Detroit, Anne Alimacoua (Ouecacad) de Nation Kaskakau (Kascakaon)

December 28: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Jean Francois Tessier, Metis son (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748).

1686

Claude Petitpas married 1686 Acadia, Marie Therese Micmac.

Guillaume Bourgeois married Fort Royal, Acadia Marie Anne D’Aprendesteguy Martignon daughter Martin Martignon and Jeanne Latour, Metis

(I)- Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) orders de Troyes to take the English at James Bay.

Birth (III)-Pierre Miville. Metis, died May 30, 1688, Quebec, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687)

(II)-Pierre Le Moyner sieur d’Iberville (1661-1706) is in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

Jean Roy dit Laliberte married 1686, Acadia, Marie (Christine)(Dubois)(Hautbois) Aubois sauvagesse Acadia,

Claude Petitpas married 1686 Acadia Marie Therese Indian.

A Royal edict enlarged the Seigniorial rights, giving grain gristmill monopoly privileges, forcing many seigneurs to build mills within a year or forfeit their rights. The Seigneurs expanded this right to include sawmills. The state of the country is still pitiable. Children of great numbers passing all summer with nothing on them but a shirt, the wives and daughters working in the fields sending the young to range the woods for furs, yet they are miserably poor. A fire this year destroyed the mission at De Pere.

Bishop Jean Baptiste de Saint Vallier visited Acadia and noted it is full of libertines.

The Acadian population has expanded to 800 with the addition of only 40 families brought out from France since 1671 who are quickly absorbed into the Acadian culture. They had their own set of common beliefs, mutual aid and solidarity, including their own speech patterns and dialects. At Port Royal, Acadia there are only 30 soldiers.

January 18: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jean Lefebvre, Metis son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers;

January 23: Beauport, birth (III)-Noel Giroux, Metis, died August 15, 1750 Beauport son (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743); married November 22, 1707 Francoise Marguerite Gallien

February 9: Card money is again issued for the second time but is recalled in October.

February 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Genevieve Hervieux, Metis, died December 2, 1753, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687).

April: Jacques Pourpoint deserted his platoon and raped the wife of a Pierre Parrault a local resident. He was hanged, beheaded and placed atop a stake planted at a crossroads, there to remain as long as it held together.

April 18: Boucherville, marriage (II)-Pierre Goguet to (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

April 24: (I)-Jean Bochart de Champigny (1645-1720) is appointed Intendant of New France, serving from July to August l 1702. He is instructed to ensure that the French peasants enjoy complete tranquility among themselves and are maintained in just possession of all that belongs to them. He is to increase their numbers by all means possible. The Marquis de Denonville wrote that the Canadians are all big, well built and firmly planted on their feet. They are vigorous, very obstinate and inclined to dissolute, but are quick witted and vivacious. Champigny encouraged the cultivation of flax and hemp and the fishing and forestry industries.

June 24: Laprairie, marriage, (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 1st married November 21, 1686 (II)- Laprairie Jeanne Leber b-1671, died December 4, 1687 Laprairie daughter (I)-Jean Leber: 2nd married April 21, 1688 Laprairie (II)- Louise Caron b-1671, died April 13, 1703 Ville-Marie (Montreal),daughter (I)-Claude Caron; 3rd marriage August 27, 1703 Laprairie (II)- Marie Catherine de Poitiers, b-1671 died January 22, 1745 Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Poitiers.

June 29: St. Pierre, I.O., birth (III)-Louis Cote, Metis, son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page;

June 5: Boucherville, birth (II)-Louise Charron, Metis, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France:

July 25: Sorel, birth (III)-Marie Anne Crevier Metis daughter (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 and (II)-Marguerite Hertel

September 8: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Thomas Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Herbert Metis b-1638

September 29: Contrecoeur, birth (II)-Francois Chagnon. Metis, son (I)-Francois Chagnon (1645-1693 and (II)-Catherine Charon, Metis, born September 29, 1686 Montreal

October 13: Beauport, birth, (III)-Louis Prevost, Metis, died December 21, 1770, St. Philippe, son (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, (1651-1686) and (II)-Marguerite Careau, b-1662: married 1st. November 7, 1712 Beauport (III)-Marie Therese Maheu, b-1696: married 2nd July 9, 1731 Quebec, (III)-Marie Anne Giroux (1697-1767)

November 17: Ste Pierre, I., birth (II)-Guillaume Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645; married Marie Madeleine Nolin..

November 19: A Neutrality Pack was made between France and England to resolve the dispute over the Hudson Bay. A commission is to define the boundaries between New France and the Hudson Bay.

November 25: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, born November 24, 1663, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married (II)-Barbe Pigeon daughter (I)-Pierre Pigeon.

December 1: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Fournier Metis child (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

December 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Jeanne Gatien, Metis, died July 15, 1755, Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702); 1st married August 26, 1704, Quebec, Simon Doyer; 2nd marriage May 28, 1713, Quebec (I)-Henry Cain dit Lataille

1687

The missions St. Joachim & Cap de la Madeleine de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Acadia, birth Pierre Cellier dit Charet Metis the elder son Unknown Cellier dit Charet (Memcharet)d-1708 married 1682, Acadia, Marie Amerindien.b-1663, died March 7, 1727, Port Royal, Acadia ; married 1st Louise Innocent; 2nd marriage Francoise Minus daughter Philippe and Marie

(II)-Pierre Le Moyner sieur d’Iberville (1661-1706) is in France.

Pierre Lefebve, at Beauport, Quebec, is the first recorded suicide in New France, he was found hung in his barn leaving a wife and 4 children.

Louis Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan (1666-1715), wrote that the Indians are truly free while Frenchmen are slaves. He had served in Demonville’s campaign against the Senecas in 1687.

(I)- Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710), Governor of New France, led an attack against the Seneca (Iroquois) People, systematically destroying their villages. Retaliation would come in 1789. The prisoners of war are sent to France to work on the slave galleys.

(I)-Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) son Jean Laumet; married Beauport, Quebec Marie Therese Guton; they had nine children.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) is murdered in the Gult of Mexico by his associates.

(III)-Marie Madeleine Couc-Montour, Metis, baptised, 1687, died February 28, 1697 Trois Rivieres, daughter (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour Metis, , b-1659 and Jeanne Quiquetog8k8e.

(III)-Joseph Montour, Metis, b-1687, baptised January 7, 1688 St. Francois du Lac, son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, Metis, b-1659 and Jeanne Quiquetog8k8e; married before October 30, 1711, Detroit, Elizabeth Isabelle Monto/Onontio..

(II)-Jean Baptiste Nouschaux, Metis born Cap de La Madeleine son (I)-Louis Nouschaux and Marie Miscoue Sauvagesse

It was ordered that women of bad character be compelled to heavy physical labor, as deportation to France was not considered sufficient punishment. This was another form of enslavement practiced in the colony. Other punishments at this time included branding, lashing, shackling, mutilation, prison, galleys, burning and hanging.

The Abbe Dudouyt in Paris instructed the Jesuit Seminaire in Quebec to select thirty students by weeding out those who did not apply themselves. It is better to have a few students of high quality than many indifferent ones.

Two hundred families of French Protestant refuges arrived in New York this and next year. These refuges believed that King Louis XIV of France had ordered (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, to bring the Iroquois to an alliance, to then descend the Hudson to its mouth where a French fleet would help capture the City. Merchants and gentlemen are for ransom, Protestant farmers and mechanics are for forced labor, and French Protestants are to be sent to France for execution.

(I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d’Arce de la Hontan (1666-1710/15) is among 1,600 soldiers who accompany Denouville in a raid against the Iroquois People. He writes: Why are we bothering them? They have given us no cause to attack them.

A French army of 2,000 troops and their Algonquian allies marched into Iroquois country on a preemptive strike, burning villages, destroying cornfields and looting graves.

A Mohawk spokesperson told the French: We intend to stay here and to live here and die here; for where can we run? A number of Iroquois chiefs went to a French camp near Montreal, on the invitation of the French officials, under a flag of truce, to confer with the Governor of Canada. The Intendant, Champigny, had these chiefs seized and by the king’s orders sent to France to serve in the galleys.

Andross became Governor New England and plundered Penobscot and the estate of Baron de St. Castin.

January 10: Sorel, marriage (II)-Daniel Normandin, Metis died September 18, 1729 Batiscan son (I)-Jacob Normandin and Marie Briand; married Louise Hayott born May 1, 1664 Sillery, daughter (II)-Jean Hayot and (II)-Louise Pelletier died November 9, 1713 Quebec.. Tanguay suggests the name Normandin is Sauvage.

January 14: Beauport, Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Jeanne Prevost, Metis, died February 24, 1755 St. Laurent, Montreal, daughter (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, b-1660 and (II)-Francoise LeBlanc, b-1662: married May 24, 1706 Montreal (I)-Pierre DeNoyon, et Vaujon dit Laframboise, b-1682

February 1, Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Beriau Metis son (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660

February 14: Montreal, birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste Prudhomme, Metis, died November 10, 1709, Montreal son (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671.

April 17: Lorette, Quebec, birth, (II)-Catherine Couturier, Metis died May 25, 1687 Lorette, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646 and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne, b-1649, veuve 1662 de Jean Durand (1636-1671).

April 28: Cap de la Madeleine, Quebec birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Nouschaux, Metis son Louis Nouschaux and Marie Miscoue sauvagesse.

June 4: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Crevier, Metis son (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648

July 25: Beauport, birth (II)-Jacques Savariaux son (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family

November 6: Cap de Madeleine, birth (II)-Marguerite Baudet, Metis daughter (I)-Laurent Baudet and (III)-Marguerite Crevier, Metis born likely Trois Rivieres? daughter (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648; married Jean Masse

November 12: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Tessier, Metis daughter (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748); married February 20, 1708, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Paul Baudreau dit Graveline son (I)-Urbain Baudreau..

December 3 birth, 17 death Pte aux Trembles de Quebec (III)-Marie Louise Normandin Metis daughter (II)-Daniel Normandin, Metis d-1729 and Louise Hayott b-1664

1688

(II)-Pierre Le Moyner sieur d’Iberville (1661-1706) is in James Bay.

