A History of French Canada 1650 to 1669

Disclosure

We are very pleased to be one of the few sites offering fully searchable versions of Cyprien Tanguay’s Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Canadiennes and related research. These documents provide authoritative historical evidence regarding the individuals who settled French Canada and are referred to in this document.

We strongly recommend using the Tanguay texts in your genealogical efforts.


Note: Several ManyRoads readers have questioned the accuracy of some of the Metis claims presented in this document by Mr. Garneau. Should you have evidence that you would like to refute the veracity and accuracy of any claims made by Mr. Garneau, which you would like us to publish on ManyRoads, please contact us directly with a copy of your “draft publication(s)”.

We are happy to present all relevant information here, in the interest of fairness, full disclosure and accuracy.

The following material is written by: R.D. (Dick) Garneau, who is solely responsible for its accuracy.

1650

Nine marriages, forty three births and ten deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. The census of New France reached 705 people.

Forty five Frenchmen married with Indian sauvagesses in Acadia before 1650.

(I)-Elie Barbeau dit Villeneuve is in Quebec.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Crevier Metis daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married 1663 Trois Rivieres Nicolas Gatineau, I suspect Marie birth is before 1650

(I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy (Godfroy (1608-1681) entered into a business venture with Tilly, Buissot, Lespine and others for seal fishing out of Tadouisac and fur trading with the savages.

Barbe Hebou, former wife of Jean Milouer (Du Maisne), made a bequeath to the Jesuits.

(I)-Robert (Le) Roy living Quebec this year.

(II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) married the widow of (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650), his arch enemy who caused the death of his wife, widow Jeanne Motin (with whom he had five children who grew to marry: Marie, Jacques, Charles, Anne and Marguerite) and got all his property, though LeBorgne arrived from France, a creditor of D’Aulnay, to enforce his claims becoming Governor in 1667, but also later on, becoming his son-in-law, marrying his daughter Marie de LaTour.

If fewer than 10% of a ship’s company died crossing the Pacific Ocean, then the captain of the ship considered the voyage most successful.

Only 50 men held Fort Montreal. Between 1650 and 1653, 32 French settlers were killed by the Iroquois and 22 were captured. The Iroquois made such ravages in New France that many settlers believed they should go back to France.

The shrine of Sainte Anne de Beaupre is established on the banks of the St. Lawrence River by the French fishermen in gratitude for deliverance from Atlantic storms.

Menou d’Aulnay drowned.

Many of the letters sent back to France by the early parish priests deplore the slight regard most colonists had for the Church, its commandments and rituals.

Fort Chicoutimi (Chueretimi & Chigoutimy) is established at the confluence of the Sagueny and Chicoutini rivers.

Nicolas Denys (1598-1688), a La Rochelle Merchant, established a fishing establishment on Cape Breton Island that would eventually fail.

Nine Frenchmen are killed at Three Rivers by the Iroquois.

As many as sixty Europeans have been living among the Huron in the past sixteen years that a mission has been established, many of whom are of a very feeble constitution. No one has died of natural causes, bit withstanding the great inconveniences and sufferings.

The Iroquois attacked Saint Jean Baptiste (Cahiague) killing 500 families, the nation of the Huron (Wendat) was no more.

The wheat crop this year was excellent especially at Montreal. The Iroquois had driven most of the Savages from Montreal and only 50 French remained. Most French were surprised that Montreal had not fallen to the Iroquois continuous assaults. Three Rivers has also been continually assaulted and a number of times was in fear of falling.

About 47 families at Belle-Isle-en-mer were identified as being of mixed blood (Metis). It is believed the Malacites were decedents of mixed blood people of Saint-Malo fishermen and Indian women. They were located on the Saint John River, Acadia.

The French seized the Island of St. Crox from the Spanish but could only hold it for a few years.

(I)-Madeleine Maranda, veuve July 13, 1698, (I)-Nicolas Pinel de Larochelle, arrived Quebec 1650 and married February 10, 1659 Quebec (I)-Renaud Andre.

Acadia ( Nova Scotia) recipes called for English ‘Brawn’. Brawn was originally for the flesh of the pigs head that has been boiled, chopped and molded. In Acadia ( Nova Scotia) it meant a veal-shank and pork-hock stew made by boiling the meat off the bones in seasoned water. The stock from that water was called ‘Brawn’.

April 18: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Cote, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married July 25, 1667, Chateau Richer, Suzanne Page

April 23: Kebec birth (II)-Pierre Bonhomme, died January 3, 1670 Quebec son (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679)

May 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Charlotte Godfroy, religious Ursuline, died January 13, 1720 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Paul Godfroy and (II)-Marie Madeleine Le Gardeur

June: Father Bressany, brothers Robert le Cog d-1650, two domestics Jean Boyer and Charles Amtot with 25 or 30 French traders and as many Savages departed Three Rivers in 22 or 23 canoes.

July 10: Kebec, an unnamed ship arrived from Rouen, France

July 14: Kebec, the Neuf or Saint Jean at 80 tonnage arrived with captain Jean Bourdet, the Chasseur at 120 tonnage captain Terrier.

July 25: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Plusson son (I)-Pierre Plusson and Marie Regnault.

August 7: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636

August 20: Robert le Coq. a Jesuit Donnes d-1650, is killed by the Iroquois at Three Rivers. Most Jesuit were condemned to death by the Huron so this could be a Huron killing.

August 28: St. Antoine de Chambly, birth/death (IV)-Jacques Gautier, Metis, son (III)-Jacques Gautier, Metis, b-1744 and Marie Joseph Quenneville.

September 1: Father Gabriel Druillettes (1610-1681) departed Quebec for Boston to establish an alliance with New England against the Iroquois, but he was unsuccessful.

September 1: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711.

September 8: Qebec, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage arrived with captain Jammes

October 7: Quebec, birth/death (III)-Anonyme Cloutier, Metis, child (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699)

October 17: Quebec marriage (I)-Nicolas Goupil dit Laviolette and (II)-Marie Pelletier

November 22: Quebec, marriage (I)-Mathieu Aymot Villeneuve (1628-1688) and Marie Miville (1632-1702)

November 28: Quebec, birth (II)-Henry Bourdon, Metis, died October 27, 1665 Quebec, son (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

November 30: Montreal, marriage (I)-Louis Prud’homme (1608-1671) to Roberte Gadois, b-1626, epouse January 21, 1678, Montreal, Pierre Verrier.

December 21: Montreal, death (I)-Jean Michel Sylvestre.

December 30: The Ursuline convent at Kebec is destroyed by fire.

1651

Ten marriages, thirty four births and sixteen deaths is recorded in Kebec, New France.

New France had only 1,050 permanent residents.

(II)-Medard Chouart, Metis son (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Helene Martin, Metis (1627-1651)

Noel Godin near Three Rivers is killed by 10 Iroquois and La Jeunesse is wounded.

(I)-Jean de Lauzon (Lauson) (1582-1666), a soldier, is appointed Governor New France from October 4 or 14, 1651 to September 12, 1656. He had accumulated a vast estate in the St. Lawrence Valley using the Compahnie Des Cent-Associes since 1627. He then went on to enrich himself and his family using his position. He imposed a virtual monopoly on the fur trade to enhance his families wealth. This is the man who seized the furs from Groseilliers resulting in the loss of the Northern Bay to the Hudson Bay Company. It is said he cared less for the welfare of the inhabitants of New France. He conferred many favors on the Jueuits.

(II)-Louis Prevost, Metis, b-1651, died May 27, 1686, Beauport, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, (1620-1665); married February 17, 1672 Chateau-Richer, (II)-Francoise Gaignon b-1655; 2nd marriage February 17, 1681, Chateau-Richer, Marguerite Careau

Louis Prud’homme had his 1647 Quebec marriage to Anne Archambault annulled in 1651 due to his having been bigamous (he had a wife back in France). Not listed in Tanguay. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

The Onnonta’eronnons attacked the French Fort Ahwen’do,e, and had destroyed 100 men.

The parish Ste Anne de Beaupre is established this year.

January: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Angelique Poisson baptiaed October 18, 1653 Sillery, died April 17, 1732 an ursuline, daughter (I)-Jean Poisson married likely Kebec Jacqueline Chamboy b-1628, epouse Michel Pelletier de le Prade The godfather, Pierre Boucher, governor of the Three Rivers, represents by Mr. de Villeray, and godmother, Mrs Denis D’Auteuil

January 27: Quebec, birth (II)-Rene Poulain, son (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687):

February 5: Quebec, birth, (II)-Paul Tessier dit Chaumine, Metis, died April 26, 1730 Longue Pointe, son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Montreal; married October 13, 1681 Chateau Richer (III)-Madeleine Cloutier b-1660 died February 12, 1748 Longue Pointe.

February 25: (II)-Charles de la Tour (1595-1665) is appointed Governor of Acadia and married Motin widow of his arch rival the infamous (I)-Menou Charles d’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650).

April 20: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Marsolet, Metis, died March 7, 1715, Quebec, son (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married 1st. February 9, 1680 Marguerite Couture; 2nd married May 28, 1690 Quebec, Marie Anne Bolduc

May 15: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Elizabeth Lefebvre, Metis, died September 10, 1687, daughter (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: 1st married Felix Thunes: 2nd marriage January 13, 1687, Batiscan, Jean Colet.

May 21: (I) or (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) born St Malo or Avagon or Trois Rivieres son of (I)-Sebastein Hayet dit Radisson: Radisson and (I)-Madeleine Heraut aka Hainault (or Metis or savage, see Radisson 1632) and is believed to have arrived Kebec today and immediately moved to Trois Rivieres this year. He claims to be born 1636, St. Malo, other suggest born 1640. No baptismal certificate could be found in France or New France and some the English, suggest he was Italian. He was often discovered to embellish his own role in history especially as to do with brother-in-law (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696). He fabricated his role in the expedition of (1654-1656) when in fact he signed a document in Quebec on November 7, 1655. His journals should be read with caution. Some say he arrived in Kebec with his family and half sisters but others say he followed his sister to Kebec. Tanguay records him as (I) first generation where as the Jesuit relations suggest he is (II)-second generation. It is suggested (I)-Madeleine Heraut aka Hainault is his mother and was first married to a Pierre Esprit Radisson b-1590 and second marriage to step dad (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Hayot. This however is problematic as (I)-Madeleine Herbaut married about 1631 to (I)-Sebastien Hayet, dit Radisson and they had two daughters (II)-Elisabeth, no birth date or location and (II)-Marguerite Radisson born 1632 a therefore (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) could not be the son of Pierre Esprit Radisson b-1590? One possibility is that (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson (1636-1710) is a Metis? and/or his mother is not (I)-Madeleine Herault?

May 24: (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) is captured by the Mohawk Iroquois near Trois Riviers, his other two companions were killed. He claims to be adopted into the Mohawk family. He later escaped with help from the Dutch and returned to Quebec. He claims he was captured 1652 & returned to Quebec 1654. How much of this story is fabrication is questionable but consistent if he were Metis.

June 18: Leonard Marbau on Montreal is killed by the Iroquois.

July 26: Denys Archambaut was instantly killed at Montreal when his cannon burst while firing the third charge against the attacking Iroquois.

August 4: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Guillaume Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630;

August 7: Maturin, Antoine des Rusier’s man at Three Rivers is killed by the Iroquois.

August 13: Montreal, (I)-Jean Hebert killed this date by the Iroquois.

August 18: Kabec, the ship Petit Saint Jean lands captain Rene Boutin.

August 24: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, b-1624, a Coureur de Bois, a soldier and interpreter is at Trois Rivieres, Quebec, he died April 1690, St. Francois du Lac. He married April 16, 1657, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine

September 18: Louyse wife Chagniau is killed by three Iroquois in her house.

September 19: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Anne Baillargeon, died March 8, 1722 Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636: married 1st. Jean Polton: 2nd marriage April 29, 1709 Trois Rivieres, Jacques Duguay.

September 25: Montreal, marriage (II)-Mathurine Gode (1637-1672) daughter (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) and Francoise Gaddis (1586-1689); married 1st Jean Pair; married 2nd November 12, 1658 Montreal Jacques Lemoyne

October 4-14: (I)-Jean de Lauzon (Lauson) (1582-1666) arrived Kebec and 9 days later married his second wife Anne Despres.

October 13: Kabec, three ships arrive, the Saint Joseph at 350 tonnage captain Maitre Jean Boucher, the Passemoy at 250 tonnage, and the Vierge at 320 tonnage captain Pierre Boileau.

November 11: Three Frenchmen drowned, servants of Giffard who had gone to trade skins on the Isle of Orleans.

November 12: Quebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Aubert (Auber) b-1651, died January 29, 1732, daughter (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married Denis Roberge

November 20: Quebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) to (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis born January 27, 1638, Kebec daughter (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640 Noel Morin.

November 23: A Frigate from Montreal arrived Kebec with a load of beaver skins. Montreal has become a strategic location for the fur trade. Above Montreal are few Iroquois and traders did not want to adventure down river and expose themselves to more danger.

December 1: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Guillaume Vernon son (I)-Jean Vernon de Grandmenil and (II)-Marguerite Hayet dis Radisson, b-1632 See Radisson 1631.

December 1: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Guillaume Vernon son (I)-Jean Vernon de Grandmenil and (II)-Marguerite Hayet dis Radisson, b-1632 See Radisson 1631.

December 2: Montreal, birth (II)-Francois Xavier Prud’homme son (I)-Louis Prud’homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626: married November 20, 1684, Montreal, Cecile Gervaise.

December 7: Quebec, birth, (II)-Noel Langlois, Metis, died October 9, 1693, Beauport, son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: 1st married 1672 Quebec Aymee Caron; 2nd marriage December 2, Beauport, Genevieve Parent

1652

Seventeen marriages, forty six births and eight deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Crevier Metis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married January 20, 1682, Champlain, Anne Chorel.

Birth, likely Kebec (III)-Godfroy Marie Charles Le Gardeur, son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.

France is seriously considering abandoning the New France Colony if nothing is done to protect the fur trade from the Iroquois.

Cairn dedicated to first settlers L,Ange Garden

Cairn

L’Ange Gardien, New France, located 14 kilometers north of Quebec city, that became a parish in 1670, would become the original homestead of the first Garnaud in New France. Domain du Fief de Lotinville, from 1652 to 1690, held East L’Ange Gardien. The original settlers in East L’Ange Gardien listed, starting from the West to the East River Petit Pre during this period to 1680, are:
(I)-Pierre Tremblay, born 1626, married 1657 a Ozanne Achon born 1633, are living here before 1663 with 2 arpent of land. This is the possible son (I)-Pierre Tremblay who arrived Kebec 1619 and his son is likely Metis?
(II) Rene Goulet born 1650, married 1670 a Catherine Leroux and are probably living here after 1670 with 1 arpent of land.
(II)-Adrian Hayot born 1638 married (II)-Madeline Guyon born 1647 and possible living here in the 1660′s with 3 arpent of land.
Michael Guion Du Rouray lived here with 2 arpent of land.
(II)-Pierre Trudel born 1658, Quebec son (I)-Jean Trudel; married February 26, 1680 a Francoise Lefrancois and they held 2 arpent of land probably inherited from (I)-Jean. Four Garnaud’s would marry Trudel’s namely Angelique, Pierre, Catherine and Louise.
(I)-Abraham Fiset born 1636 married Denise Savard with 3 arpent of land.
Etienne Jacob lived here with 3 arpent of land.
(I)-Thomas Lefebvre born 1647 married 1669 (II)-Genevieve Peltier Metis (1646-1717) probably settled 1669 with 3 arpent of land.
(I)-Louis Levasseur born 1628 married 1666 Marguerite Belanger probably settled 1666 with 3 arpent of land.
Domain du Fief de Lotinville awarded 6 arpent of land assumed this year, 1652.

Cairn listing the names of settlers 1645-1664, L’Ange Gardien, New France,
French in boat

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) is captured by the Iroquois and becomes their adopted captive (1651-1653). (II)-Pierre claims it was (1652-1653), and he went to Holland arriving January 4/7, 1654.

Anne Riviere (likely a sauvagesse) b-1652 and married to (I)-Jean Alary, b-1640, they were living at St. Ours in 1652.

Nicolas Denys (d-1688) established Nepisiguit, then called St. Peters and in 1826, Bathurst, New Brunswick.

New France, Canada is composed of six significant locations at this time:

1. Tadusac is the first port, set 300 miles up the Saint Lawrence River, is only occupied two or three months of the year. The Barbarians from over 300 miles arrive here, as do numerous ships to trade.

2. Kebec is 120 miles upstream from Tadusac and is a fortress of the French. It is constructed upon a mountain, at the narrowest point of this St. Lawrence River. There is a French colony there, and, quite recently, a Huron one; and the Barbarians called Algonquin spend several months of the year there before going to their hunt.

3. Four miles upstream from Kebec, on the Saint Lawrence River, there is the residence of the Jesuit Society, called Saint Joseph where the Algonquin spend half of the year, with some French families, it is also called Sylleri (Sillery), for the founder, who was called Chevalier Noel Brulart de Sylleri (Sillery) (1577-1640). Sillery as an Indian reservation was (1637-1680′s).

4. Ninety miles beyond, still upstream, there flows into this King of Rivers, which at its mouth is 60 miles in width, and here more than a mile and a half, with both flow and ebb of the tide, although more than 400 miles distance from the sea. There flows into it, I say, attributer which we call the Three Rivers, because it issues as if by three mouths, by reason of two Islands, which divide it into three streams. At this place is the second fort of the French on the River Saint Lawrence, and a second colony of theirs, and, during a certain time of the year, of Algonquin Barbarians.

5. Then, ten miles further, still upstream, is the Lake called St. Pierre, 24 miles in length and 10 or 12 miles in width, famous through the incursions of the Hiroquois, a river prolongs it; and six miles beyond, at the mouth of this River (which is named after the Hiroquois, because it comes from their lake), was the Fort Richelieu.

6. Fifty miles beyond is the Great Island of Mont Reale, 180 miles distant from Kebec, which was formerly thickly in habited by Barbarians, while now they are very few. There is a fort of the French, with some families, who are founding the third colony. This island is about one hundred miles in circumference; and there the two branches unite which form our Great River.

The known environment of New France, Canada includes:

In the direction of the summer sunset is a lake of about 1,200 miles in circumference, which we call “The Fresh Water Sea”. A lake 600 miles in circumference is called Lake Herie. A third lake, still greater and more beautiful is called Ontario or Beautiful Lake but the Jesuit want to call it Lake St. Louis. Further to the west, more than 300 miles distant, beyond the Sault or Cascade is a lake larger than the “Fresh Water Sea”. North of this lake is the “Lake of the Stinkards” (salt water). Living around these lakes are the following known nations: Algonquin, Huron, Sault, Ondatauauat, Tobacco, Cat, Neutral, Andastogenronons of New Sweden and the Hiroquois. The Huron means Hure, having hair like the bristles of a wild boar.

The barbarians even bath in winter using hot baths in a little cabin, using hot rocks and they plunge into rivers and lakes then back to their hot baths. They do this for cleanliness, health, and for pleasure. The Jesuit suspect they do it for superstition and consider it a barbarous activity. The French at this time only bathed but once a year. It is noteworthy that the term barbarian or savage was used to describe non-Greeks then later to describe non-Romans and was applied to the French.

The Jesuit considered conjugal lovemaking within marriage as a degeneration of the ideal state. The ideal is a repugnance for carnal intercourse. Those who considered this abnormal thinking were classified as barbarians.

The bartering of trading goods was strictly forbidden to the inhabitants of the French Colony. As a result the Coureurs des Boise emerged as an entity in 1653. These free enterprisers went to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi, named ‘Pays d’en Haut’ (The Upper Country).

February 20: Quebec, birth (III)-Jean Cloutier, Metis, died December 4, 1709 Chateau Richer, son (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married November 14, 1679 Chateau Richer, Louise Belanger

March 6: The Iroquois attacked Three Rivers but are defeated by the Huron.

March 8: Ste Anne, birth (II)-Marguerite Racine, Metis, died December 17, 1695 Chateau Richer, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married Jean Gagnon

May: The Ursuline opened a new convent in Quebec.

May 10: Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) is executed by the Iroquois, at St. Maurace River, north of Trois Rivieres. Buteux was noted for the introduction of brutality among the People of Tadoussac including the whipping of little children, at church, even those at the breast.

May 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Louis Soumande, Metis son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

May 26: A Frenchman at Montreal is killed by the Iroquois while attending cattle, a French woman escaped with 5-6 wounds.

May 27: Montreal death (I)-Jacques Poupeau died from a fall from a tree.

June 8: Two Huron under the protection of the French are killed near Three Rivers.

June 23: Kabec, two ships arrived captain Jean Pointel and Captain Jean Poulet, the Petit Saint Jean arrived and the Passemoy at 250 tonnage also arrived.

July 9; Quebec, marriage (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) (Ancient Governor Trois Rivieres) son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lamie; 1st. married January 17, 1649 Kebec, Marie Madeleine (Chretienne) Ouebaddinoukoue a Huron Indian; 2nd married July 9, 1652 (II)-Jeanne Crevier, Metis b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier and Jeanne Enard, b-1619 Metis or savageese. See notes 1734, I suspect Pierre Boucher is himself a Metis.
TWO CHILDREN ARE RECORDED in 2nd marriage
(III)-Louise Boucher, Metis born December 5, 1670, died October 25, 1756, Montreal.
(III)-Charles Boucher, Metis married Marie Anne Lavaltrie

August 13: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Gourdeau b-1614 or 1624, d-1663, who arrived Kebec March 1637, marriage Eleonore De Grandmaison veuve October 15, 1663 Quebec, Jacques des Cailhaut de la Tessere, Quebec also epouse Francois De Chavigny.

August 19: Guillaume Guillemot, the Governor of Throis Rivieres, and 22 settlers are attacked and killed by the Iroquois. Charles Garmant or Garman, age 10 years, is captured at Cap Rounge, his father and another Frenchman are presumed dead. The Jesuits are still trying to obtain his release in 1660.

August 25: (I)-Thomas Godfroy de Normanville is killed by the Iroquois.

September 30: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Bourdon, Metis, son (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

October 8: Kebec, marriage (II)-Francoise Roussin, died December 4, 1691, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Roussin de Tourouvre: married Pierre Loignon.

October 15: Quebec, marriage (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696).

December 29: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Pepin Metis, died April 2, 1722 Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married October 20, 1681, Quebec, Louise Le Mire

1653

Sixteen marriages, fifty one births and fifteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Catherine Baillargeon, daughter (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

(I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) made his home at Trois Rivieres among 30 other families. It is about this time that he first mentioned that he learned of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay. In 1664 the Jesuits wrote of him “He is a man capable of anything, bold, hardy, stubborn in his undertakings, who knows the country (of North America), and who has been everywhere, to Hurons, to the Ottawa” Such a man was not twiddling his thumbs in Huronia during his sojourn in the interior..

Philippe Muis D’Entremont, b-1601, Normandy, France, died 1701, Port Royal, Acadia (Nova Scotia), married 1849, Madeline Helie Du Tillet, b-1626, likely arrived Acadia 1649-1653.

(I)-Etienne Robin dit Desforges, b-1613, arrived Quebec, 1653, died May 21, 1660 Long Sault, killed by Iroquois.

(I)-Jean Valets, b-1633, arrived Quebec 1653, died 1660 Quebec.

The Jesuit vision of the Mountain of Montreal is a mission to convert the Natives and stop French exploration and free trading. This objective failed, and one hundred new settlers arrived this year, being the only significant expansion since its creation. The French population of New France is estimated at 2,000 persons. To test the weak and fumbling French leadership, two hundred Mohawk warriors made a surprise attack on the Hospital. The Hospital, across the little St. Pierre River, the Mountain of Montreal, is on high ground. The Mohawk retreated as the timing did not appear right. Thirty-two French mercenaries were killed and twenty two were captured by the Iroquois during the past three years. The Mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal)’s defenses consisted of a mere fifty men. The Iroquois themselves are being attacked by their neighbors to the east and south and offered peace to the French in November. A revolt by the upper nobility in France failed and they are deprived of any political power.

As a result of the French Iroquois War, Ville-Marie (Montreal) has not traded for a single beaver skin from the Savages for the past year. At Trois Rivieres, the few natives that came were employed to defend the place. The stores in Quebec is the image of poverty. It is noteworthy that Ville-Marie (Montreal) only contained 60 people of which only 20 is capable of bearing arms.

Le Mercier a Jesuit wrote: “our entire French youth is planning to go trading with the Nations, who are disseminated all over the territories, and they hope to come back with beaver pelts from many hunting seasons.”

The Wendat (Huron) make a promise to the French that they will deliver furs next season as did the Savages west of Sault Ste Marie. The French in turn promised to go out among the Algonkins, Sault and dispersed Huron.