(III)-Jacques Mius, Metis, b-1688, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag.

The mission Riviere des Prairies de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

The edict of King Louis XIV authorized the importation of slaves into New France (Canada) about this time. Some suggests it only related to Negroes from Africa.

Jean Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrieres de Aint-Vallier (1653-1727) succeeded the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) who resigned, and is more puritanical. He served until 1727. He favored a severe morality and waged war against drunkenness, blasphemy, dancing and immodest dress, including bare arms and low cut gowns worn in their own homes. It is still acceptable by the Church to extract evidence by means of torture, where boards are bound to the shins and wedges hammered in, crushing the bones. Thirty men and women suffered this practice during the century of Royal Religious Government. Jacques de Noyen pushed beyond Lake Superior to explore Rainy Lake and the Lake of the Woods.

After a number of years being attacked by the French army, the Iroquois entered into peace at Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal).

The Indian hostilities in Acadia commenced against the English because Governor Andross attacked the Indian settlement of Penobscot. Andress was relieved of his post but this did not prevent war.

January 7: St. Frs Du Lac, marriage (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, b-1659 and 2nd marriage, January 7, 1688 St. Du Lac Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, Algonquine, b-1656.

January 7: St. Frs Du Lac, baptism (III)-Jean Couc, metis b-1673 son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour and 1st marriage Maeleine Sacokie; 2nd marriage January 7, 1688 St. Du Lac Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, Algonquine, sauvageese, b-1656.

March 24: Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Louis Lefebvre, Metis son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married February 3, 1722, Champlain, Elisabeth LeGuay

April 21: Quebec, marriage, Mathurin Cadau to (II)-Marie Durand, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Annennontank, Huronne b-1649.

April 21: Laprairie, marriage, (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 1st married November 21, 1686 (II)- Laprairie Jeanne Leber b-1671, died December 4, 1687 Laprairie daughter (I)-Jean Leber: 2nd married April 21, 1688 Laprairie (II)- Louise Caron b-1671, died April 13, 1703 Ville-Marie (Montreal),daughter (I)-Claude Caron; 3rd marriage August 27, 1703 Laprairie (II)- Marie Catherine de Poitiers, b-1671 died January 22, 1745 Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Poitiers.

May 10: Boucherville, birth (II)-Jeanne Charron, Metis, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married Francois Bouteille.

June 7: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 to (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis, died May 13, 1744, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; 2nd marriage April 30, 1703, Quebec Francois Laraue.

June 29: St Frs Pte du Lac, birth/death (II)-Pierre Delpee, Metis, son (I)- Francois Singerny also St. Cerny and Delpee (1640-1725) and (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, (1661-1750).

July 11: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Anne Gatien, Metis, died March 7, 1689, Quebec daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702).

July 16: Beauport, birth (III)-Jean Langlois, Metis son (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Genevieve Parant: married October 10, 1712 Ste Foye, Madeleine Bisson.

July 18: Beauport, birth (III)-Nicolas Giroux, Metis, died November 12, 1734 Charlesbourg son (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743): married January 17, 1716 Charlesbourg Marguerite Blondeau

July 18: Beauport, birth (III)-Therese Giroux, Metis, died January 30, 1689 Beauport, daughter (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743):

July 27: Lachine, marriage Andre Canaple to (II)-Marie Genevieve, born July 21, 1669, Ville-Marie (Montreal), killed August 5, 1689 Lachine by the Iroquois.

July 31: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (I)-Mathurin Cadau et Cadot Le Poitevin (1649-1729), to (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, Metis, born April 21, 1666 daughter (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine (Kateri) Annennontank, Huronne born October, 1648.

August 10: Governor Jacques Rene de Brisay de Denonville wrote to the Marquis de Seignelay, son and heir of Jean Baptiste Colbert: Twenty years ago, we had 2,000 Natives capable of bearing arms and who were the ancestral foes of the Iroquois; This number has been reduced to nothing because today, we could not count on thirty.

August 12: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Pierre Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert Metis, b-1638; married November 12, 1705, St. Thomas Jean Francois Tibaut.

August 21: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Charles Bredel, Metis son (I)-Jean Bredel, b-1664 to Madeleine St. Jean Lavallee of Nation des Onontagues sauvagesse; Jean 2nd marriage 1703 Lorette (II)-Marie Anne Migneron, epouse January 17, 1712 Quebec Simon Driere

September 8: St. Ignace, birth (II)-Joseph Lemieux, Metis, son (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, (1645-1696).

September 9: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cecile Lefebvre, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married June 4, 1708, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (III)-Jean Archambault b-1683, died 1748 son (II)-Laurent Archambault.

December 24: Montreal, birth (III)-Joseph Aubuchon born December 24, 1688, Montreal d-1772 son (II)-Joseph Aubuchon died January 18, 1749 La Lomgue Ponte and (II)-Elizabeth Cucsson b-1667 died May 28, 1711; married, March 19, 1729, Kaskakia, Illinois, Marie Pani8ensa, Oumean, a sauvagesse slave girl.

1689

The first recorded black slaves appeared in New France this year, adding to the Indian slaves population presently being held.

Birth (III)-Claude Lefebvre, Metis, died June 18, 1749, Baie du Febvre, son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married Marie Catherine Desrochers

Cap de la Madeleine, birth (III)-Marie Jeanne Crevier, Metis died February 21, 1726 Montreal daughter (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648; Soeur dite Ste. Helene (Congr N.D.)

Port Royal: birth (II)-Bernard Anselme d’Abbadie de Saint Castin, Metis, (1689-1720) son a (I)-French officer at Acadia d-1707 and Matilda Penobscot (Abenaki) d-1734 Pau, France daughter Madockawando (Matakando) d-1698; married Marie Charlotte Damour daughter Louis Damour. Castin was a pirate by trade, preyed on the English and used Port Royal as his home base where he was well regarded.

Louis XIV had commanded (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, to cancel all forest trading permits, close and destroy all forts and forest posts, and order all ranging spirits home and compel them to stay. Ville-Marie (Montreal) prosperity is totally dependent on the western Coureurs des Bois fur trade. (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, knew that no power in the land could enforce them. The orders are not followed. France and England are at war, and the Iroquois began war on New France. The French blame the English and attacked their settlements, killing men, women and children.

Greysolon du L’hut and Nicholas de Mantet, with twenty-eight Coureurs des Bois at the lake of Two Mountains, killed twenty-one Iroquois. One escaped.

The King William’s War (1689-1697) was between England and France.

January 28: The French army departed Trois Rivieres, Quebec to attack New England.

February 21: Boucherville, marriage Jacques Hubert to (II)-Marie Therese Charron, Metis, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France:

February 25: Montreal, birth, (III)-Cecile Prudhomme, Metis died July 19, 1777, Montreal, daughter (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671; married January 18, 1718 (III)-Louis Lamy born August 29, 1790, Sorel died September 25, 1748 Sorel and Catherine Badaillac.

March 9, Quebec, birth (II)-Maurice Beriau Metis son (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married April 28, 1711 Quebec, Catherine Monet.

May 2: Champlain, marriage (III)-Francois Pelletier, Metis b-1663 Quebec son (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) and (II)-Margurite Madeleine Morisseau, epouse January 9, 1698 Montreal Pierre Maillet

May 6, Quebec, birth (II)-Maurice Beriau Metis son (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married April 28, 1711 Quebec Catherine Monet.

May 24: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Fournier Metis child (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

May 24: King William’s War is declared between England and France. New France is now pitted against the English in New England and New York and their Iroquois allies.

June: Sieur Chevalier de Callieres, Governor of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal), proposed to the King of France, to attack New York for instigating the Iroquois Nation against Canada. The King approved the venture and requested that non-Catholic prisoners, either English or Dutch, be expelled to New England, Pennsylvania or other areas. Bishop Jean Baptiste de la Croix Chevriere de Saint Vallier (1688-1727) issued a pastoral letter concluding that the advance of the English menace was due to of sins of the French Canadians. The Bishop called the people to arms to protect the colony.

June: Dover, New Hampshire was destroyed. Major Waldron and 22 others were killed and 29 taken captive. The Major was tortured a slow death for his atrocities committed 12 years earlier against the Indians. Saco and Pemaquid where shortly also destroyed.

June 7: (I)- Louis de Baud (Buade) comte of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, is assigned a second term as Governor of New France, October 12, 1689 to November 28, 1698.. He is ordered to expel the English from the Hudson Bay and to take the colony of New York. He ignored the French directives and instead sent raiding parties against New York and New England. Frontenac used his position to profit from the fur trade.

June 20: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Angelique Bodin, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672; married June 17, 1715, Quebec Jacques Philippe Lebel.

July 23: Sebastian Rale (1657-1724), a Jesuit, arrived in Quebec from France and is sent to Kennebec River among the Abenaki.

August 4-5: In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing 400. They put everything to fire and axe. Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned. Others suggest those captured were burned.

August 5: Lachine, death (II)-Marie Genevieve born July 21, 1669 Ville-Marie (Montreal), killed by the Iroquois; married July 27, 1688 Lachine, Andre Canaple.

August 15: The French and Abenaki Indians attacked Fort Pemequid near Kennebec, Maine.

August 29: Beauport, Quebec, birth (III)-Francoise Prevost, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, b-1660 and (II)-Francoise LeBlanc, b-1662: married November 23, 1711 Montreal (I)-Jean Viau (1681-1750).

(II)-Jean Baudry dit L’Epinette born April 6, 1678 is killed September 8, 1689 by the Iroquois, daughter (I)-Antoine Daury dit L’Epinette, b-1638 and Catherine Guyard, b-1639, Paris.

September 16: Beauport, birth (II)-Suzanne Savariaux daughter (I)-Jacques Savariaux (Metis?) (1636-1724) and Suzanne Lacroix, (Huron?) (1653-1718), this family is most likely sauvage or Metis family; married April 24, 1713 Quebec (II)-Andre Louineau, b-1681

October: Marie Louise Pittman, born November 15, 1657, Piscatoue, daughter Guillaume Pittman and Barbe; is captured by the savages October 1689; married Marie Willis; baptised December 8, 1693 Montreal.