Two hundred Iroquois surrounded 26 Frenchmen. These barbarians discharged their pieces at a position of close proximity, they fired 200 shots, without killing or wounding a single man. The French claimed they fired the pieces correctly but it demonstrated the inaccuracy of the pieces.

Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) is made Governor of Three Rivers (1653-1658).

Trustee from 1656 to 1660, prisoner of the Iroquis in 1661 and soldier of the 17th Squad in 1663, Marin Jannot drowned accidentally and was buried in Ville-Marie (Montreal) on July 24, 1664.

The following is translated from an article about Marin Janot, from a book entitled “Les Recrutès” by Roland Auger, which I will attempt to translate. Marin Jannot dit LaChapelle was from a town named LaChapelle, by Monthausen, near Chateau Thierry, where he was born. He enlisted in 1653 becoming part of the recruitment, although he can not designate the place and the date of his enlistment. He received £108 in advanced wages and signed the acknowledgement the following June on the 20th, before leaving the roads of Saint-Nazaire. Marin Jannot was a carpenter.

He had scarcely arrived in Ville-Marie, that he definitely decided to settle there. Monsieur de Maisonneuve gave him a grant of land February 2d in 1654.

This great recruitment (Le Grand Recrue de 1653) was organized by M. de Maissonneuve and medically assisted by a 32 year old nun, Sister Bourneoys. They finally set sail on the 20th of June, 1653 in the ship “Saint-Nicholas-de-Nantes” and traveled 350 lieues (875 miles) before they were forced to return, due to the fact that they were leaking like a sieve.
Although 153 had signed for this voyage, collecting their wages in advance, only 102 actually boarded the ship. Also, their provisions had been ruined, yet their courage was still very high, and on 20 July 1653, they sailed once again for the New World, arriving at Quebec on 22 September 1653; 64 days later.
There, their ship had to be burned as the tide could not lift it. Sister Bourney’s aid to the sick was not enough and eight persons died on the voyage. At Quebec, Governor de Lauzon, refused to let them have boats to complete their journey to Ville-Marie, as they were sorely needed for the defense of Quebec and also their rations were too short to give them to this recruitment. They finally arrived at Ville-Marie on the 16th of November, 1653.

Nicolas Denys (1598-1688), a La Rochelle Merchant, acquired territory in the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Canso to Gaspé, including Cape Breton and other Gulf Islands, with rights to land and government. He would turn his establishment over to his son Richard Denys in 1670.

This reference appears in “Your Ancient Canadian Family Ties” by Reginald L Olivier: “There were four recruitments (1640-1642-1653-1659) which had brought to Canada, 278 men, 45 women and children and three Religious Sisters. (Special mention should be made concerning the one in 1653, since this is the one that Marin Janot was a member).

Kabec, three ships arrived this year, the Patriarche Abraham captain Guillaume Poulet, a ship by captain Jean Pointel, the Saint Nicolas for Montreal by captain Pierre Lebesson.

The Jesuit Relations say that, for a year, the warehouse at Ville-Marie (Montreal) has not bought a single beaver from the Indians. Destroyed too were the Jesuit Missions in Huronia.

(I)-Emmanuell LeBorgne (1610-1675), a merchant of Rochelle, learned of the death of (I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) who owed him 160,000 livres. He assumed Charnisay owned all of Acadia and was determined to recover the debt.

January: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Patenotre son (I)-Nicolas Patenotre (1626-1679) and Marguerite Breton, b-1635

January 26: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Etienne Vien, b-1613, married to Marie Dent de Larnarti, epouse January 26, 1655, Trois Rivieres, Louis Ozannes.

January 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Claude Plante son (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married November 6, 1691 St. Francois Marie Patenotre.

February 5: Quebec birth (II)-Nicolas Bonhomme, son (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); married January 14, 1676 Quebec Marie Therese Levasseur

.February 6: Quebec, marriage (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 to (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis epouse February 7, 1714 St. Francois I.J., Andre Boutillet, daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis

February 24: Port Royal, Acadia (II)-Charles La Tour (1594-1666) married Charles de Menou d’Aulnay’s widow, he died 1650.

February 9: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Pitaut to Marie Grandon.

April 21: Some suggest this was August 21: At Three Rivers, 16 Frenchmen (servants, sailors and others) deserted the colony, intending to leave the country. These included: Barre, lance-corporal, and La Montagne, soldiers, La Rose, a servant of Monsieur de la Poterie and Lespine, Baudet, servant of la Grandresnil, and sailor, des Noters, la Fond, sailor, du Plessis, la Verdure, sailor, la Montagne, Savary, la Franchise, Teste-Pelee, servant of la Franchise, Coquelin, sailor, des Lauriers, Paul Langlois, sailor. It is noteworthy that servants and indentured engages were virtual slaves for three to five years. These were unique in desiring to leave the colony as most went Coureurs des Bois.

April 22: Quebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

April 27: Two servants of Dauteuil took flight into the interior likely encouraged by the flight of 16 French on April 21.

April 27: Monsieur Charon is wounded in the throat by a pistol shot, at his residence on the Island or Orleans, by two of his servants. They were captured May 7.

May 8: Quebec, death Paschal Pasquier

May 12: Jacques Junier fled Sillery, Kebec, by crossing the Saint Lawrence River.

June 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:

June 26: The Onondagas sent 18 chiefs to Ville-Marie (Montreal) for peace negotiations.

July 20: The New England colonists are under-taking war against the Dutch and their Iroquois allies.

July 20: Montreal the Iroquois killed (I)-Micheal Noel a servant of (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657)

July 21: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Preuirau to Jacquette Tourault, veuve Pierre Tarouseau

July 30: News arrived that the Algonquin of the north are uniting with the remnants of the Tobacco and Neutral tribes, are assembling beyond the Sault Ste Marie, Lake Superior, to unite against the Iroquois. It is noteworthy that the Algonquin had previously, before the arrival of the French, had assembled a great army to punish the Iroquois for their evil ways. In this way peace had been secured in the past.

August 5: Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Pinguet d-1721 daughter (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696)

August 12: Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Rouleau, died August 28, 1656, Quebec daughter (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux b-1636, epouse Debruary 5, 1674 Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

August 21: The Iroquois attacked Ville-Marie (Montreal) but are defeated by the Huron. Three Rivers is also attacked. The siege lasted over eight days. When no progress is made by either side, peace is declared and the Iroquois return prisoners taken as did the French.

August 24: Quebec, marriage (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) 2nd marriage (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, half sister of (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710), daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Radisson and Madeleine Heraut, Marguerite veuve de Jean Veron Grand Menil who was killed by the Iroquois..

August 30: In Ville-Marie (Montreal), he married Francoise Besnard, daughter of Pierre and Catherine Riverin from Pourray, diocese of Mans.

August 30: (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675) with his son (II)-Alexandre Le Borgue (1640-1693) arrived Port Royal to recover money owing to him. He forced the widow of (I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) to sign a document saying he was owed 206,286 livres. He then set out to plunder Acadia starting with Pentagouet (Castline, Maine), La Heve where he burned everything, Saint-Pierre and Nipisiguit. He assumed (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) and (I)-Nicholas Denys (1598-1688) were mere vassals to be crushed. The Laurentian settlements of Denys was plundered, burned, and the people taken into slavery. He then attacked Fort La Tour but was repulsed.

September 22: Marguerite Bourgeoys (1620-1700) wanted to open a school at Ville-Marie (Montreal), but there was only one school child so she cared for the sick and poor.

October: The Savages reported the French party who deserted Three Rivers earlier this year are discovered in Gaspe. Some had died from hardship and privation, and there were indications that they had eaten one another.

October 20: Quebec, marriage (I)-Robert Pare (1626-1684) to (II)-Francoise La Houx (1626-1685)

October 22: Quebec, marriage (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697) daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1634) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) d-1665, sauvagesse. Others suggest Francoise was born France, March 16, 1604 but parents were not identified.

October 29: Bouchard’s wife was convicted for being violent to the person of Dr. Ettiene Bouchard on the Public Road. Francoise Besnard remarried to Guillaume Bouchard in Ville-Marie (Montreal) on October 22, 1690 and she leased to Charles Gervaise, a farm on the outskirts of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and renewed the lease April 14th 1694 and October 7th 1696. Her son, Pierre Janot, paid her a life-annuity, March 8th 1698, the same day she sold a portion of the land to Nicolas Janvrin.

October 29: (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis, (1636-1710) claims to have escaped from the Mohawks with the help of the Dutch.

November: The vessel that departed Kebec for France, richly laden with the spoils of the beavers of this country, was itself despoiled, falling into the hands of the English who were waiting for it in the channel.

November: About 140 individuals arrived Ville-Marie (Montreal) boosting the population to 200 people.

November 3 The Iroquois Nation made peace with the French, but some Mohawks, Oneidas and Onondagas continued to fight.

November 16: THE RECRUITS courtesy of Brad La Chapelle

Editors Note:
In the 1600′s, Montreal, Canada is known as Ville-Marie. The Iroquois were constantly attacking and killing the villagers, and they asked for help from France. In 1653, France held a Grand Recruitment to help the settlers, and this was known as “Grand Recrue de 1653.” 153 men signed up to go to Canada, but 50 did not honor their contract and 8 died on the voyage, leaving a total of 95 able bodied men. Of these, 24 were massacred by the Iroquois, 4 accidentally drowned and one died when his house was burned. Of those left, 49 have left descendants in Canada. These soldiers were credited with not only saving Ville-Marie from extinction, but the whole of Canada as well.
When volunteers arrived, they were not allowed to use their proper names and each adopted an “alias” or “dit” name. Therefore, Marin Janot, became known as Marin Janot dit LaChapelle. It is supposition on my part, but since he was from the LaChapelle/Monthodon area of France, he apparently took the name of his hometown.

November 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Gilles Fournier, Metis died December 31, 1653, Quebec son (I)-Guillaume Fournier (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, b-1638.

December 3: Nicolas Denys (1598-1688) purchased the rights to the islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cap Canso to Cap des Rosiers on the Gaspe from the Company of New France.

1654

Thirty five marriages, sixty four births and twenty four deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Jean Aubuchon of Trois Rivieres married Marguerite Sedilot- age eleven years and 5 months.

Pierre (Laverdure) Doucet, b-1621 fled to Quebec in 1654 when Port Royal, Acadia fell, his 1st wife whom he married in 1640 died in Quebec, 2nd marriage 1660, Heriette Pelletret when he returned to Acadia.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Michel Lefebvre, Metis, died October 21, 1708, Trois Riviers son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married November 11, 1670 Trois Rivieres: married November 3, 1683, Champlain, Catherine Trotier

(I)-Charles Le Moyne (Lemoine) (1624-1683) married an adopted orphan named Catherine Tierry age 13, likely a Savauge or Metis?

Father Simon Le Moyne (1604-1665), a missionary to the Wendat, journeyed to Iroquois country, promising to establish a mission in 1655.

(I)-Philippe Mius d’Entremont, (1601-1701) receives from (II)-Charles La Tour (1594-1665) one of the few signeurie ever given out in old Acadia, signeurie of Popomcoup (Pubnico), at Cape Sable, Acadia.

(II)-Jacques I Mius d’Entremont, b-1654, East Pubnico, Acadia (Nova Scotia), died 1763, son (I)-Philippe Muis d’Entremont, (1601-1701) and (I)-Madeline Helie Du Tillet, b-1626: married 1677 Acadia Anne La Tour

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) is reported to be back at Trois Rivieres. They bring reports of the Stinking Sea aka Ouinipeg Sea (Lake Winnipeg) which means stinking water.

(I)-Claude Volant de St Claude, b-1636, married Trois Rivieres (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis, b-1636 daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet de St Malo and Madeleine Heraut or savage: a sister or half sister to (II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson (1636-1710), see 1631

(II) Gilles Trottier (1628-1658) is captured by the Iroquois and freed the following year. He became an interpreter and continued in that role until his death. He never married and gave all his property to the church in Ville-Marie (Montreal). Source Lyle Trottier.

A number of persons are free-trading, and the Company wishes to know the number and quality of such persons.

The Acadian children born between 1654 and 1670 had little or no knowledge of France. Unlike New France, they were not governed by the religious, nor the seigniorial system or an Intendant. Seigneuries were granted at Port Royal, Beaubassin and along the St. John River, but had no influence on daily life. The Acadians adopted the Indian practice of family networks, forging strong family kinships among themselves. The Jesuits, Capuchins, Recollets and Sulpicians took part in religious and educational needs, but no order achieved unquestioned authority like in New France. Every Acadian settlement contained Metis families, usually of Micmac ancestry, and they were readily accepted as Acadians.

Two young Coureurs des Bois encouraged 250 Ottawa to trade into Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal).

Peace was made between the French and the Iroquois.

The Wendat (Huron) arrive by the hundreds with furs as promised last year.

Thirty Frenchmen and two Jesuits returned with the Ottawa to live among them to improve trade.

The population of Port Royal, Acadia is listed as 250 people, mostly from France. Thomas Temple (1615-1674) and two others obtained the rights of trade and government in Acadia ( Nova Scotia) following the English conquest this year.

Kebec, 6 ships arrived, the Fortune at 100 tonnage captain Pierre Le Besson, the Petit Saint Jean captain Rene Boutin, the Verie from Naples, the Saint Nicoers, the Patriarche Abraham captain Jean Poulet and the Colombe Mouillee.

January 7: Montreal, marriage (I)-Jeanne Solde to Jacques Beauvais dit St. Jeme

February 3: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), married (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis?, b-1621, died July 30, 1699, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese?, (1600-1663). Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

February 9: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Parent (1610-1698) to (II)-Jeanne Baneau., died November 23, 1706 Beauport.

February 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Elizabeth Aubert (Auber) b-1654, daughter (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married February 4, 1671 Quebec Bertrand Chese; 2nd marriage February 4, 1683 Quebec, Jean Baptiste Franquelin

February 28: Montreal, birth (II)-Paul Prud’homme son (I)-Louis Prud’homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626:

April: At Ville-Marie (Montreal), a great number of beavers inhibiting the streams and neighboring rivers attracted our Frenchmen thither, as soon as spring opened and the snow and ice melted. On all sides they hunted and waged war against these animals with pleasure and profit alike. A young surgeon in pursuit of beaver is captured by the Onneiochronnon (Iroquois). He was later released and returned to Ville-Marie (Montreal).

April 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Etienne Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630;

April 28: The ordinance of Governor Jean de Lauzon (1584-1666) took over the fur trade for his own personal profit and decreed that no one else is allowed to trade except those authorized by himself. A Lauson monolophy.

May 3, Quebec, birth (III)-Noel Pelletier, Metis, died September 1, 1712 Riviere Ouelle, son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); married 1676 Madeleine Mtgnault

May 6: Trois Riviers, marriage (I)-Lamorille Lemaistre dit Le Picard (1631-1666), master tailor, married Judith Rigaud, Lamorille was involved in 24 court cases at Trois Riviers

May 19: Quebec, marriage (I)-Charles Philippaux, d-1665 to Catherine Noutet, epouse March 8, 1666, Quebec, Jean Soulard

June: The Tionnontatehronnons (Tobacco Nation) arrived Ville-Marie (Montreal) and Three Rivers to trade furs for French goods. They could speak both the Huron and Algonquin languages. These people are now living near the Lake of the Stinkards (Salt Water), at the Bay of the North.

June: The Iroquois are attacking the Cat Nation and the village of Sonnontoehronnon (Iroquois) is already taken and burned. Among the Cat People are some displaced Huron’s.

June: Captain Anniehronnon, a Metis, the son of an Iroquois mother and a Dutch father arrived Kebec from Fort Orange in New Holland to confirm peace with their Savage allies.

July: Captain Anniehronnon, a Metis, returned to Kebec with two French prisoners captured by the Iroquois.

July: The Iroquois are favorably disposed towards the French. The Iroquois are not mistreating their Huron captives. It is not known why their disposition changed over the next few years.

July 4: Robert Sedgwick (1611-1656) of New England, in retaliation for attacks on English ships, attacked Acadia. Because of the civil war started by the infamous (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675), Acadia had few defenses. Sedgwick easily took Le Heve, Pentagoet and Port Royal.

July 17: Fort Sainte Marie surrendered to Robert Sedgwick (1611-1656) and (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) is taken prisoner.

July 25: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Chouart son (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632

August 6: (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1696) turns Coureurs des Bois and goes to what is known as the Western Area of the North Bay. They go up the Ottawa River, near Lake Nipissing, then down the French River towards Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, to the Links between Lake Erie to Lake Michigan.

August 16: Port Royal surrendered to Robert Sedgwick (1611-1656) of New England. Fort Pentagouet on the Penobscot River also fell.

August 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Rouillard, died August 24, 1711 son (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

August 31: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Perrot dit Vildaigre (1629-1703) to Michelle Le Plot, b-1742.

September 2: Robert Sedgwick (1611-1656) of New England, having captured Acadia, departed for England with (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) as his prisoner.

September 9: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Maurice Poulain b-1620 son of (I)-Pierre Poulain dit Lafontaine and Anne Ploumelle: married Jeanne Jallaut (Jallot) died May 27, 1708, veuve Martin Francheville.

September 19: Jean Aubuchon of Trois Rivieres married Marguerite Sedilot- a child bride who was 11 years and 5 months old.

October 12: Ville-Marie (Montreal), death Yves Batar by the Iroquois.

October 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Marguerite Gervaise died January 18, 1690, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis? b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal); married February 19, 1669, Ville-Marie (Montreal), (II)-Jean Baptiste Gadois, b-1641, died April 15, 1728 Ville-Marie (Montreal).

October 26: Chateau Richer, birth (II)-Pierre Racine, Metis, died March 14, 1729 Quebec son of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married July 6, 1682 Ste Familie, Louise Guyon

November 5: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Baillargeon, daughter (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

November 8: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Volant de St. Claude, Metis, died January 3, 1710. Quebec, ordained a priest September 17, 1678, son (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636.

November 10: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, Metis, died October 8, 1719, Varnenes, ordained a priest September 17, 1678, son (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636.

November 30: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Louis Lebecheur, b-1629 killed by Iroquois.

1655

Twenty two marriages, eighty one births and nineteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Claude Dablon (1618-1697) a Jesuit arrived as a missionary to the Onondaga near Syracuse, New York.

Captain Jean Baptiste Ekhinechkaouat (Metis?) became ill in the woods and was near death when the Jugglers (Medicine Man) using herbal medicine cured him. The Jesuits consider all Jugglers as evil.

(I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675) departed Acadia broke and left his son (II)-Alexandre Le Borgue (1640-1693) to attempt in the recovery of the family estate. Alexandre never amounted to much as he was too fond of the wine.

Pentagouet, Acadia, marriage (III)-Jeanne Jeanne de Saint Etienne de La Tour, Metis daughter (II)-Charles La Tour (1596-1665) and a Mi’Kmaq ( Micmac) girl; married d’Apprendestiguy de Martignon.

(I)-Claude Sol dit Desmarais, b-1629, established himself this year Trois Rivieres.

Captain Noel Tecouerimat (Metis?) is at Saint Joseph of Sillery, Kebec.

Captain Paul Tessouehat (Metis?), the famous one eyed Captain of the Algonquins is on the Island.

(I)-Pierre Thibodeau, b-1630, France, arrived Acadia 1650′s, married 1660 Acadia (II)-Jeanne Theriault, b-1744, family settled at Pre Ronge, Acadia.

d’Apprendestiguy de Martignon, a Basque, married 1655 Pentagouet, Acadia (II)-Jeanne de Saint-Etienne de la Tour, Metis, b-1625 Acadia daughter (II)-Charles (Turgis) de Saint-Etinne de la Tour (1595-1665) and Louise a Micmac woman.

A band of Iroquois wintered near Three Rivers among a band of Algonquin, and no disagreement was found between the two Nations. The widows and girls of the Algonquin were allowed to marry the Iroquois. The Iroquois by custom would join the Algonquin culture.

An Englishman noted that slaves are sold from one to another, in New France, as we do sheep.

The Iroquois delivered some of the little girl slaves, as requested by the Jesuits. The Jesuits say the little girl slaves are for the Ursuline Mothers to work in their house of charity. They hope to make so many Christians of them. The life expectancy of the little girls is not long. The Jesuits must have been aware that the Iroquois would have to raid their neighbors to acquire these little girl slaves. This would then lead to war between the two peoples.

The Jesuits consider the Savages God Manitou (Great Spirit) as a demon. This is tantamount to the Savages calling Jesus a demon.

Kebec, a fleet of 6 ships sent, three are lost, the Petit Francois at 50 tonnage is lost to the Spanish with captain P. Delafond, the Chat Bouque taken by the English, a Dutch ship was lost at sea. The Colombe Mouillee and the Patriarche Abraham arrived Kebec.

January 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, died April 1, 1661, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620

January 11: Quebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Thibaut (1618-1686) to Marie Madeleine Francois b-1633

January 12: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Biron b-1627 1st to (II)-Barbe Martin, Metis (1643-1660); 2nd married December 19, 1662, Quebec, Jeanne Poireau, d-1691.

January 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, died March 16, 1661 Quebec daughter (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665);

January 27: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Francoise Plante daughter (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) and (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married November 18, 1676 Cheateau Richer Nicolas Paquin. (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) possible son (I)-Jean Plante arrived Kebec 1619 and therefore possible Metis??

January 26: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Louis Ozannes dit Lafronde (1616-1661) married Marie Denot de la Martiniere, veuve Mathieu Labot.

February 4: Quebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Hebert Aubert, died October 16, 1714 Hotel Dieu, married Marie Anne Roussin and had 11 children.

February 8: Quebec, marriage (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and 1st married (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, veuve Pierre Delauney: 2nd marriage December 6, 1662, Quebec, Judith Renaudeau (1630-1695)

February 16: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Marie Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married November 17, 1671, Chateau Richer, Francois Belanger

March 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Rouleau, died August 28, 1656, Quebec son (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

April 1: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Soumande, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637; married Joseph Mignot

April 6: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, died July 1707, Quebec

April 12. Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Jean Aubuchon dit L’Esperance under contract of marriage September 19, 1654 Trois Riviers, married (II)-Marguerite Sedilot, Metis? daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1660-1672) and Marie Charter, likely a sauagesse 2,nd marriage Marie Grimoult

April 27: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Pierre Chapiteau b-1605 killed by the Iroquois.

May 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married February 17, 1670, Quebec, Pierre Blanchet.

May 29: Jean Liegeois, a Jesuit lay brother, is killed by the Hiroquois at Fort Sillery.

June 2: Quebec, birth, (II)-Laurent Tessier, Metis, died September 27, 1687, Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); married October 20, 1681 Quebec Genevieve Lemire.

August 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Robineau son (I)-Rene Robineau (1629-1699) and Marie Anne LeNeuf de la Poterie, d-1702.

September 19: Fathers Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot and Claude Dablon (1619-1697) departed Quebec to establish a mission in Onondaga country.

September 21: Quebec birth (II)-Catherine Bonhomme, daughter (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); married 1670 Jacques Bertheaume

September 29: Kebec, birth (II)-Elizabeth Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:

October 28: Kebec, marriage (II)-Jean Roussin son (I)-Jean Roussin de Tourouvre to Marie Letard

November 3: The Treaty of Westminster, England restored Acadia to France.

December 8: Quebec, birth Jean Pinguet, d-1710 son (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696)

December 29: Trois Rivieres, death (II)-Guy Poutrel, b-1630 son (I)-Jean Poutrel Du Colombier and Medeleine Leneuf Du Hersson

1656

Twenty six marriages, eighty four births and twenty two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre,
Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Five ships sailed from France to Kebec this year. One was captured by the English, one was captured by the Spaniards and one was lost at sea. The other two arrived and departed in safety.

An Iroquois raid in 1655 and a fire this year finished the Indian reserve experiment at Sillery, and by 1663, French settlers would occupy this land. The Dutch Iroquois (the Agnieronnons) were attacking the French everywhere killing and being killed.

(I)-Mathieu Doucet, b-1637 France, a miller, arrived Kebec 1656, died March 25, 1657 at Trois Rivieres.

Martin d’Aprendistiguy, a Basque of St. John River, Acadia married Marie Jeanne De La Tour, Metis daughter Charles La Tour and Mikmag woman.
Daughter Marie Anne d’Aprendistiguy, Metis b-1662 married 1686 Port Royal Guillaume Bourgeous.

Zacharie Dupuy (1608-1676), Commandant of Quebec, established a post at Syracuse, N.Y.

(I)-Charles de Lauzon de Charny is appointed the Commandant General (interim Governor) of New France from September 1656 to September 18, 1657.