October 11: Montreal, marriage (II)-Charles Lemaitre to (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis born likely Trois Rivieres? daughter (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648

October 12-18: (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, arrived back in Quebec. King Louis XIV gave Frontenac three clear directives: to restore New France, control the Iroquois and defeat the English.

November 13: Twenty miles down river from Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal), the settlement of La Chesnaye was destroyed by Iroquois, killing twenty people.

December 12: Sorel, death Jeanne Rousey, sauvagesse b-1622 married to (I)-Nicolas Pelletier.

1690

The Religieuses Hospitaliers in Quebec applied for and obtained trading licenses.

A conference held during May in New York agreed to attack Forts Ville-Marie (Montreal) and Quebec in retaliation for the French invasion. Selected to lead the Expedition is William Phips, Governor of Massachusetts, Bay Province.

February 10: Boucherville, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Barron (Baron)

Nicolas Bernard b-1662 married 1690 Marguerite sauvagesse b-1662.

(II)-Rene Hilaire Cuillerier, b-1690, died January 2, 1771 Hospital General, Montreal, married 1st. (II)-Marie Jeanne Cornuo (1694-1756); 2nd marriage Elisabeth Padoka Sauvegesse.

An ancestor of the Garneau clan (I)-Luc Proteau born 1668 married 1690 Pte Aux Trembles, New France (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain born 1670.

There are 4092 slaves recorded in New France by this date including 1,400 Negres and 2,692 Indians.

Based on religious teachings, most New France people believed in magic and witchcraft. Tales are told of flying canoes, werewolves and encounters with the devil. The clergy is called to exorcise a suspected sorceress, but this never reached the religious furor of the Salem witch hunts.

Beaver pelts were piling up in stockrooms and rotting because supply greatly exceeded French demand. The French market could only absorb 40,000 to 50,000 pounds of pelts per year. In 1689 800,000 pounds of beaver pelts arrived Montreal.

Fifteen leagues below Fort Quebec are a number of Coureurs des Bois and Ottawa who are in rebellion and very desirous to trade with the English, as the French are unable to furnish goods. The Jesuits who live among the Ottawa are not well liked according to Samuel York.

(I)-Claude de Ramezay, (1659-1724) Governor Trois Rivieres (1690-1699).

The Abnakis who are 3 leagues from Quebec plant Skamounar also called Turkey Wheat or Indian Corn.

Port-Royal, Acadia is captured by the British. It will be renamed Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia

January 1: Pte du Lac, birth (II)-Marie Jeanne Delpee, Metis, daughter, (I)- Francois Singerny also St. Cerny and Delpee (1640-1725) and (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, (1661-1750).

January 11: Champlain, marriage (I)-Jacques Sauvage, d-1767 married (III)-Catherine Jean View, daughter (II)-Jean Vien, epouse August 5, 1724, Detroit, Pierre Godfroy.

January 22: Montreal, birth (III)-Jacques Goguet, Metis, son (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

February 8: (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, ordered a three-prong attack on the English. Nicholas de Mantet, Jacques Le Moyne de Ste Helene and (II)-Pierre Le Moyne’d (Moyner) Iberville et d’Ardillieres (d’Iberville) (1661-1706); a ruthless, cruel man, and two hundred and fifty men, in February, destroyed Schenectardy, Connecticut (New York), killing thirty eight men and boys, ten women and twelve children. They captured between eighty and ninety men. Other accounts suggest sixty residents were massacred including seventeen children. Either version suggests they were massacred. Francois Joseph Hertel de Moncour (1642-1722), with twenty-four French and an equal number of Natives, attacked Salmon Falls, Maine (March 27-28) between New Hampshire and Maine, killing thirty men, women and children. The captured totaled fifty-four women and children. Many escaped only to perish by exposure or frozen limbs.

February 10: Boucherville, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Barron (Baron) son (I)-Ledger Baron (1642-1711) and (II)-Marie Anne Baudon, died July 4, 1703 Boucherville; married about 1730 Illinois, Marie Catherine Illinois Indian, b-1703, died October 12, 1745 Illinoise de Kaskakia; 2nd marriage August 18, 1748 Cahokia Domitlde Rolet.

March 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Blanchet, died September 6, 1693 St. Thomas, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

March 28: Berwick is attacked, 34 killed and 50 taken prisoner and the town was burnt.

March 30: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Francois Langlois, Metis, son, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, b-1648 and (II)-Marie Cadieu:

April 5: St. Thomas, Pierreville, death, (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690), and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine sauvagesse (1631-1699).

April 25: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Fournier Metis child (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

April 28: Levis, birth (II)-Joseph, died May 5, 1690, Gesseron, Metis son (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657

May: Seven war ships with 736 New Englanders, under William Phips (1650-1695), attacked Acadia; Port Royal fell without resistance, La Here and Chedabucto, sacking houses, destroying crops, slaughtering livestock and they burned the Forts and houses.

May 26: Falmouth is attacked and all citizens unable to reach the fort are slain. Fort Loyal after 4 days defense surrendered. About 100 men, women and children are killed. Captain Davis and 3/4 others were taken captive. Major Church believed this vicious attack was in retaliation to an English vicious attack on Lachine last year, that saw 200 men, women and children burned alive. Some were forced to throw their own children into the fire. Others died under prolonged torture.

May 27: Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Haude Heart murdered Francois Pougnet b-1645 on January 26, 1690. He was condemned to having his right had cut in front of victims house, to receive six sharp blows on the legs, the thighs and arms on a scaffold. He was then put on the wheel until certified dead. The torturer was Jean Ratter.

May 28: Francois Joseph Hertel de Moncour’s (1642-1722) band of thirty six joined Portneuf and his one hundred and ten French with a large number of Natives, making a force of five hundred, attacked Fort Loyal, Casco Bay (Portland, Maine). The Fort surrendered, and the French turned the people over to the Natives. On their return they were pursued by a British American party, resulting in the death of Louis Crevier nephew of Hertel. He and his sons were long remembered for their many brutal attacks on the English colonies.

July 6: Montreal, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Desrosiers, Metis son (II)-Michel Desrosiers b-1652 and (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis

July 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Bodin Bodin, Metis, died May 5, 1749, Quebec, son (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672.

July 31: Beauport, birth (III)-Genevieve Langlois, Metis, daughter, (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Genevieve Parant: married February 14, 1708 Beauport, Rene Toupin.

August 10: A fleet of thirty-two ships set sail for Fort Quebec with two thousand and two hundred men. The ships had been waiting for supplies from England. A land army from New York, headed by Fitz John Winthrop of Connecticut and Robert Livingston of New York, with eight hundred English and an equal number of Iroquois, was to attack Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). Winthrop noted that they prayed to almighty God to help subdue Canada. Due to bungling, only twenty-nine English and one hundred Iroquois made it to La Prairie on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, killing or capturing twenty-five French.

August 17: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Charles Tessier, Metis, died December 26, 1747, Montreal son (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703); 1st married April 9, 1720, Montreal Suzanne Buisson; 2nd marriage March 19, 1723, Montreal Francoise Janson; 3rd marriage October 29, 1726, Montreal, Marie Madeleine Pepin.

September 25: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Joseph Prou Metis, died November 5, 1693 St. Thomas, son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

October: About 30 English war ships entered the St. Lawrence River to take Quebec.

October 16: Sir William Phips, Major General, arrived at Fort Quebec with Senior Officers Lieutenant General Walley, Admiral Captain Gilbert and Vice-Admiral Captain Joseph Eldridge, and began planning the attack on Fort Quebec.

October 18: One thousand, three hundred (1,500?) landed on the Beauport Shoals and secured a position at St. Charles (between Beauport and Quebec) with little resistance. They burned 6-7 farms, killed 2 French and wounded 13. William Phips assumed the land force was successful and began the bombardment of Fort Quebec, both upper and lower towns. Return fire raked the ships. They were unable to land cannon at the St. Charles position, and they could make no headway. Gunpowder is running short on the ships; as a quick victory was assumed and supplies are limited. (I)-Daniel d’Auger de Subercase (1662-1732) was with Frontenac in Quebec. William Phips of New England ordered a retreat and the exchange of prisoners and returned to Boston, losing four of his ships and 400 men in the process. The English, however, blockaded the St. Lawrence, and only one in three supply ships made it through, placing Fort Quebec in a starvation scenario. Many Massachusetts, expecting plunder from Quebec, were brought to near bankruptcy. The attacking English men were farmers, tradesmen and townsfolk, not solders or sailors. They were required to supply their own guns. Some were 60 to 70 years old, showing signs of modifications and repair. They were required to supply their own eating utensils, ammunition containers and clothing. The bombardment of Quebec only resulted in the death of one child but the raked English ships lost 100 men and serious damage to four large ships. It was noted that 200 Loups (Englishmen, disguised as Savages) was employed against the French.

October 19: Montreal, birth (III)-Jacques Lemaitre, Metis died November 7, 1690 Montreal, son (II)-Charles Lemaitre and (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis

November 30: Beauport, birth (III)-Anne Therese Giroux, Metis, daughter (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743): married January 26, 1712 Beauport, Jean Duprac

December 26: Batiscan, birth (II)-Marie Louise Cadau et Cadot, Metis, died November 11, 1708 daughter (I)-Mathurn Cadotte, Cadau alias Poitevin (1649-1729) and (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, Metis, born June 4, 1666 Cap Rouge (Sillery), Quebec, died November 25, 1708 Batiscan, Quebec.

December 26: Montreal, birth, (III)-Cunegonde Prudhomme, Metis died October daughter (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671; married January 7, 1721, Montreal, (II)-Jacques Gauthier b-1691, Montreal, son (I)-Jean Gautier et Gauthier and Jeanne Petit, b-1657.

1691

(II)-Pierre Le Moyner sieur d’Iberville (1661-1706) is in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

(III)-Pierre D’Azy Mius, Metis, b-1691, Acadia son (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag.