(II)-Peter Esprit Radisson Metis (1636-1710), see 1631, says he was born 1636 St. Malo, emigrated to Canada May 24, 1651, and married 1656 Trois Rivieres to Elizabeth, the daughter of Madeleine Hainault. He goes on to say that he lived at Tree Rivers where also dwelt “my natural parents, and country-people, and my brother, his wife and children”. We need to keep in mind (II)-Pierre was in England at the time of writing this when he was trying to influence the English with his exploits and claimed credit for activities of (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers. Some think (I)-Medard is the brother in question. (II)-Peter’s married second wife some time between 1666 and 1673 in England, daughter of John Kirke. He is believed to have returned to Quebec in 1694 and to have died there. (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis, b-1636, a sister of (I)-Peter is believed to have married 1653 (I)-Claude Violany de St. Claude likely in Trois Rivieres.

Garreau is killed near Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal); shot through the spine.

Kabec, 6 ships arrived, the Rene at 80 tonnage, the Taureau at 150 tonnage captain Rlie Tadourneau, the Fortune at 100 tonnage captain Elie Raymont, the Saint Sebastin captain Guillaume and Jean Poulet and 2 unknown ships.

January 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Perrot daughter (I)-Jacques Perrot dit Vildaigre (1629-1703) to Michelle Le Plot, b-1742: married September 17, 1669, Ste Familee, Francois de Jarret.

February 2: Quebec, birth (II)-Ignace Poulain, son (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married August 23, 1683 Ste Anne, Marguerite Pare.

February 15: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Aubert (Auber) b-1656, died June 20 1728 daughter (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married November 6, 1683 Quebec Gervais Baudouin

February 22: The Jesuits condemn the Savages for believing their dreams. They have a special festival for what the Jesuits call the ‘demon of dreams’. They also call it the festival of fools, or the carnival of wicked Christians. The Savages call it the Honnonouaroria. The Jesuits do not consider the French masqueraders carnival in Europe as evil. If we follow their logic the dreams of the Jesuit fathers, that they call visions, are therefore ‘demon dreams’.

March 3: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Poirier, died February 1, 1704, Ste Foye, daughter (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, veuve Pierre Delauney: 1st married February 6, 1673 Quebec, Jacques Gaudry: 2nd marriage 1692 Ignace Bonhomme

March 16: Montreal, birth (II)-Marguerite Prud’homme daughter (I)-Louis Prud’homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626: married 1st. July 14, 1670 Montreal, Jean Martinet: 2nd marriage January 23, 1703 Jean Latour

March 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Pepin Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married 1st Fenruary 6, 1674 Trois Rivieres Jean Herou; 2nd marriage August 13, 1690 Trois Rivieres Mathurn Marais

May 2: (I)-Jean Bourdon (1601-1668) weighted anchor at Quebec for a voyage to the north. Some claimed he reached the shores of Hudson Bay and claimed it for France. Other suggest he didn’t make it and was driven back by the savages, and his way was blocked by ice. Others suggest 16 Frenchmen and 2 Huron guides reached Kibokok at the mouth of the Ashouanipi River, lattitude 55 degrees north. His Huron guides were killed and that is why they turned back..

May 6: The Onontaeronons killed a cow belonging to Pierre Bival (the Swiss). He fired a swivel-gun at the Onontaeronons, but without effect. They also killed a sow with farrow, belonging to the same man.

March 23: Lamote and Tieri were condemned by the Gentlemen of the Council to pay a fine of 500 livres each, for having sold goods at a higher price than the tariff.

March 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Pepin daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin, b-1630; married 1st February 6, 1674 Trois Rivieres, Jean Herou; 2nd marriage August 13, 1690. Trois Rivieres, Mathurin Marais

March 31: Monsieur the Abbe said in sermon that it was a mortal sin to sell brandy to the Savages. He had previously said it was not a mortal sin.

April 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Ignace Lefebvre, Metis, died March 27, 1740, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married January 12, 1682 Champlain Marie Trotier

April 7: Ste Genevieve, Montreal, birth (V)-Louis Plouf, Metis, son (IV)-Maurice Plouf and (V)-Marie Francois, Metis, b-1730.

April 11: Contract written for (I)-Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and thirty others to travel to Quebec. The contract was written by a tabellion (notary) Sea Cherbonnier. The contract for 3 years included Nicolas Millet, Joachin Martin, Jean Rabourin, Pierre Menard, known as Saintonge. It was Mer. Francois Peron, ship-owner and owner of the ship Bull on which this group took to the sea. The ship Bull was 150 barrels and its master was E. Tadourneau arriving Quebec in summer of 1656.

June 13: Three French, Adrien Joliet, Fouquet and Christophle are captured by the Iroquois at the First River.

June 18: Montreal, birth/death, (II)-Michel Froget, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis;

June 22: Kebec, birth (III)-Jean Roussin son (II)-Jean Roussin to Marie Letard

June 25, Montreal, death (I)-Christophe Roger, drowned.

July 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Pellerin son (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, d-1707.

July 11: Quebec, marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur de Repentigny, b-1632 to (II)-Marguerite Nicolet, b-1642 daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and (II)-Marguerite Couillard

July 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Picard, died November 29, 1700, Quebec to (II)-Marie Caron, died June 10, 1660, Quebec; 2nd marriage November 18, 1663 Chateau Richer, (II)-Marie Madeleine Gagnon, died September 12, 1680, Quebec; 3rd marriage about 1690 (II)-Marie Anne Fortin, epouse January 7, 1702, Quebec, Etienne Mirambault;

August: Trois Rivieres, The Coureurs des Bois (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) returned with 259 natives in 50 canoes from the Green Bay (Wisconsin) area and the southern shore of Lake Superior, bearing a future in furs. During this trip they learned of the rich fur country north and northwest of Lake Superior which, they were told is only 7 days by canoe from Hudson Bay.

August 7: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700)

August 11: Bourdon returned to Kebec from his northern voyage. The two Huron’s, whom he had taken with him, were killed by the Savages, and a Frenchman was wounded.

September 3: The elders of the Onnontage were informed that if they wanted the French to dwell amongst them, as they requested, they must provide little girls to be placed with the Ursuline Mothers. The savages loved their children and the only way they could obtain slave children for the Church is to raid their neighbors. It is hard to accept that alleged civilized Christian peoples could rationalize child slavery.

September 20: Cromwell granted Acadia to (II)-Charles La Tour(1595-1665) who sold the rights to Thomas Temple (1614-1674) and William Crowne (1617-1682) in return for five percent of the products.

October 2, Quebec, birth (III)-Anne Pelletier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Pelletier d-1698 and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); married January 10, 1670 Quebec, Guillaume Lizot

October 7: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Marguerite Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married November 14, 1674, Chateau Richer, Robert Caron.

November: De la Poterie opened a trading post at Trois Rivieres; trading wine for beaver believing this would regulate the sale of liquor. The Savages do not amend their conduct, and complaints are made against the tavern. The Jesuits requested that the Governor not allow this practice. (I)-Louis D’Ailleboust de Couconge et d’Argentenay (1612-1660) governor of all Canada, decides that the tavern must be closed, according to the Jesuit records. The alleged decree did not force him to close down.

November 9: Quebec, birth (II)-Paul Vachon, Metis, died March 7, 1729 Cap de la Madeleine, ordained Quebec, December 21, 1680 son (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697).

November 10: Quebec, marriage (I)-Nicolas Praye (Pre, Dupre) to (II)-Mathurine Buisson

November 20: A Dutchman (Otsirdiakhon) from New Holland visited Three Rivers to provide safe conduct to the Agnieronon peace team who returned 7 French prisoners and requested release of their prisoners. The terms of peace include they bring little girls as slaves for the Church. The French must have realized the savages love their children and would not give them up for slavery. They would be forced to conduct slave raids or continue warring with the French.

November 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Rouleau, son (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

November 27: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)-Laurent Archambault, (Metis?) b-1644, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married November 27, 1656, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Gilles Lauzon. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

December 6: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Soumande, Metis, died January 4, 1657, Quebec, son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

December 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Charles Rouillard, died March 11, 1679, Montreal, son (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

1657

Twenty two marriages, eighty three births and thirty two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Plante son (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married 1st November 13, 1686 Ste. Famille, Francoise Turcot; 2nd marriage Februaru 6, 1696, Chateau Richer, Genevieve Duchesneau

Jacques Bernard is listed as single but he married Catherine, likely savage, and had one know child Marguerite Rernard Metis born August 9, 1658 Three Hills. Jacque was involved in 29 cases of legal cases in Three Rivers. Frenchmen who took a country wife was officially listed as single. If they did not produce a child they are not considered a settler. The child had to be baptized to qualify as a settler. It’s noteworthy that Champlain produced no children and therefore was not a settler.

The mission Ste. Anne de Beaupre de la Province de Quebec 35 km east Quebec city is established this year. Etienne Lessard, one of the first settlers, ceded some land for the construction of the first wooded chapel in 1658.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) joins the Jesuit Mission to the Onondaga (1657-1658) and increases his knowledge of Indian life.

In France: When a father gives a daughter in marriage, he allows her a dowry; Among the Savages, it is given to the girls father.

In France: The Man usually takes to his house the woman whom he married; Among the Savages, the man goes to the woman’s house to dwell.

In France: If anyone fall into a fit of anger, or harbor some evil purpose, or meditate some harm, he is reviled, threatened, and punished; The Savages gives him presents, to soothe his ill-humor, cure his mental ailment and put good thoughts into his head.

In France: A workman does not expect pay until he completes his task; The Savage ask for it in advance.

In France: We are not very well pleased to see snow or hail fall; The Savage leap for joy as it falls.

In France: The dead are buried with the least possible clothing: The Savages dress the dead in their finest and include their favorite possessions.

In some parts of France: The dead are buried with their head turned towards the east; The Savages make them face the west.

(I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) returned to Fort Quebec, having left in 1654 to make direct trading contact with the Ojibwa and Fox. He had passed south west of Lake Superior to the upper Mississippi. His objective was to bypass the Ottawa in trade and explore the south to curtail the westward expansion of the thirteen colonies. The mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), at this time, contained one hundred and sixty able bodied men. A third of them married, and a census taken in 1665 showed a jump to five hundred and twenty five and, two years later, seven hundred and sixty six. The Mohawk attacked the Island of Orleans and carried off eighty prisoners who were under the protection of the French. Many prisoners are women, and they ransacked the houses in Quebec. The people huddled in the Fort and not a shot was fired in defense of the Wendat who are under the protection of the French. The Sulpician, a religious order, began working in the colony this year. Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson is appointed Governor New France from July 11, 1658 to August 30, 1661. King Louis XIV prohibited the sale of liquor to Indians in New France. The King assigned Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) as the first Bishop of New France. The Iroquois renewed their war with the French to stop the flow of furs to the mission of the Mountain of Montreal. About 100 settlers are killed by the Iroquois in the St. Lawrence River Valley.

The Sulpicians, a religious order, began working the New France Colony, thereby breaking the Jesuit monopoly. These Sulpitians directed the religious affairs of Ville-Marie (Montreal) thereby replacing the Jesuits in this settlement.

The French are aware that there are four routes to the North Sea, Tadoussac, Three Rivers, Nipisiriniens and via the Great Sault (Lake Superior). The standard of the day in map making is the distance is reckoned as 15 leagues per day going down-stream and 7-8 leagues per day going up-stream. One league = 3 miles. The basis of most French maps are Savage reports, Coureurs des Bois and Metis reports and they measured distance by days traveled to reach various destinations.

January 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

January 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Rene Jacques Petit son (I)-Pierre Petit and Catherine Francoise Desnovers.

January 26: (I)-Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson (1612-1660) is appointed interim Governor of New France from September 18, 1657 (January 11, 1658) to July 11, 1658 (August 30, 1661).

January 30: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Cunegonde Gervaise, Metis, died April 27, 1715, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis? b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal); married January 14, 1676 Ville-Marie (Montreal) (I)-Jean Baptiste Lefebvre b-1651.

April 16: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, marriage, (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, b-1624, a Coureur de Bois, a soldier and interpreter, he died April 1690, St. Francois du Lac. He married April 16, 1657, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine, she 1st married 1645 Assababich b-1620 and they had two children.

March 7: King Louis XIV prohibited the sale of liquor to the Indians in New France.

April 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Agathe Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married September 28, 1671, Quebec, Louis Gesseron.

April 16: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624, (died August 6, 1665?, or April 5, 1690?), Trois Rivieres son (I)-Nicolas Couc dit Lafleur (1600-1675) and Elisabeth Templair; married, Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine sauvagesse b-1631, died January 8, 1699 Trois Rivieres. Marie 1st married 1645 Assababich b-1620 and they had two children; Catherine Couque, b-1747 and Pierre Couque baptised May 6, 1650 and father listed as Pierre Deschamps.