The mission St. Augustin de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

The English asked the Iroquois to keep the French in perpetual alarm.

Monseigneur de Saint Vallier, bishop of Quebec, forbid the people to dance.

The Coureurs des Boise are spending 2-3 years in the woods, traveling everywhere.

Fort La Chine (Lachine), also known as Fort Remy, is established nine miles above Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) at the head of the Lachine rapids.

A plague of caterpillars destroyed the crop this year, and the colony is besieged with a plague of squirrels that soon found their way to the tables of the hungry settlers. New France is perishing by inches, so wrote (I)-Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot.

Birth (III)-Pierre Pelletier, Metis, b-1691died February 7, 1757 Berthier en Haut son (II)-Francois Pelletier, Metis and Marguerite Morisseau.

(I)-Joseph Chevalier Robineau de Villebon (1655-1700) brother Menneval had obtained permission from King Louis XIV to make Acadia French, and he was made Governor (1690-1700). Acadia included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and most of Maine. The English set the southern boundary at the St. Croix River and the French at the Kennebec River. The population was one thousand, mostly at Port Royal with its Fort and ninety houses. The Bay of Fundy had the settlements of Beaubassin and Les Minas. However, no one Country really dominated this land.

(I)-Joseph Chevalier Robineau de Villebon (1655-1700) sailed to Port Royal to a welcomed surrender. Crossing to St. John river, upstream to Naxouat, across the river from present-day Fredericton, New Brunswick, and built Fort Naxouat (Jemseg). He believed this was easier to defend than Port Royal. His instructions are to engage the Natives in continuous war with the English. Father Louis Pierre Thury, (1644-1699), an English missionary trained in Fort Quebec, is a zealot who firmly believed the English were enemies of God. He instructed the Natives to attack the English, since this is the sure road to Divine favor. Port Royal is attacked by pirates.

New France Intendant, Champigny, reported that most who work their lands are rich or, at very least, very comfortable; having good fishing close to their homes and a goodly number of cattle in pasture.

February 16: Monsignor de Saint Vallier, Bishop of Quebec urges the confessors to keep the parishioners away from popular dances, which are gatherings of iniquity.

Death, (II)-Ignace Durand, Metis, born likely Sillery, died November 30, 1697 Cap St. Ignace, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne B-1649.

(II)-Ignace Durand, Metis b-1669, died November 30, 1670?, Cap St. Ignace, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne b-1649; married February 24, 1691 Catherine Miville.

February 17: Sorel, birth (IV)- Jean Francois Pelletier, Metis son (III)-Francois Pelletier Metis (1663-1692) killed by the Iroquois and (II)-Genevieve Le Tendre; married August 17, 1691, Quebec, Catherine Arnaul

February 24: Quebec marriage (II)-Ignace Durant (1699-1697) Metis son (I)-Jean Durant (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontak (Huronne) b-1649; married (II)-Marie Catherine Miville daughter (I)-Jacques Miville, epouse September 16, 1701 Quebec, Jean Soulard.

March 28: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Fournier Metis son (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

April: The King of France based on a proposal by the Company of the North, authorized (I)-Louis de Buade, Compte de Frontenac Governor (1689-98) to take Fort Nelson. The Company of the North led by d’Iberville shall use the ship Hazardeux commanded by Sieur Tast.

April 7: Joseph Robinau de Villebon (1655-1700) is appointed commandant of Acadia (1691-1700). En route to Avadia, a Boston vessel was captured, and Colonel Edward Tyng (1649-1691), British Governor of Acadia ( Nova Scotia), was captured. He died in captivity in France.

April 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Gatien, died December 11, 1749, Quebec. daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702): 1st married November 10, 1710, Quebec (I)-Jean Marchesseau dit Laramee; 2nd married January 20, 1737, Quebec (I)-Christophe Dubois.

May 12: Intendant Jean Bochart de Champigny wrote: It is regrettable that our vigorous, never-tiring Canadian youth are attracted to nothing but these kinds of journeys, where they live in the woods like savages, spending two or three years without receiving the sacraments, in idleness and often extraordinary misery. Once accustomed to this life, they find it hard to dedicate themselves to cultivating the land, and they live in extreme poverty, because they spend much upon their return. On the other hand, those who settle and add value to the land are rich, or, at least, live very comfortably with their fields and fish ponds around their houses, as well as considerable numbers of cattle. There will be a lack of Frenchmen to settle the country as most children spend all their time in journeys, a situation that is not consequential to any measure of sternness.

May 16, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Angelique Beriau Metis died October 24, 1731 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married 1st November 9, 1720 Quebec, Elie Lafarge; married 2nd February 23, 1727, Quebec, Thomas Castillon

April: Point Aux Trembles is attacked, with thirty homes being burned. In retaliation, at Repentigny; a few miles down river, forty or more Iroquois are discovered sleeping and are killed. The captives are burned at the stake in Repentigny, Point Aux Trembles and Boucherville by the French. As a result, the Iroquois would not keep up the attacks unless the English joined in.

June 27: Pte aux Trembles de Quebec birth (III)-Jean Francois Normandin Metis son (II)-Daniel Normandin, Metis d-1729 and Louise Hayott b-1664

July 19: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Urbain Lefebvre, Metis, died March 9, 1729 Repentigny, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married May 17, 1716 Batiscan (III)-Louise Catherine Rivard dit Langouette, b-1695 died February 16, 1775 Repentignay, daughter (II)-Pierre Rivard.

August: Major Schuyler, with a force of one hundred and fifty English and Dutch from Albany and fifty Iroquois, set out to attack Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) or rather, La Prairie. La Prairie, however, is defended by one thousand eight hundred men. Schuyler escaped the attack with his life but lost most of his men.

August 15: Sorel, birth (IV)-Jean Francois Metis son (III)-Francois Pelletier, Metis b-1663 and (II)-Margurite Madeleine Morisseau, epouse January 9 , 1698 Montreal Pierre Maillet; Married March 25, 1718 Detroit Marie Robert. Jeans descendants are in the Strait and Munro on Lake Erie.

August 27: Pte Aux Trembles (II)-Nicolas Millet dit Beausseron and his 1st wife (II)-Catherine Chaperon who died January 9, 1695 were captured by the Iroquois August 27 and returned September 4, 1691.

September 22: Montreal, birth (III)-Marie Francoise Lemaitre-Auger, b-1691 Metis daughter (II)-Charles Lemaitre and (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis; married February 9, 1711 Trois Rivieres, (II)-Charles Paillier et Paille (1683-1758)

October 29: La Cote St Laurent, death Denise Lemaistre, killed by the Iroquois, veuve Pierre Peras and (I)-Francois Cahel (1642-1687).

December 7: Montreal, birth (III)-Jean Goguet, Metis, son (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

December 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Etienne Bodin, Metis son (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672.

1692

The missions Beaumont & Lotbiniere de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Acadia, birth Pierre Cellier dit Charet Metis the younger son Unknown Cellier dit Charet (Memcharet)d-1708 married 1682, Acadia, Marie Amerindien.b-1663, died March 7, 1727, Port Royal, Acadia; married Madeleine Ouaouamintetces

Marie Madeleine Jarret Tarieu (1678-1747) at Vercheres, Quebec when only age 14 took up defense of her fathers fort with only two soldiers plus women and children. About 45 Iroquois were attacking the fort. She immediately ordered one gun be placed in each opening. They marched back and forth firing the guns at random. All women were trained in loading the guns. Fires were lit to give the illusion of a well armed fort. They held the fort against the Iroquois for 8 days. She later married Pierre Thomas Tarieu De La Naudiere and had 5 children

New France was losing the War until they adopted the hit and run tactics of the Iroquois. The French took over one hundred Iroquois scalps, thirty prisoners and eleven women and children.

Charles Claude de Villieu, with the help of Father Louis Pierre Thury, (1644-1699); an English missionary, approached Oyster River, twelve miles from Portsmouth where Duram now stands, and attacked; killing one hundred and four mostly women and children and taking twenty seven prisoners. The band broke up into smaller groups, and one group attacked Groton with forty dead. Villieu is pleased, as he said not even infants in the cradle are spared. There was also a contingent of twenty French headed by Governor Villebon’s brother, Portneuf, that headed for the village of Wells; which was about the same size as York. Wells, however, is prepared for war when the four hundred-man force attacked. The greatly outnumbered defenders caused the attackers to withdraw in total failure.

De Villebon built Fort Saint Joseph up the St. John River.

Caterpillars destroyed most of the crop in New France this year.

(I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698)- the Huguenot, is sending voyageurs to the Ottawa and Wendat with military supplies, but these men are trading for furs under their own account. These same voyageurs turned Coureurs des Bois and are trading into Dakota and Assiniboine country.

January: Father Louis Pierre Thury, (1644-1699), an English missionary, led one hundred and fifty of his trusted Abnaki converts into the forest at Kennebec where they met another group of Natives who agreed to join in for plunder.

January 25: Marie Risheoth born January 8, 1660 York daughter Edouard Rishwoth, English from Lincoln and Suzanne Wilright; captured January 25, 1692 along with Genevieve and Marie Joseph Sayer; 1st married Guillaume Sayer; 2nd marriage Jacques Pleisted.

February 4: They approached the town of York with three to four hundred inhabitants. Of the hundred killed, many are women and children, and eighty are taken captive. Into June the killings continued, now involving the Micmac, Malecite and Abnaki. Father Baudoin’s mission at Beaubassin, at the head of Fundy, also provided recruits.

February 24: St. Jean, birth (II)-Louis Blanchet, died August 23, 1693 St. Jean, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

February 24: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Francois Fournier Metis died March 7, 1692 Cap St. Ignace son (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

March 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Louise Tessier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703); 1st married November 18, 1709, Montreal, (II)-Paul Dumouchel (1684-1719); 2nd marriage June 8, 1722, Montreal, (II)-Jean Bouchard dit Lavallee (1697-1747).

May 24: Montreal, baptism, Pierre Celestin Negre a native of Madagascar, b-1668, a slave of Pierre Leber, a merchant.

May 24: Montreal, baptism, Louis Negre, a native of Madagascar and slave of M. Dupre married this date,

July 13: St. Thomas, birth/death (II)-Catherine Prou Metis daughter (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

July 29: Quebec, baptism Jean Baptist Etchemin (sauvage) b-1620.

July 31: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Anne Agnes Tessier, Metis, died March 8, 1738, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748); married February 28, 1713, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Jacques Moquin b-1681, died March 8, 1738, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Mathurine Moquin.

August: Montreal, about 180 canoes filled with Ottawa’s, Huron’s (Wendat) and 250 voyageurs (coureur des bois) visited to trade furs.

August 4: Quebec, baptism Marie Ursule a Micmac (sauvage) b-1690.

August 20: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Charles Lefebvre dit St. Jean, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married February 8, 1717 Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Francoise Gaudry, b-1697 daughter (II)-Nicolas Gaudry.

October 14: Quebec, baptism Marie Madeleine de l’Acadie (sauvage).

October 22: The Iroquois attacked Ville-Marie (Montreal) which was defended by two soldiers, a fourteen year old Madeleine Jarret de Vercheres aided by her two younger brothers, an old servant and a few mothers with infants. They held the Fort for the eight day siege. The single Iroquois who chased Madeleine to the fort became a band of 45 with the telling. Gord Rainey suggests Madelaine defended her father’s small fort at Vercheres against the Iroquois, not the much larger fort at Ville Marie (Montreal).

November 4, Chateau Richer, marriage Jean David to (III)-Marie Anne Prevost, Metis daughter (II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, (1651-1686), (II)-Francoise Gagnon, b-1655: Marie second marriage June 25, 1704 Clement Langlois.

December 6: Sorel, birth/death (IV)- Joseph Pelletier, Metis son (III)-Francois Pelletier Metis (1663-1692) killed by the Iroquois and (II)-Genevieve Le Tendre

1693

(III)-Marie Mius, Metis, b-1692/93, Acadia daughter (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married August 24, 1726, Jean Baptiste Thomas..

The missions St. Michel de la Durantaye, Varennes & Ste Anne de la Perade de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Jean Baptiste Baruc, Anglas, born May 6, 1673, Corlar, baptised September 8, 1693, Ville-Marie (Montreal), a prisoner February 1690, son of a monk or brother in the service of Marie Anne Migeon and Francais, likely a savagesse.

(I)-Pierre You, Sieur De la Decouverte (1669-1718), married likely 1693 Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Elisabeth Sauvagesse Miami, 2nd marriage 1697 Montreal, Madeleine Just, veuve de Jerome Leguay

One child of first marriage recorded:

(II)-Marie Anne You, Metis b-1694, married August 15, 1718, Jean Richard

Birth (III)-Joseph Lefebvre, Metis, died August 3, 1754, Baie du Febvre son (II)-Jacques Lefervre, Metis, seigneur de la Baie St. Antoine, (1647-1720), and Jeanne Aunois, savage/Metis b-1621 of the Indian Nation, died February 11, 1697, Trois Riviers; married 1st november 10, 1727, Baie du Febvre, Genevieve Disy; 2nd marriage July 23, 1731, Catherine Messier

Antoinette Le Grand gave birth to Pierre an illegitimate in Montreal, father is unknown. She married Nicolas Preunior.

One hundred and ninety thousand livres are spent fortifying Fort Quebec and next year, seven hundred and fifty thousand would be spent on conscripting every able bodied man for twenty miles around Fort Quebec, and paying for the growing numbers of soldiers. Upgrading of defenses is also taking place in Three Rivers and Ville-Marie (Montreal). Sporadic attacks and reprisals with the Iroquois continued, as did the burnings at the stake in Forts Ville-Marie (Montreal) and Quebec. The Jesuit wrote, “Seen the burning of an Iroquois without feeling sure that he is on the path to paradise; and we never knew one of them to be surely on the path to paradise without seeing him pass through this fiery punishment.” The Canadian version of the only good Indian is a (baptized) dead Indian.

(I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), the Huguenot, following the strategy of the Jesuit ,decided to widen the breach between the Christian and Non-Christian Mohawk. He commissioned Nicholas d’Ailleboust de Mantet (1663-1709), Courtemanche and Le Noue with one hundred soldiers and Christian Caughnawaga Natives drawn from all missions in the colony, making a force of six hundred and twenty five men. The plan is to use the Christian Mohawk from the mission of Sault Saint Louis or Caughnawaga, across the river from Lachine, to kill their relatives. Three Mohawk villages are attacked in Northern New York, with twenty to thirty being killed and three hundred captured. The hidden strategy is to immediately kill all their male captives. However, the Christian natives would have none of it. Peter Schuyler and a band of Mohawk arrived to do battle and, being joined by the Oneida, they made an equal force. The Christian Natives are showing signs of decamping, having had enough of this fruitless venture. Father Guy and other priests stood before their converts saying, “What are you afraid of? We are fighting infidels who have nothing human but the shape.” The French retreated with their prisoners and threatened to kill them if pursued, and the infidel Iroquois withdrew from the encounter. This action, however, convinced the northern tribes and voyagers to open trading after three years of slow trade down the St. Lawrence.

The Roman Catholic hierarchy was apposed to public theatrical performance in Quebec, and this belief reached its pinnacle in 1693/94 when Bishop Saint Vallier bribed Governor Frontenac not to allow the staging of Moliere Tartuffe; famous for its attack on religious hypocrisy. As a result, no Native theatrical tradition existed during the French regime.

The Seminary of St. Sulprice claimed and received full Feudal Property Rights of administration “high and low justice” on their domain. They also obtained the privilege of nominating the first Royal Judge. This is noteworthy, as this presidency can be expanded to 1/4 of New France which is under religious control. This is a common Roman tactic which has been used by the Church for centuries.

January 22: Beauport, birth (III)-Marie Genevieve Giroux, Metis, daughter (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743): married November 22, 1712, Beauport, Francois Tardif

January 31: Montreal, birth, (III)-Catherine Prudhomme, Metis died April 16, 1774, Montreal daughter (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671; married July 27, 1718, Montreal (III)-Pierre Lamy, b-1692 son (II)-Pierre Lamy, b-1725 and Elizabeth Coltret, d-1770.

January 31: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Fournier Metis child (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

February 16: Repentigny, birth (II)-Madeleine Fonteneau, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Fonteneau dit St. Jean, b-1650 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis, b-1640,

March 21: Champlain, birth (III)-Marie Josetle Desrosiers, Metis, died February 29, 1696 Champlain, daughter (II)-Michel Desrosiers b-1652 and (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis

April 11: Batiscan, birth (II)-Jean Cadau et Cadot, Metis, died November 6, 1743 Batiscan, son (I)-Mathurn Cadotte, Cadau alias Poitevin (1649-1729) and (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, Metis, born June 4, 1666 Cap Rouge (Sillery), Quebec, died November 25, 1708 Batiscan, Quebec; 1st Married November 20, 1721 Batiscan (II)-Marie Josette Proteau (1701-1731); 2nd marriage August 10, 1734 Batiscan, Marie Rivard.

May 4: Quebec, baptism Marie Joseph a Huronne (sauvage).

June 3: Montreal, birth (II)-Raymond Chagnon. Metis, son (I)-Francois Chagnon (1645-1693 and (II)-Catherine Charon, Metis, born September 29, 1686 Montreal:

June 24: Quebec, baptism Marie Francoise (sauvage).

June 24: Quebec, baptism Louise Francoise (sauvage).

July 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Gatien, Metis, died December 13, 1694, Quebec daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702).

July 27: Pointe Aux Trembles de Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Nicolas Gervaise, Metis, (1666-1750), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married, (II)-Madeleine Peyet, b-1677 daughter (I)-Pierre Payet.

August 4: Two hundred canoes of furs, from the west, arrived in Ville-Marie (Montreal).

September 12: Beauport, birth (III)-Louise Catherine Langlois, Metis, daughter, (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Genevieve Parant.: married November 26, 1714, Beauport, Jean Hoppe

September 20: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Anne Prou Metis daughter (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

September 29: Levis, birth (II)-Catherine Gesseron, Metis, died October 12, 1693 daughter (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657

October 5: Quebec, baptism Charles Abenaquis (sauvage).

October 18: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth/death, (III)-Joseph Gervaise, Metis son (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, b- 1663, and (II)-Barbe Pigeon.

October 29: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis, born November 18, 1668, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married October 29, 1693, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Marie Boyer

November 17: Montreal, birth (III)-Catherine Goguet, Metis, died September 8, 1694 Montreal, daughter (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

December 9: Sorel, marriage (II)-Etienne Volant, Metis, born October 29, 1664 Trois Rivieres to (II)-Genevieve Le Tendre, veuve de Jean Francois Peltier.

December 9, Quebec, birth (II)-Catherine Beriau Metis daughter (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married September 27, 1717 Quebec, Jacques Bertin

December 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Louis Bodin, Metis son (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672.

December 19: Beauport, Quebec, birth (III)-Noel Prevost, Metis, died January 1, 1713, Montreal, son (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, b-1660 and (II)-Francoise LeBlanc, b-1662.

1694

(III)-Madeleine Mius, Metis, b-1694, Acadia daughter (II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660 and Marie Mi’Kmag; married Jean Baptiste I Guidry, b-1694 died November 13, 1726, hung Boston for Piracy..

The mission St. Nicolas de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

(II)-Marie Anne You, Metis, b-1694, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)-Pierre You, sieur De la Decouverte b-1658, died August 28, 1718, Ville-Marie (Montreal) married likely 1693 Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Elisabeth Sauvagesse Miami; married August 15, 1718, Ville-Marie (Montreal) Jean Richard.

Iberville, with four hundred men, took the newly built Fort Pemaquid in Acadia, which is defended by Pascho Chubb and ninety five men, with little loss, as Chubb surrendered for safe conduct back to Boston. Sebastien de Billie and Father Louis Pierre Thury, (1644-1699), an English missionary, with 230 Indians, attack Oyster Bay, Maine, killing 100 settlers.