April 16: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Coug dit Lafleur, b-1624 married Marie Mite8ameg8k8e sauvagesse, b-1631, died August 6, 1665 Trois Rivieres

May 27: Kabec, the ship Vierge arrives with captain Fabien Madot

May 29: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Petit daughter (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700): married November 26, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Jean Gaultier

June 4: Trois Rivieres, baptism Jeanne Lafleur and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) is Godfather.

June 22: Kabec the ship Taureau at 150 tonnage with gunner Jean Denilt and sailor Jean Riat, captain Elie Tadourneau.

July 14: Trois Riviers, Quebec, birth (III)-Jeanne Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, killed October 23, 1679, Trois Rivieres, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699). Jeanne was murdered by Jean Rattier duBuisson, on October 23, 1679, who was never punished.

Quebec, death, Peuvret, sieur de Margontier, killed at the Cape while bathing.

July 28: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francoise Volant de St. Claude, Metis, died December 28, 1662 Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636.

July 29: Fathers Gabriel Thubieres de Levy de Queylus (1622-1677), Gabriel Souart (1611-1691), Dominique Galinier and Antoine d’Allet (1634-1693) arrived in Quebec to found a seminary in Ville-Marie (Montreal).

August 7: Trois Rivieres or in the field, birth (II)-Marie Anne Chouart, died November 31, 1664, Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632

August 20: Kabec, the ship Armes d’Amsterdam at 250 tonnage arrives with captain Jacob Gilles, the Saint Sebastien captain Guillaume and Jean Poulet and at least one ship unknamed..

August 21: Three Frenchmen are killed at Ville-Marie (Montreal) by the Onneiotchronnons (Iroquois). Dailleboust ordered the imprisonment of all Iroquois at Ville-Marie (Montreal), Three Rivers and Quebec. Some 50-60 Savages are placed in irons. In retaliation; Three French are captured at Three Rivers in plain view of everyone. At Quebec the Iroquois appeared in the fields killing the farmers and pounced upon the Alconquin women, killing them, taking some away as prisoners, who were later recovered by the pursuing French, Huron’s and Algonquin’s. The French alone in this pursuit numbered 200.

August 29; Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Lienard died February 25, 1724 Pointe Aux Trembles son (I)-Sebastien Lienard dit Durbois (1628-1701) and (II)-Francoise Pelletier (1642-1707), veuve Joan Neriau; 1st married 1690 Marie Madeleine Arpot Sauvagesse (1673-1758); 2nd marriage Agnes Robitaille, also married Appelee Richard,

September 12: Temple and Crowne agree to divide Acadia. Thomas Temple (1614-1674) received the area from Lunenburg, Acadia ( Nova Scotia) to the St. George River, Maine.

September 13: Louis d’Aillebout de Coulonge is appointed administrator of New France from September 13 to July 10, 1658.

October 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Antoine Prevost, Metis, died March 16, 1662, Kebec, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620

October 23: Quebec, birth (II)-Antoine Prevost, Metis, died March 16, 1661 Quebec son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665);

October 25: Montreal the Iroquois killed (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) widowing his wife Francoise Gadois (1586-1689)

November 19: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Jacques Menard dit LaFontaine, b-1629: married Catherine Frontier, Jacques was involved in 26 court cases in Trois Riviers.

November 19: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Madeleine Pepin Metis, died July 8, 1722, Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married April 7, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Francois Roussel

November 30: in the long point of Coste de Beaupre, Nicolas Maquart conceded in Jean Baptiste Halle a ground of 3 arpents by a a126 arpents depth, located between Jacques Vauclin and grounds not yet conceded on the territory which is now that of the Guardian Angel. This is two years before (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 entrusted this ground to Jacques Vezina by contract.

December 10: (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgne (1610-1675) is appointed Governor of Acadia, which is still occupied by the English. This is likely an error as he only spent two years in Acadia 1653-1655 and was not a nice person and lacked the influence or capital for such a position. He died broke at Larochelle, France.

1658

Thirty five marriages, ninety births and eighteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

The population of Port Royal, Acadia is no more than 250 souls.

(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon is at Trois Rivieres having arrived 1637, 1634 Kebec and 1631 Cape Breton.

(I)-Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689) arrived Kebec.

Birth (III)-Louise Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married October 24, 1679, Chateau Richer, Antoine Toupin.

Trois Riviers, birth (II)-Antoine Baillargeaun dit Durivage (February 22, 1699 at Kaskakin, Illinois) son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636 child od d’Etienne and Jeanne Robineau; 1st married Marie Aco; 2nd married likely 1700, Kaskakin, Illinois, Domitilde Ch8ping8a, sauvagesse.

Claude Dablon (1618-1697) a Jesuit and French settlers near Syracuse, New York fled to Canada to avoid massacre.

Louis Pinard, b-1636, surgeon married 1658 Marie Madeleine Hertal, Louis was involved in 32 court cases at Trois Riviers

(I)-Pierre You, Sieur De la Decouverte b-1669, died August 28, 1718, Ville-Marie (Montreal) son Pierre You and Renee Turrot of St. Sauveur, La Rochelle, Aunis, France, married likely 1693 Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Elisabeth Sauvagesse Miami, 2nd marriage Madeleine Juste;
RECORDED CHILDREN
Child of Elisabeth; (II)-Marie Anne You, Metis b-1694 married August 15, 1718, Jean Richard (not listed Tanguay)
Children claimed of Madeline (II)-Louise You (1706-1728), and (II)-Marie Catherine You b-1708. (not listed Tanguay) these are baptism dates and maybe children of Elisabeth.

An order from the French King forbid the people of New France to leave the colony without the Governors permission in the form of a permit. Until this time, 50% of the indentured French returned to France after their indenture was complete. A permit is issued only to those who have a wife and children and considerable property, to return to France to conduct business. The three year indenture to New France became a life sentence. In effect, these French Canadians are no longer citizens of France.

(I)-Pierre de Voyer Vicomte d’Argenson (1625-1709) became Governor of New France on July 11, 1658 to August 31, 1661. It is said that he spent half his time defending New France from the Iroquois and the other half defending New France from the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), who it was said “listened to no one” (Bishop Quebec 1659-1688) and the Jesuits. Lavel was a political appointment to undermine the Governors of New France in an attempt for the Jesuits to regain control. He urged a monopoly control over the fur trade and an increased agrarian population, but his advice was not heeded

The thirty years religious war had ended in Europe. Absolutism of one king, one faith and one law in France entrenched rather than used the promised tolerance. Religious tolerance, abolishment of witch hunts and inquisition persecution, is promised. The peasant population, especially the Protestants, continue to be harassed, and there are higher taxes to pay for the war. The people could see no immediate relief to their misery.

The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), was made Apostolic Vicar in New France. He came under the direct authority of the Roman Papacy and not under the authority of the French Crown. Last year, the Sulpicians had taken over the parish of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and became seigneurs of the island. Within a few months they were feuding bitterly with the Jesuits and with Bishop Laval, after he arrived, over ecclesiastical jurisdiction. To complicate matters, the divided clergy was in bitter opposition with the Governor and merchants. New France was being torn apart, and they appealed to the French Crown to resolve their issues.

Kebec, 5 ships arrived, the Saint Joseph at 350 tonnage captain Fabien Marot, the Taureau at 150 tonnage captain Elie Tadourneau, the Prince Guillaume at 200 tonnage captain Jacques Jamain, the Saint Sebastien captain Guillaume et Jean Poulet and the Sacrifice d’Abraham at 300 tonnage pilopt Pierre Boileau and captain Elie Raymond.

January 25: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Soumande, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637; married November 21, 1672, Quebec, Francois Hazeur

March 24: Montreal, birth (II)-Pierre Prud’homme, died March 29, 1703 Montreal son (I)-Louis Prud’homme (1608-1671) and Roberte Gadois, b-1626: married February 9, 1688, Quebec, Anne Chasle

April: The people of Beaupre request an inquiry concerning the life and morals of Father Vaillant of Cote de Beaupre. Father Vaillant counter charged the people of Beaupre as calumniators (slanders). Eighty-three witnesses are called, and Father Vaillant is condemned and ordered to pay costs.

April 12: Quebec, birth (II)-Ignace Pellerin son (I)-Pierre Pellerin dit St. Amand, b-1621 to Louise Mousseau, d-1707.

(II)-Alexander Le Borgne (1640-1693) moved to Le Heve that was burned by his father in 1653 and recently abandoned by the English. Thomas Temple from Boston moved against Le Heve and captured Borgne and sent him to England and prison.

May 1: likely Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Pierre Pineau dit La Perle (1631-1708) to Anne Boyer (1636-1704).

June 1: (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) depart Quebec for Lake Superior and beyond, to visit the Dakota Sioux.

July 7: Quebec, (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) joined with (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 to purchase a concession in Coste de Beaupre later called Guardian Angel

August 4: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Petit son (I)-Nicolas Petit dit Lapree, b-1631 to Marie Pomponnelle (1630-1700): married 1st January 7, 1686, Boucherville, Marie Charles; 2nd marriage March 19, 1710, Varennes, Michelle Charter

August 6: Quebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Petit, (1633-1676) and Marie Godeau, b-1633, Pierre 2nd marriage July 6, 1663, Chateau Richer, Jeanne Morineau od diocese Lucon.

August 10: Construction of Hotel Dieu in Quebec is completed.

August 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Anne Rouleau, daughter (I)-Gabriel Rouleau dit Sanssoucy (1618-1673) and Mathurine Leroux, b-1636, epouse February 5, 1674, Ste Famille, Martin Mercier.

August 18: Quebec, birth (III)-Pierre Joseph Pinguet d-1691, son (II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) to Marie Madeleine Du Pont, (1636-1696); married October 19, 1689, Montreal Catherine Tetard

September 1; Quebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Vachon, Metis, died June 24, 1703 Beauport, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married September 1, 1658, Quebec, Jean Robert Duprac.

September 16: Montreal, marriage (I)-Jean Pichard to Louise Garnier, epouse September 19, 1661, Montreal Jacques Morin

September 19: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Angelique Lefebvre, Metis, died December 4, 1735 Becancour son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married married 1st Marie Madeleine Cusson: married 2nd Genevieve Guyet

September 29: Marguerite Bourgeoys and Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) departed Ville-Marie (Montreal) for France to recruit young girls to be teachers.

October 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Poulain, died May 20, 1722, daughter (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married August 7, 1673, Jean Amyot

October 29: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Louis Pinar, (1636-1695) to (II)-Marie Madeleine Hertel daughter (I)-Jack Hertel.

November 11: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Antoine Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 and Marie Metayer, b-1636: married 1st Marie d’ACo; married Domitide Ch8ping8a, Indian girl

November 12: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) to (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645 daughter (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis

November 12: Montreal, marriage (II)-Nicolas Gode (1636-1697) son (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) and Francoise Gaddis (1586-1689) ; married Marguerite Picard b-1646, epouse October 20, 1681 Montreal Jean Pare

1659

Thirty six marriages, ninety one births and thirty one deaths are recorded in New France.

Records indicate 36 marriages, 91 births, 31 deaths and 60 excedant (single?) in Kebec, New France. The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), appealed to King Louis XIV to send troops to defeat the Iroquois barbarians.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Baillargeon, son (I)-Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626 to Marie Metayer, b-1636:

Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) married most likely early 1659, (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1684) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) d-1665, Sauvagesse

(I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 marriage Quebec to Catherine LaTour dit Simonet Metis b-1638 died February 4, 1678 Ste Family, likely the daughter of one of the LaTour brothers.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Elizabeth Pepin Metis died December 31, 1697 Champlain, daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married November 16, 1671 Jean Arcouet dit Lajeunesse

Quebec, birth (II)-George Plante son (I)-Jean Plante, (1621-1706) to (II)-Francoise Boucher d-1711; married November 5, 1685, St. Francois, Margeueite Crepeau.

(II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Metis, b-1659, died May 12, 1737, St. Augustin, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665): married 1st. August 18, 1683, Quebec, (II)-Marie Anne Giroux, b-1607 daughter (I)-Toussaint Giroux: married 2nd February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, (III)-Genevieve Sedilot, daughter (II)-Jean Sedilot.

(I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) ventured among the Wendat to persuade them to bring more pelts down the St. Lawrence River. In the Green Bay area, he heard stories of much untouched beaver, north of Lake Superior to the inland sea (Bay of the North or Hudson Bay) from des Groseilliers.