Jurriaen Aernoutsz, a Dutchman, claimed Western Acadia (New Brunswick) as New Holland. He captured Fort Pentagouet (Castine, Maine) and Fort Jemseg up the Saint John River. The Dutch colonists skirmished with the New English traders, and the Dutch are banished from Massachusetts which they used as a supply base.

January 16: Sebastien de Billie and Father Louis Pierre Thury, (1644-1699), an English missionary, led 230 Indians in an attack on Oyster Bay, Maine, massacring over 100 settlers.

February 8: Beauport, marriage (III)-Marie Anne Langlois, Metis daughter (II)-Noel Langlois dit Traversy, Metis d-1693 and (II)-Aymee Caron d-1685: married Jean Cote

February 27: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Anne Tessier, Metis, died July 14, 1715, Montreal, daughter (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703); married January 27, 1710, Montreal (II)-Bernard Dumouchel (1687-1694)..

April 6: Quebec, baptism Jacques (sauvage).

April 10: Montreal, baptism Jacques Negre, b-1658, a native of Guinee, slave of LeBer.

April 26: St. Jean, birth (II)-Francoise Blanchet, Metis daughter (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

April 26: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Marie Barbe Fournier Metis daughter (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

June 8: Montreal, birth (III)-Charles Lemaitre Metis son (II)-Charles Lemaitre and (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis;

July 14: Pte aux Trembles de Quebec birth (III)-Madeleine Normandin Metis daughter (II)-Daniel Normandin, Metis d-1729 and Louise Hayott b-1664

July 18: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Guillemot et Guilmot dit Lalonde son (I)-Jacques Francois Guillemot; 1st married Catherine Ouabenaquiquay, sauvagesse; 2nd married February 20, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Charlotte Marchaud b-1709.

July 19: Ursule Adams born March 13, 1674 Hamshire (Oyster River) captured July 19, 1694, baptised April 6, 1697 (likely Quebec?) daughter Charles Adams, Anglais and Rebecca Smith.

August 31: An English ship (William and Mary) defeated seven French ships at Ferryland, Nefoundland.

November 5: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Helene Tessier, Metis, daughter (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748); married (I)-Toussaint Rebou et Ribilliau dit Lajoie (epouse (II)-Agathe Vacher & (III)-Helene Tessier).

December 2: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cunegonde Lefebvre, Metis born December 2, 1694, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married April 6, 1717, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (III)-Joseph Descarry (Descaris) b-1691, died April 15, 1747, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son (II)-Paul Descarry (Descaris).

1695

The population of New France is 12,786 French and 853 settled savages.

Acadia, birth Marguerite Cellier dit Charet Metis daughter Unknown Cellier dit Charet (Memcharet)d-1708 married 1682, Acadia, Marie Amerindien.b-1663, died March 7, 1727, Port Royal, Acadia

Michel Germaneau, Metis, born before 1695, died May 15, 1734, Montreal, son Joachim Germano/Germaneau, Metis, and Elisabeth (Isabelle) Couc dit Lafleur/Montour, Metis, b-1667: married April 5, 1717, Montreal Marie Catherine Lapierre/Lecuyer.

Marie Anne Germaneau/Montour, Metis, born about 1695, died April 22, 1730, Quebec, daughter, Joachim Germano/Germaneau, Metis, and Elisabeth (Isabelle) Couc dit Lafleur/Montour, Metis, b-1667: married January 30, 1730 Quebec, Jean Baptiste Montary/Jolicoeur

Quebec, birth, (II)-Marguerite St. Michel, Metis, daughter (I)-Francoise St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 and (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667; married 1716 Jean Baptiste Brisebois.

Because the French allowed the Coureurs des Bois to trade into the Dakota and Assiniboine country, thereby bypassing the Ottawa and Weddat, they entered into treaty with the Iroquois. This freed the Iroquois to again attack the French settlements with a new fury. The French retaliated with a 2000 man army to invade the Iroquois country. They didn’t engage the Iroquois, but burned their villages and crops. The Iroquois, being primarily an agricultural culture, are forced into starvation and are forced into peace discussions that last three years. Sudden ambushes and swift attacks on both sides continued during discussions.

The French King imposed a fine of 2,000 pounds of sugar if a man was convicted of fathering a child by a slave, and the mother and child was seized and given to the religious to work in the hospitals. Few convictions were handed down, as the slave owners claimed that all slaves were promiscuous and, therefore, loose in sexual relations and that they were liars whose word couldn’t compare to an upright citizen. Sexual relationships between Europeans and their female slaves were a generally accepted practice and an integral part of their culture.

English Colonial authority had more power to create their own laws. The French and Spanish were forced to follow Roman Law but the civilized laws didn’t really apply to slaves, as they were property not people.

Fort Anne, (1695-1708) (Annapolls, Acadia ( Nova Scotia)) is established.

January 2: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Anonyme Gervaise, Metis child (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, b- 1663, and (II)-Barbe Pigeon.

January 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Angelique Bodin, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672.

January 31: Montreal, birth, (III)-Marie Prudhomme, Metis died October 26, 1714 Montreal daughter (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671;

February 11: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Charles Gervaise, Metis, born November 18, 1668, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis and Marie Boyer.

March 24: Montreal, birth (III)-Pierre Goguet, Metis, son (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

April 11: Levis, birth (II)-Ignace Gesseron, Metis son (I)-Louis Gesseron dit Brulot b-1639 and (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis, b-1657

April 20: Beauport, birth (III)-Jean Francois Giroux, Metis, died December 18, 1721 Beauport son (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743): Married November 14, 1718 Beauport, Marguerite Binet

May 30: Boucherville, marriage (II)-Jean Cadieux, a Coureurs des Bois, born March 12, 1671 Ile de Montreal, was killed 1709 by the Iroquois, is assumed the son (I)-Jean Cadieux (1634-1681) and Marie Valade, b-1644, epouse February 9, 1682, Montreal, Philippe Boudier (weak link); married (I)-Marie Bourdon Pachirini of the Kichesipirini People (Algonquin), born August 8, 1675 Morrison’s (Allumette) Island, baptized, August 11, 1675, Boucherville, died after 1717, Quebec, adopted daughter (I)-Jacque Bourdon (1650-1724) and (II)-Marie Menard (1658-1726): (I)-Marie epouse May 26, 1710, Longueuil Antoine Quenneville, b-1682.

July 18: Quebec marriage (I)-Laurent Normandin, Metis son Laurent Normandin and Jeanne Lesourd de Saturnin, eveche de Tours; married (III)-Marie Anne Renault born June 27, 1674, Quebec, died May 19, 1739 Quebec, daughter (II)-Jacques Renault d-1711 and Marie Cliarie b-1639 venve Andre Depost. Tanguay suggests the surname Normandin is Sauvage.

November 5: Montreal, birth (III)-Etienne Charles Lemaitre Metis son (II)-Charles Lemaitre and (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis;

November 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Henry Gatien, Metis, died January 25, 1762, Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702); married November 21, 1718, Quebec, Marguerite Lafranchise.

December 2: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cunegonde Lefebvre, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married April 6, 1717, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (III)-Joseph Descarry (Descaris) b-1691, died April 15, 1747, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son (II)-Paul Descarry (Descaris).

1696

Governor Miners from St. John ruled thirty-five colonies.

Louis XIV (1638-1715) proclaimed: “to every person, regardless of rank or condition, to leave on a trading trip or to go inland for any reason, under pain of the galleys; and requires all Frenchmen settled with or visiting Natives to take their leave and return, or they will be liable of the same punishment” The expectation was that in essence the Coureurs des Boise would abandon their Country Wives and Metis children and return to French enslavement.

The Acadians had changed masters no less than 14 times in the last century.

Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, died at Sault Ste Marie.

The Coureurs des Bois are bypassing the Farmers General who alone can ship the beaver skins to their profit. These merchants of Canada sell their goods at an excessive price to the people of the coast who board them during the winter. The King of France does not receive his share.

(I)-Louis de Baude, comte de Frontenac (1622-1698), Governor New France, destroyed the Iroquois villages of Oneida and Onondaga.

The French army captures an 80 year old Iroquois who is almost blind. The French wished to put him to death, the Indians wanted a quick death by club, but the French savages insisted on slow roasting, by fire, as they have done to many in the past.

A British warship, the HMS Sapphire, 346 ton sank in the Bay Bulls, Newfoundland.

January 16: St. Jean, birth (II)-Marie Genevieve Blanchet, Metis daughter (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

January 29: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Vital Tessier, Metis, died July 14, 1715, Montreal, son (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703)

March 17: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Anne Gervaise, Metis, daughter (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis and Marie Boyer.

April: France, The ‘Conge de Traite’, that allows 25 canoes with three men to trade the interior, issued on May 22, 1681, is repealed by Royal ordinance on April 28, 1696

April 3: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Louis Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

April 26, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Beriau Metis daughter (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married June 13, 1712 Quebec, Jean Baptiste Chausse

April 28: Montreal, marriage churched likely married 1687 (I)-Jean Bredel, b-1664 to Madeleine St. Jean Lavallee of Nation des Onontagues sauvagesse; Jean 2nd marriage 1703 Lorette (II)-Marie Anne Migneron, epouse January 17, 1712 Quebec Simon Driere

July 22; Quebec birth (II)-Marie Louise Normandin daughter (I)-Laurent Normandin, Metis and (III)-Marie Anne Renault (1674-1739); married September 17, 1715 Quebec Jacques David.

September 12: (II)-Pierre Le Moyner d’Iberville sailed to Placentia Harbor, Fort St. Louis, Newfoundland. Monsieur de Bouillon is Governor of this small place of eighteen men. Three French ships with one thousand men also arrived with instructions to support the taking of Newfoundland. (II)-Pierre Le Moyne’d Iberville et d’Ardillieres (1661-1706), a ruthless, cruel man, led the expedition to clear Newfoundland of the British. The rampage across Newfoundland included burning, looting and the murder of some 200 men. His invasion army included French regulars, New France militia and Indian warriors. He set fire to St. John’s, destroyed 36 fishing settlements. He did take 700 prisoners. He conducted his affairs in bad faith, he looted ruthlessly for his own gain and spread terror where ever he went. He would later be accused of embezzlement and illegal trade and tax evasion.