Birth (II)-Elizabeth Pepin, died Decenber 31, 1697, Champlain daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and Jeanne Mechin, b-1630; married November 16, 1671, Trois Rivieres, Jean Arcouet dit Lajeunesse

Cap Breton, Acadia is commanded by Monsieur Denis.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) is taken on an unlicensed fur trading expedition to Lake Superior and Michigan by his half sister’s husband, (I)-Medard Chouart des Grosseilliers (1618-1696). He learns, at this time, of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

Many small boats were being used on the St Lawrence River.

(I)-Louis Garnault is born 1634 baptised 1641 in Grimaudiere, France, died April 2, 1698 L’Ange Gardien, Quebec. The location of Grimaudiere is about five miles from Mirebeau, the district of Leveche de Poitiers (Vienne). He is the son of Pierre Garnault and Jeanne Barrault. He immigrated to New France under the name of (I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698). He was probably a Protestant and indentured for thirty-six months. La Rochelle, France is the most probable departure point to New France. La Rochelle is a sordid city because of its crowded and shabby streets, packed tightly about the waterfront. He probably arrived the summer of this year, maybe June1656.

Three ships arrived this year at Fort Quebec;

Saint-Andre- at 300 tonnnage with Captain Guillaume Poulet. Garneau not listed this ship.
Prince Guillaume- at 200 tonnage with Captain Guillaume Heurtin
Sacrifice d’Abraham- at 300 tonnage with Captain Isaie Guyesmeux

The accomplishments of the Jesuit missionaries from 1625 to 1659 are, to say the least, minor. The failure of their mission is more than compensated for by their activities as secular colonial agents.

Three Frenchmen are killed by the Iroquois at Ville-Marie (Montreal).

February 18: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Rouillard, died June 2, 1690 daughter (I)-Antoine Rouillard dit Lariviere (1616-1666) and Marie Girard, b-1640.

March 6: Ste Genevieve, Montreal, birth (V)-Marie Angelique Plouf, Metis, Daughter (IV)-Maurice Plouf and (V)-Marie Francois, Metis, b-1730: married June 27, 1689, Quebec.

March 2, Quebec, birth (III)-Rene Pelletier, Metis, son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704)

April 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacquelle Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married June 5, 1673, Quebec, Jean Prou.

April 15: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Chouart, died June 22, 1711, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632. Godparents are Jean Guerin and (II)-Francoise Radisson, b-1636 Metis, (1635-1677) half sister of (II)-Marguerite Radisson b-1632.

May: Monsieur de la Citiere, L’Archevesque and Herosme upset a canoe returning from the Island of Orleans in heavy gale. Two Alguonquins, Jean de Noyon, a Jesuit domestic, departed Three Rivers on an embassy to Agnie, with Tigarihogen, 4 freed Iroquois Kebec prisoners, and three ambassadors from Oneiout.

May 1: Quebec marriage (I)-Mathurin Normandin (Sauvage) son Jean Normandin and Marie Desmaisons; married Suzanne Badeau epouse July 26, 1665 Kebec Jean De Rainville, daughter (I)-Jacques Badeau d-1658 and Anne Ardouin, likely sauvage. Tanguay suggests the name Normandin is Sauvage.

May 5: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jeanne Gervaise, Metis, daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621-1699); married January 17, 1678, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Dupuis.

May 22: Quebec, birth (II)-Louis Prye son (I)-Nicolas Praye (Pre, Dupre) and (II)-Mathurine Buisson

June: LaRose says the ‘Flemish Bastard’ is leading five Iroquois canoes to make war on the French.

June 9: Montreal, birth/death, (II)-Gabriel Froget, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis;

June 16: The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), arrived in Quebec. It is more than ten years before Quebec would be made an Episcopal Sea with the Jesuit Bishop Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) as the first Bishop (1674). The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), moved into a tiny two-story stone house, twenty by thirty feet in size and shared with three priests, a valet-cook and a gardener. Bishop Laval’s mission is to assert the supremacy of Church over State.

June 22: Montreal, birth (II)-Joseph Pichard son (I)-Jean Pichard and Louise Garnier

June 29: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Anne Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); 1st married November 11, 1681, Chateau Richer, Paschal Mercier; 2nd marriage 1697, Antoine Buteau.

July 7: L’Ange Gardien, Quebec (I)-Louis Garnaud aka Garneau also Guerineau (1634-1698) and (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 acquired three arpents of land on the coast of Bowsprit (L’Ange Gardiens, Quebec) and in 1660 entrusted land to (I)-Jacques Vesinat who married Marie Bourdon

July 8: Monsieur St. Denis departed Kebec for Tadousac by canoe. Antoine des Rosiers escaped from the Onontageronons, Iroquois near Lake Ontario, and arrived at Three Rivers.

August: Lespine set out from Kebec to hunt for seals at Isle Rouge. He would return in September with 220 seals. Sieur Maheu had, this month, set out from Kebec for the cod fishery at Isle Percee. This month 54 livres of beaver skins were stolen from the warehouse at Kebec.

August: The Coureurs des Bois (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) returned to the south shore of Lake Superior to Chequamegon, Miles Lacs area of (Wisconsin).

August 1: Thirty three canoes of the Attikameg and Piskatang arrived to trade from inland, and 6 canoes of Sault (Ojibwa). They asked for some French to join them on their return home.

August 6: Six canoes of the Nation of Sault (Ojibwa) arrived at Three Rivers, traveling inland routes, and had taken five months to trade. They requested some Frenchmen accompany them on their return.

August 10: Three Rivers, Marie Sauvahesse a slave of Joseph Claude Boucher of Niverville, Three Rivers being harassed by wife and his/her mother a Marguerite Chastelin attacked the older woman with a knife. The slave retreated to the attic and hung herself..

September: L’Epine, a Frenchman, is killed at Three Rivers by the Iroquois. Monsieur Denis Mill on Cap Diamans began to grind grain. The ship St. Andre arrived at Kebec with 130 passengers. 9-10 died during the passage of contagious fever. The contagion was passed to those in the settlement and some died.

September 7: Marguerite Bourgeoys and Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) arrived at the Mission of the Mountain of Montreal with 62 men and 47 women settlers, to establish the congregation of Notre Dame.

September 12: Guillaume Routier is taken captive by the Iroquois while fishing eels at Cap Rouge.

September 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Soumande, Metis son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

September 29: Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Picard daughter (I)-Jean Picard, d-1700, and (II)-Marie Caron, d-1660.; 1st married October 4, 1673Ste Anne, Louis Gagne; 2nd marriage October 12, Cap St. Ignace, Guillaume Lemieux.

October 4/18: Quebec, birth/death (II)-Pierre Rousseau son (I)-Symphorien Rousseau (1633-1688) and Jeanne Sinnallon.

October 5: Quebec, birth (II)-Therese Poirier, died September 26, 1693, Quebec, daughter (I)-Vincent Poirier dit Bellepoire, (1628-1703) and (II)-Francoise Pinguet, died May 30, 1661, veuve Pierre Delauney: married January 21, 1681, Quebec, Mathieu Guay

October 26: Montreal, death (I)-Sylvestre Vacher dit St. Julien, b-1622, killed by the Iroquois.

October 27: Quebec, birth Louise Chevalier, Metis, died September 29, 1703, Beauport daughter Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married Jacques Parent

November 4: Quebec, marriage (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere b-1630, died April 22, 1704 Ste Foye, Quebec son (I)-Louise Henri Pinguet; married (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis, daughter (I)-Charles Chevalier who lived 1645 Trois Rivieres, married a sauvagesse?, but not named.

November 17: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678) most likely daughter of one of the LaTour brothers.

November 25: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Volant de St. Claude, Metis, daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636: married 1675, (III)-Pierre Noel Le Gardeur..

November 27: Trois Tivieres, Quebec, birth, (II)-Louis Lafleur dit Couc, Metis, voyageur, he was assassinated in 1709, going to Albany, son (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); 1st married 1681/3, Madeleine Sacokie, (Marie Sauvagesse); 2nd marriage January 7, 1687 St. Francois-du-Lac, Yamaska, Quebec Jeanne Quiquetig8k8e or Ouigatigocon, b-1656.

December: The Governor and Bishop of New France are in a childish struggle as to who has the higher place at social functions. They even squabble over who should be incensed first at Holy Mass.

December 31: Quebec, birth/death (II)-Jacques Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

1660

Twenty four marriages, one hundred thirteen births and forty seven deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Pierre Martin, b-1631 farmer, married 1660, Acadia, Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; their four Metis children: Pierre 10, Rene 8, Andre 5, Jacques 2-1/2; cattle 11, sheep 6, 8 arpents of land. (1671 census)

(II)-Philippe Mius, b-1660, Acadia, son (I)-Philippe Muis D’Entremont, (1601-1701) and (I)-Madeline Helie Du Tillet, b-1626: married 1678 Acadia Marie Mi’Kmag

(I)-Quentin Moral (1622-1686) married 1660 or earlier Marie Marguerie (1620-1700) Quentin was involved in 29 court cases at Trois Riviers.

Birth (II)-Jeanne Racine, Metis, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married November 3, 1682, Chateau Richer, Jean Pare.

Some contend the Kings daughters and French marriageable daughters began arriving this year, others suggest they started in 1663. There was a growing concern in France that the Metis descendants are outnumbering the French descendents and if something isn’t done, French would become a minority in New France.

Port Royal, Acadia, (II)-Alexander Le Borgne (1640-1693) son (I)-Emmanuel Le Borgue (1610-1675) married (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654 daughter (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) and his 3rd wife Jeanne Motin.

Pierre Martin married 1660, Acadia, Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, sauvagesse

The Jesuits claim the engage system was originated some time before this date to increase the population of Quebec. Their terms of employment were 3 years. Many of these engages became Coureurs de Bois. Engages or indentured slaves however were employed as early as 1634.

About this time, the profession of cobblers or harness makers started in Quebec. They started producing French style shoes, but the population wanted Indian footwear. They adopted the Native moccasins and high soft boots that were water resistance. The trades were not governed by statutes and regulations of French guilds, despite repeated attempts by Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) to establish such regulations.

A prerequisite for remaining in the New France colony was the acceptance of the Roman Catholic Faith. (I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698) had the choice to return to France or stay and accept the one and only true faith. The confirmation of (I)-Louis Garnaud is February 24, 1660 in Fort Quebec. He declared his age as being 26 and said he was from Saumur, which is south east of Angers in France. Family tradition suggests he left France due to the religious persecution, and this may account for the name change and other discrepancies in the records of this time.

When (I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698) arrived, the French colonies on the St. Lawrence are in desperate straits due to the Iroquois’ constant attacks, and the total population is only some two thousand people. Liquor traffic, despite Lavel’s excommunication decree, is in full swing as an important trade item. (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) are the best known traders at this time in Lake Michigan, Lake Superior and the Sault Ste Marie region. They established trading posts at Chequamegon, along the south shore of Lake Michigan. This area contained groups of displaced Wendat and Ottawa Natives, driven west by the Iroquois.

This spring the Coureurs des Bois (I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1696) and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) explored the north shore of Lake Superior near Pigeon River.

The French are aware that 300 leagues southward from the end of Lake Superior is the Bay of St. Esprit, in the Gulf of Mexico on the coast of Florida. About 200 leagues is a river that empties into the Vermillion Sea (California). It is also known that the Savages who live 60 leagues west of Lake Superior are trading with Europeans who are in the area.

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (1644-1717), son Nicolas Perrot, raised by the Jesuits, arrived in New France indentured to the Jesuits.

Meanwhile, Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) inspired decree established working guidelines for the Colony. The intent was to ensure the bondage of young people to land and, therefore, religion. The order is for parents of New France to see their sons married by twenty and daughters by sixteen or appear in court. The Father must appear in court every six-months until the unwed child has found a mate. Many girls promised in marriage are as young as ten or twelve. This fanatical Church Indenture Decree is to ensure the religious and economic monopoly of the Church. The following Indenture laws made this perfectly clear:

* Merchants are not permitted to hold meetings for discussion of business matters. (this is to discourage free trade thinking),
* No one could trade in foreign goods. (non French goods)
* It is illegal for townspeople to rent houses or rooms to tenants from the country; the fine being 100 livre. (to retain a peasant population)
* Licenses had to be obtained to hire domestic servants. (to keep track of single people)
* Farmers are forbidden to move into town on pain of being fined fifty livre and having all their goods and chattels confiscated. (to secure a peasant population)
* Country folk must not own more than two horses or mares and one foal. (this effectively restricting prosperity),
* People are not permitted to sit on benches in front of their houses after nine in the evening. (they are expected to pro-create)
* Prohibitions on the possession of all books, save the lives of the Saints and similar volumes of devotional nature. (to prevent freethinking).