September 23: Montreal, marriage Pierre Garreau to (II)-Marie Guertin, epouse November 16, 1676, Montreal (II)-Jean Lavergne.

October 1: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (II)-Urbain Gervaise, Metis, son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); 1st married October 1, 1696, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Caron, died August 8, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 2nd married March 19, 1701, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Genevieve Perthus.

November: Fort St. John surrendered and the French destroyed most of the thirty five communities, killing about 200 persons and sending the balance of the people back to England.

November 3/6: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Pierre Fournier Metis son (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

1697

St. Francis du Lac, birth (IV)-Joseph Crevier, Metis, died June 19, 1734 St. Francis du Lac, son (III)-Joseph Crevier Metis and (II)-Angelique LeBoulanger; married June 30, 1724 Trois Rivieres, (III)-Marie Charlotte Lemaitre (1700-1761)

Monsieur Guigue is purchasing furs from the Hudson Bay besides the French King’s beaver .

(III)-Louis Menard dit Lafontaine et Montour, Metis, b-1697, son (II)-Maurice Menard, b-1664 and (III)-Madeleine Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, b-1669; married, February 5, 1725, Longueuil, (III)-Francoise Robidou, b-1707, daughter (II)-Guillaume Robidou.

(II)-Pierre Le Moyner sieur d’Iberville (1661-1706) is again in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

(I)-Francois Viger, b-1662 married 1697 Acadia Marie Mius, Metis, b-1679 daughter Philippe Mius and Marie Mi’kmaq.

The Jesuit joined the Ville-Marie (Montreal) merchants to persuade the French Government to dismantle its Forts on the upper Great Lakes. The merchants are concerned about an over supply of furs, and the Jesuit hoped to curtail the activities of the Coureurs des Bois.

The English and French make peace.

July 9: Ste. Famille, marriage (III)-Michel Pelletier Metis, b-1694 son (II)-Francoise Pelletier Metis (1635-1688) and (II)-Marguerite Madeline Morisseau; married (II)-Francoise Meneux

February 2: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre, Metis, died January 5, 1731, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married September 19, 1723 Batiscan (III)-Agnas Lafond, epouse February 15, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal) a Picard.

February 3: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Barbe Gervaise, Metis daughter (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, b- 1663, and (II)-Barbe Pigeon.

February 6: Montreal, birth (III)-Marie Francoise Goguet, Metis, daughter (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

February 24: Cap de la Madeleine, birth (II)-Marie Jeanne Cadau et Cadot, Metis, son (I)-Mathurn Cadotte, Cadau alias Poitevin (1649-1729) and (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, Metis (1666-1708); married February 4, 1726 Batiscan (II)-Jacques Tifaut b-1697 son (I)-Jacques Tifaut.

March 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francois Delpee, Metis, died December 3, 1753, Pte du Lac, son (I)- Francois Singerny also St. Cerny and Delpee (1640-1725) and (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, (1661- 1750); married November 14, 1728 Trois Rivieres (III)-Catherine Morisseau b-1702, died November 6, 1750 Trois Rivieres.

April 19; Montreakl marriage (I)-Pierre You, Sieur De la Decouverte (1669-1718), married likely 1693 Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Elisabeth Sauvagesse Miami, 2nd marriage Madeleine Juste veuve de Jean Jerome Leguay, married December 17, 1685 Montreal

FOUR CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

(II)-Pierre You (1698-1703)

(II)-Philippe You b-1699

(II)-Francois Madeleine You b-1700, married August 12, 1722 Marie Margueriye Dufrost De Lagemmerais

(II)-Joseph Paschal born died April 15/18 1702

Some claim the following children are Madeleine’s but could Elisabeth’s??

(II)-Louise You (1706-1728), and Marie Catherine You b-1708. August 15, 1718, Jean Richard

May 27: Quebec, birth (II)-Francois Bodin, Metis son (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672; married November 8, 1728 Quebec, Angelique Auger.

June 6: Champlain, birth (III)-Michel Pierre Desrosiers, Metis, died July 13, 1713 Champlain, son (II)-Michel Desrosiers b-1652 and (II)-Marie Jeanne Artaut, Metis

June 13: Boucherville, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadieu, Metis, son (II)-Jean Cadieu (1671-1709) and (I)-Marie Bourdon Pachirini of the Kichesipirini People (1675-1717?): married February 3, 1717, Varennes, Marie Gaudry

June 16: Quebec, baptism Marie Louise a Micmac (sauvage).

July 14: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Anne Gervaise, Metis, daughter (II)-Urbain Gervaise, Metis, and 1st married October 1, 1696, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Caron, died August 8, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 2nd married March 19, 1701, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Genevieve Perthus.

July 27: Montreal, birth (III)-Catherine Lemaitre Metis died June 27, 1721 Batiscan, daughter (II)-Charles Lemaitre and (III)-Madeleine Crevier, de Bellerive Metis; married (II)-Jacques Francois Lefebvre b-1694

August 2: Beauport, birth (III)-Pierre Giroux, Metis, died April 11, 1738 Beauort son (II)-Michel Giroux (1661-1715) Beauport and (II)-Marie Therese Provost, Metis (1665,-1743); married April 20, 1733 St. Francois, Anne Cecile Gagnon

September 6: Quebec, baptism Joseph a Micmac (sauvage).

September 23: Quebec, marriage, (II)-Laurent Du Bocq, born February 3, 1672, Quebec, Metis son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse; 1st marriage September 23, 1697 St. Augustin, Francoise Campagna; 2nd marriage September 10, 1718, St. Augustin, Marie Sevigny.

October 20: Quebec, baptism Marie Louise de l’Acadie (sauvage).

October 22: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Bernard Dumouchel dit Laroche b-1652, 2nd marriage (II)-Francoise Saulnier, sauvagesse daughter (I)-Gilbert Saulnier veuve de Thomas Morteseigne.

October 28 : Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Jacques Picard b-1672, died January 24, 1735 Longue Pointe son (I)-Jacques Huges Picard, married (II)-Marie Anne Lefebvre, Metis, born July 22, 1681, Ville-Marie (Montreal), died December 27, 1735, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): 2nd married Seur dite St Michel, congreg de N.D. died May10, 1717, Ville-Marie (Montreal).

November 4: Boucherville, marriage (II)-Pierre Charon, Metis (1672-1737) son (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliad ou Pilet-Pilllard, b-1651?, Indian or Metis: married (II)-Marie Robin, b-1679. (II)-Pierre 2nd marriage July 18, 1734 Longueuil to (II)-Marie Gautier, b-1682, veuve de Gervais Malard, epouse September 30, 1738 Montreal Phillippe Dantin .

December 1/4: Cap St. Ignace, birth/death (III)-Andre Fournier Metis son (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard.

December 2: Cap St. Ignace?, birth (III)-Dorothee Fournier Metis daughter (II)-Joseph Fournier Metis b-1662 and Barbe Girard. This might be an error as Tanguay doesn’t have this one born in Cap St. Ignace

1698

The issuing of 25 fur-trading licenses (cunges) in Quebec to private persons to restrict the number of persons deserting the colony was revoked..

(III)-Marie Roche Cadieu, Metis, b-1698, daughter (II)-Jean Cadieu (1671-1709) and (I)-Marie Bourdon Pachirini of the Kichesipirini People (1675-1717?): married August 12, 1720 Longueuil, Paul Brazeau.

On (I)-Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac’s, death on November 28, 1698, (I)-Louis Hector de Callieres, (1648-1703) Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal), moved to Quebec and assumed the position of Governor of New France December 1698 to May 26, 1703.. His first act was to call a peace conference of all the Native Nations for the following year. The conference appears successful, however, no one expected the Iroquois to honor the treaty.

(I)-Jean Garceau (1710-1680) arrived Acadia 1698, married November 20, 1703, Marie Levron. They had 4 sons Pierre Jean, Daniel, Gregorie and Jean.

Monsieur Guigue is purchasing furs from the Iroquois and Monsieur Desevigny, besides the beaver of the French King’s.

It is noteworthy that during prisoner exchange, most English prisoners held by the French refused to return. The had been well treated, had joined the Roman Church, and liked the easy going Canadian style which spoiled their children and did not regard all pleasure as essentially wicked. It is likely they are also exposed to the Coureurs des Bois culture, as they are not only tolerated but encouraged during this warring period. The Iroquois also entered into prisoner exchange, but many refused to return, having been adopted into the tribe, married and enjoying the greater freedom of the Coureurs des Bois culture.

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne’d Iberville et d’Ardillieres (1661-1706), between 1698 and1702, commanded expeditions to Louisiana, established Forts Maurepas, Mississipi, Saint Louis (Old Mobile) and engaged in the fur trade. The St. Lawrence Valley ran 40 to 44% under age fifteen.

Jeanne Wannannemim, of Loups, born May 1, 1698 Montreal, veuve Mr. Grant, god daughter Mr Hardouin and Marthe Millets.

Hospital Monks of Ville-Marie (Montreal) are given authority to establish manufactories for the arts and trades on their premises. This is to provide employment for their growing slave and indentured population.

Acadia had a population of 789 people and 50% were under age sixteen.

About 60 Canadians are recruited to go to Biloxi, Louisiana as settlers, they arrived February 1699, and joined 16 Canadians sent out earlier.

January 16: Boucherville, Marriage (III)-Antoine Martin Metis born February 4, 1673 Sorel son (II)-Charles Martin Metis and Catherine Duput (1644-1682); married (II)-Marie Francoise Fevrier b-1682 daughter (I)-Christophe Fevrier

January 25: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marguerite Gervaise, Metis, daughter (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis and Marie Boyer.

February 6: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jacques Lefebvre, Metis, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre (1651-1715) and (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, (1657-1724): married 1737 Jeanne Suzanne Picard.

January 9: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Jacques Tessier dit Lavigne, Metis, son (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703); married August 7, 1726, Montreal, (II)-Marie Thomelet, b-1698, epouse January 21, 1732, Montreal, Etienne Lebeau.

February 4; Beauport, marriage (II)-Marie Francoise Vachon, Metis, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); 1st married Francois Binet; 2nd marriage February 4, 1709, Beauport, Jean De l’Espinay

February 16: Quebec, baptism Therese Francoise a slave (sauvage) born 1698.

April 2: Ste. Famille, birth (IV)-Marie Pelletier Metis daughter (III)-Michel Pelletier Metis, b-1694 and (II)-Francoise Meneux

April 25: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Gatien, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Gaten b-1659 and (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis (1665-1702); 1st married July 27, 1723 St Francois I.O. (III)-Dorthee Jinchereau; 2nd married February 4, 1731 Trois Rivieres (III)-Louise Beaudry b-1700 and died December 19, 1749 Trois Rivieres.

June 25: Marguerite Rattier daughter Jean Rattier and Marie Riviere is running a brothel and tavern in Rochebelle.

April 28: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Joseph Prou Metis son (I)-Jean Prou (1647-1703) and (II)-Jacquette Fouenier, Metis, b-1659, Quebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

May 29, Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Beriau Metis son (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715) and (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis b-1660; married May 27, 1725, Quebec, Jeanne Bernier

July 13: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Jean Gervaise, Metis son (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, b-1663, and (II)-Barbe Pigeon.

August 3: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Madeleine Tessier, Metis, daughter (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine (1651-1730) and (III)-Madeleine Cloutier (1660-1748); married October 24, 1718, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Francois Gautier dit St. Germain b-1691 son St. Germain Gautier.

August 11Champlain, birth Marie Angelique Hubert, Metis daughter Jacques Hubert and (II)-Marie Therese Charron, Metis,

September 9: (St. Nicolas), Quebec, marriage, (II)-Louis Durand, dit Couturier, Metis, born November 14, 1670, Sillery, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) d’Annannontak Huronne b-1649; 1st married September 9, 1698, Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon b-1682, died Mar 12, 1718 St Antoine-Tilly; 2nd marriage January 30, 1719 St. Nicolas, Quebec Jeanne Houde.

September 12: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Marie Madeleine Gervaise, Metis, daughter (II)-Urbain Gervaise, Metis, and 1st married October 1, 1696, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Caron, died August 8, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 2nd married March 19, 1701, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Genevieve Perthus.

September 25: Boucherville, birth (III)-Pierre Charon, Metis, died March 13, 1742 Bouchervlle, son (II)-Pierre Charon, Metis (1672-1737) and (II)-Marie Robin, b-1679.

November 4: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (II)-Jean Baptiste Tessier, Metis, died May 20, 1736, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); married, November 4, 1698, Ville-Marie (Montreal), (III)- Elisabeth Regnaut, b-1681, died November 11, 1747, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (II)-Antoine Regnaut.

December 12: Montreal, birth (III)-Marie Antoine Goguet, Metis, son (II)-Pierre Goguet and (II)-Anne Charron, Metis, b-1670 daughter, (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar ou Pilet-Pillard, Metis, b-1651?.

December 17: Quebec, baptism Gabrielle Louise Braquil, l’eglise, b-1682 with the Ursulines.

December 20: St. Thomas, birth (II)-Louis Blanchet, died December 30, 1698 St Thomas, Metis son (II)-Pierre Blanchet, b-1646 and (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis, b-1855 daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis, b-1638

December 23: Boucherville, birth (IV)-Marie Martin Metis, died January 13, 1699 Boucherville daughter (III)-Antoine Martin Metis (1673) Sorel and (II)-Marie Francoise Fevrier b-1682

1699

The mission Notre Dam de Foye de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Father Anastasius accepted from the Indians the gift of an Indian girl as a slave.

Batiscan, birth (II)-Rene Cadau et Cadot, Metis, son (I)-Mathurn Cadotte, Cadau alias Poitevin (1649-1729) and (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, Metis (1666-1708); married April 29, 1726 Batiscan Marie Louise Proteau.

Pierre Diereville, a French botanist, on his trip to Acadia wrote in his diary that a cabin boy was whipped en route “to calm the winds”.

Quebec, marriage, Rene Freot to (II)-Jeanne Angelique St. Michel, Metis, born February 15, 1683, died April 13, 1746, daughter (I)-Francoise St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 and (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667.

If a man married in New France before twenty, he was granted fifty livres; the usual age for marriage being eighteen. Girls received the same if married before sixteen; the usual age being fourteen. These gifts are known as the King’s pleasure.

(I)- Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil (1643-1725) is appointed Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal), Quebec (1699-1703). Some give him credit of stopping the nearly 100 years of war with the Iroquis started by Champlain..

(II)-Marie Angelique Vegeart, Metis b-1699, Quebec daughter (I)-Raymond Vegeart (Vegard) dit Laliberte (153-1727) and (II)-Marie Charlotte Charon, Metis b-1667, veuve November 30, 1686 Boucherville, Claude Louis Lemer: married 1718 Pierre Mazure.

At the close of this century, New France has a pathetic estimated population of 12,000 people. The English Colony’s population, excluding the West Indies, is estimated as 294,000 people. French Protestants continue to flood into the English Colonies, along with the Dutch, Scotch, Irish, and Germans. It is noteworthy that the French continue their policy of One King (servitude), One Faith; (religious intolerance) whereas the English colonies embrace liberty, self-government and religious tolerance. If the French had adopted a more liberal religious policy, New France would have likely been populated by some 600,000 people.

Monsieur Guigue is purchasing furs from Monsieur Desevigny and from Canada, besides the beaver of the French King’s.

Jean Bouchard de Champigny wrote: Settlers who have become attached to cultivating the land and have fallen at the right place, live quite comfortably, finding advantages that peasants do no have in France, and that is that they are almost all along the river, where they can fish and their house stands in the middle of the front of their property, which surrounds them on the other tree sides. As they do not have to leave it to make the most of it and to cut their wood which grows where their land ends, their work is made much easier. He also said: The men are all strong and vigorous but have no liking for work of any duration; the women love display and are excessively lazy. He also remarked that the indolence of the men and the desire of the woman to live like gentle ladies, kept people poor and the colony’s economy backward. No one in Canada starved; not so in France. They had the freedom to hunt, and fish; not so in France. European peasants rarely had horses and carriages for mere social purposes. Most Canadian youth had their own horse, not for work but pleasure. Canadians were not driven to overproduce for the benefit of the seigneurs or Governor, and prefered to spend surplus effort in relaxed enjoyment of their leisure time.

A crop failure at Port Royal, Acadia caused extensive suffering in the colony.

January 5: Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (III)-Urbain Gervaise, Metis, died June 28, 1714 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son (II)-Nicolas Gervaise, Metis, (1666-1750) and (II)-Madeleine Payet, b-1677.

January 10: St. Laurent, I.O. birth (III)-Marie Aubin, Metis daughter (II)-Pierre Aubin, Metis born November 20, 1670 Ste Famille and Marie Paradis

February 13: Pte aux Trembles de Quebec birth (III)-Marie Francoise Normandin Metis daughter (II)-Daniel Normandin, Metis d-1729 and Louise Hayott b-1664

February 25: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Jeanne Gervaise, Metis, died May 23, 1764 Ville-Marie (Montreal), sceur St. Fxupere, C.N.D. daughter (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, b- 1663, and (II)-Barbe Pigeon.

March 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Nicolas Gervaise, Metis, son (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis and Marie Boyer.

April 20: Louis Hector de Callieres (1699-1703) is appointed governor New France on September 14, 1699 to May 26, 1703.

April 27: Quebec marriage (I)-Pierre Normandin dit Sauvage (1673-1733) married (II)-Marie Angelique Cartier (English), born January 28, 1678 Quebec died March 19, 1719 Quebec daughter (I)-Paul Carter b-1647 and Barbe Boyer b-1647. Tanguay suggests all surname Normandin are Sauvage.

May 10: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Jacques Tessier, Metis, born March 2, 1675, son (I)-Urbain Tessier (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis (1636-1719); married May 10, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Marie Adhemar b-1679, died May 17, 1754, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Antoine Adhemar.

May 29: Ste. Famille, birth (IV)-Marguerite Pelletier Metis daughter (III)-Michel Pelletier Metis, b-1694 and (II)-Francoise Meneux; married February 1, 1717 I’IIe Dupas, Nicolas Bibaud

August 16: Acadia, birth (II)-Francois Viger, Metis, died March 1760, Cherbourge, France, son (I)-Francois Viger, b-1662 and Marie Mius, b-1679, married 1723, Acadia, Claire LeJeune.

September 6: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste Tessier dit Lavigne, Metis, son (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), and (II)-Louise Caron (1671-1703); married February 9, 1732, Montreal, (II)-Clemence Bouchard, b-1701.

September 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Molay b-1669 to (II)-Marie Anne Hervieux, Metis, daughter (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1651 and (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis (1661-1687).

October 22: Montreal, birth (III)-Jean Baptiste Tessier, Metis son (II)-Jean Baptiste Tessier, Metis (1672-1736) and (III)-Elisabeth Regnaut (1681-1747); married May 20, 1726, Kaskakia, Marie Anne Migneret.

November 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Angelique Normandin Metis religieuse, died October 3, 1742 Quebec daughter (I)-Pierre Normandin dit Sauvage (1673-1733) and (II)-Marie Angelique Cartier (English), (1678-1719)

December 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Bodin, Metis, died March 16, 1700 Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Bodin b-1641 and (III)-Angelique Pinguet, Metis b-1672.

December 12: Montreal birth/death (III)-Anonyme Durant, Metis child (II)-Ignace Durant (1699-1697) Metis son (I)-Jean Durant (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontak (Huronne) b-1649.

December 27: Montreal, birth, (III)-Marie Anne Prudhomme, Metis daughter (II)-Fras Xavier Prudhomme and (II)-Cecile Gervaise, Metis b-1671; married October 6, 1727, Montreal, Pierre Demers.