This religiously sponsored decree and Royal supported policy, drove men into the woods (runners of the woods). The exodus was so great that, at one time, the loss to the town is a quarter of the effective population. The Indenture Decree did much to encourage the growing Voyagers and ‘Bois Brule’ (Metis) population. Many of the regulations are directly traceable to the clerical influence and their egotistical insistence of importing their ideal European beliefs and values into the New Country. The decrees forced the Voyager French to align more closely with the Native beliefs and values and away from Roman and French values.

The English under the reign of King Charles II (1660-1785) shipped convicts to the colonies, New England, Maryland, Virginia and the West Indies. These included juvenile delinquents who stole food, felons, habitual criminals and highwaymen who could save their lives if they could read. Their indenture was for seven years, then they earned their freedom. Many were also engaged the in kidnapping young boys and girls, who are spirited on board colony bound ships that are sold in bondage to recover the costs of this slave trade. Those who attempted to escape are whipped, adding months or years to their indenture. Because of King Charles II (1660-1785) persecution of the Quakers in England, severe laws are passed in every colony except Rhode Island. Quakers are whipped and imprisoned, in New York they are tortured, and in Boston, hanged.

Richelieu Island, a fort siege by 200 Iroquois that expanded to over 500, in the next 10 days of the siege. The fort fell and all the French are killed.

Kabec, 4 ships arrived, the Saint Jean at 100 tonnage from Normandie with captain Elie Raymond, a ship lands at Perce with captain Lefbvre, a ship de La Rochelle captain Pointel and a second ship de la Rochelle.

The parish Chateau Richer aka La-Visitation-de-Notre-Dame-du-Château-Richer is established this year.

The parish Hotel de Quebec is established this year.

January: Seven persons presented themselves to the Jesuits to settle in Beauport New France.

January 7: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage, (II)-Laurent Archambault, b-1642, (Metis?) b-1642, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married January 7, 1660, Ville-Marie (Montreal) Catherine Marchand.

January 11: Coste de Beaupre aka L’Ange Gardien, Quebec (Audourt) (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) and Jean Jacquereau had entrusted to Jacques Vesinat (Vezina), by contract the ground #9 qu ils acquired by Jean Baptiste Halle on July 7, 1658 (Audouart) others suggest November 30, 1657. Ground #9 is 3 arpents by 126 arpents. (I)- Louis Guerineau aka Garnaud (1634-1698) then returned to Quebec to work.

January 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620; married 1680, (II)-Francoise Leblanc, b-1662 daughter (I)-Leonard Leblanc, Francoise epouse February 18, 1709, Montreal, Pierre Delorme.

February: Permission to eat eggs for this year was published everywhere. Cheese was not spoken of, permission to eat it was taken for granted, as in the case of butter. The French do not commonly like eggs unless they are soft, but the Savages declare that soft eggs are still quite raw, therefore they have them boiled hard to eat.

February 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Prevost, Metis, son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665); married 1680, Francoise Leblanc.

February 19; Quebec, birth (II)-Vincent Vachon, Metis, died December 4, 1716, Beauport, son (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married June 25, 1685 Beauport, Louise Cadieu

February 24: Cathedral of the upper town of Quebec (I)- Louis Garnaud aka Guerineau (1634-1698) is confirmed at age 26

April: Long Sault rapids: (I)-Adam Dollard (1635-1660) with 17 Frenchmen, 44 Huron and a handful of Algonquin, were intent on ambushing an Iroquois trade canoe. They, however, encountered a 300 man Iroquois army. The Indians immediately fled, but the French fought for 7 days and tried to bomb the Iroquois. The keg of gunpowder snagged and they blew themselves up. Nine survived but were executed by the Iroquois.

April: Tadoussac, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1690) son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and (I)-Jeanne Du Roussy b-1614; married Dorthee sauvagesse (1613-1661) Dorthee died L’Hopital de Quebec.

May: Long Sault, (I)-Hebert b-1633, d-1660, killed by the Iroquois.

May 5: Father Francois de Lavel (1623-1708), vicar apostolic, excommunicated all residents of New France who sold liquor to the Indians. In retaliation, the traders at Tadoussac tried to prevent Druillettes and Jacque Fremin from visiting the trading post.

May 21: Jean Dechamire Lecompte is killed by the Iroquois at Long Sault, Quebec.

May 25: Jean Peronne Dumesnil (d-1667) is sent to Quebec to audit all fur-trading transactions of the Company of New France since 1645. The Company is in severe financial difficulty.

June: Quebec, arrival Jean Pere, Adrien Jollet brother of Louis Jollet.

August 10: Quebec, marriage (II)-Francois Miville son (I)-Pierre Miville; 1st married August 10, 1660 Quebec, (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis, born August 19, 1636 Kabec, died August 15, 1687; 2nd marriage November 7, 1692 Riviere Ouelle, Jeanne Savonet, died March 12, 1721 Riviere Ouelle, veuve Damien Berube.

August 22/24: The Groseillier/Radisson Expedition returned to Trois Riveres with 300 men and many furs. The Jesuits reported that 100 canoes departed Lake Superior, but that 40 canoes turned back. The remaining 60 canoes contained 200,000 livres of pelts a fortune in furs. There was a great celebration by the people at Trois Rivieres upon their return. However, because they were Coureurs des Bois and not an official French expedition, the Governor imprisoned them. The popular heroes were heavily fined and their trade goods were seized. The lack of vision would cost Kebec dearly. The Hudson Bay and many of their young men who would flood to the interior as Coureurs des Bois.

September 19: Beaupre aka L’Ange Gardien, Quebec (Audourt): (I)-Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) took a lease on the ground of Jacques Vauclin dit Rose, (Jacques Vauclin Larose) ground #10 next to his and Jacques Jacquereau holding of #9.

October 12: Quebec, Marriage, (III)-Joseph Hebert, Metis, born November 3, 1636, Kebec son (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620 epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin.

November 18, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis daughter (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678); married January 23, 1681 Quebec (I)-Jean Vincent Beriau.(1653-1715)

November 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)- Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; believed died shortly after birth?

November 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Joseph Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)- Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; believed died shortly after birth?

November 28: Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) held a meeting of the church wardens and stated that Governor Pierre de Voyer Vicomte d’Argenson (1658-1661) was no longer an honorable Churchwarden; and this without having told him of it. This is likely motivated by the Governor supporting the condemnation of Father Vaillant last year. The Governor of New France informed the wardens and Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) that he had not the power to remove him. Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) whipped two children, Charles Couillard and Ignace de Repentigny, for saluting the Governor before saluting Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708).

December 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Bertrand Rate, Metis, died December 25, 1660, Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

1661

The mission Chateau Richer de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Thirty one marriages, one hundred fourteen births and fifty deaths are recorded in New France.

Birth (III)-Xainte Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married November 11, 1681, Chateau Richer, Thomas Fortin.

Pierre Martin, Metis, b-1661, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; (source 1671 census)

Trois Rivers, Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, died January 7, 1750, Pte du Lac, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); married August 3, 1682, Sorel, (I)-Francois Delpee dit Saint Cerny (Singerny (Sincerni) also St. Cerny (Cerni) and also known as Montour, b-1640, died December 15, 1725, aux Trois Rivers.

Port Royal, Acadia, (III)-Jacques Le Borgne b-1661 son (II)-Alexander La Borgne (1640-1693) and (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654; married Anne Melancon.

Louis XIV (1661-1715), age 22, assumed the Royal seat in France with the regent Queen Mother Anne of Austria. (I)-Pierre Du Bois, Baron d’Avaugour (Davaugour) (died 1664), Governor of New France August 31, 1661 to July 23, 1663, is the last Governor to serve Compagnie des Centassocies. He removed restrictions on the brandy trade with the Natives so Bishop Lavel (1623-1708) had him recalled to France. It is noteworthy that Bishop Lavel (1623-1708), a Jesuit, was a political appointment to undermine the Governor’s rule using overlapping roles and responsibilities with the Governor.

(I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) a Coureurs des Bois and, with another Coureurs des Bois (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710), this year, attempted in vain to have a third expedition approved into the north west, but was refused by the Governor. This French stupidity would have profound implications on the French culture in Canada and the United States. It is noteworthy that the European culture, at this time, only allowed aristocratic gentlemen to conduct exploration and only if accompanied by a priest. This included the English, French and Spanish. They ventured to Boston in 1662 for an expedition to the Cree’s North Bay via an ocean route, but were rejected. After being rejected on all fronts, they decided to approach England. This would take a few years to achieve.

Daniel Voil, an Englishman, is executed in New France for crimes which included smuggling, witchcraft and blasphemy. New France servants posses not one political right, they are forbidden to hold public meetings without official permission or to solicit signatures to a petition.

Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685)

During the past two years, fifty eight settlers are killed and fifty-nine captured by the Iroquois. The Church contends that alcohol is the cause and demands the shooting of two French men and the whipping of one for selling brandy to the Natives. (I)-Charles Garnier (born 1636), and who later settled in L’Ange Gardien, is a witness to a transaction between (I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698) and his future neighbor, (I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628). The transaction is probably the acquisition of property at L’Ange Gardien that would be necessary to attract a future wife.

Photo of the Garneau homestead.
Garneau homestead The view is to the south on the St. Lawrence River.

(I)-Louis Garnaud (1634-1698) joined twenty-one farmers in the colony and tried to organize a parish at L’Ange Gardien. (I)-Louis Garnaud’s farm is very close to the Montmorency River which falls 250 feet from a former arm of the St. Lawrence River.
The following is a listing of his immediate neighbors:

(I)-Charles Garnier (b-1636) married (II)-Marie Louise Vesina and second marriage Gertrude Couillart,

Raymond Paget alias Quercy and Charles Couillart Des Islets, Is this (I)-Raymond Pagets who arrive Kebec 1619??

Jacques Marette alias Lespine (b-1631) married 1660 Marie Paget (b-1648),

(I)-Rene Brisson (b-1635) married 1665 Anne Vesina (b-1651),

Pierre Maheust Des Hazards,

(I)-Jean Trudel (b-1629) married 1655 (I)-Marguerite Thomas (b-1634),

(I)-Laurent Gignard (b-1636) married Marie Elisabeth Sorin (b-1641),

(I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628) married 1663 Catherine Guiot (b-1646),

(I)-Jean Clement alias Lapointe (b-1626) married 1659 Madeline Surget (b-1638),

Francis Herbert alias Le Comte De Roussy,

Pierre Gendreau alias La Poussiere,

(I)-Jacques Goulet (b-1615) married Marguerite Maillier (b-1631),

(I)-Robert De La Laberge (b-1638) married 1663 Francoise Gausse (b-1634),

(I)-Pierre Tremblay b-1626 married 1657 Ozanne Achon (b-1633). Possible son (I)-Pierre Tremblay who arrived Kebec 1619 and his son is a possible Metis?

The following settlers are no longer at L’Ange Gardien by 1680 or are recorded by another name but were part of the original settlers:

Antoine Andrieux,

(I)-Michael Henault (b-1636) married 1662 Genevieve Macre (b-1636),

Antoine Gaboury,

(I)-Antoine Lefort (b-1646) married 1666 Marie Doyon (b-1652),

Louis Lesage,

Louis Socier married 1671 Marguerite Gaillard Duplessis,

Jacques Nourry.

The savages destroy Fort Tadoussac.

Some clain Despres Coutaire was sent by Pierre de Voyer (1625-1709?), Governor of New France (1658-1661) to discover the North West Passage to India but they failed. However in 1663 Coutaire is claimed to have reached Hudson Bay and claimed it for France. I was unable to find a Coutaire in New France.

Quebec, 4 ships arrived, the Marie at 400 tonnage with captain J. Pingault, the Taureau at 150 tonnage with captain Tadourneau, the Marguerite at 300 tonnage from La Rochelle with captain Guillaume Heuron and the Saint Pierre with captain Pierre Philie.

February 2: Trois Riviers, marriage (I)-Rene Besnard dit Bourjoli, b-1658 to (II)-Marie Sedilot, b-1629, Rene was involved in 22 court cases in Trois Riviers

March 25: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau aka Garneau (1634-1698) yielded his lease #10 in Beaupre aka L’Ange Gardien to Pierre Nony?, others suggest to (I)-Jacques Jacquereau b-1628 for 500 pounds.

April 13: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Jean Gervaise, Metis, died December 18, 1672 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married January 17, 1678, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Dupuis.

June 7: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Antoinette Chouart daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632: 1st married 1679 Jean Jalot; 2nd marriage December 19, 1695, Montreal, Jean baptiste Bouchard

June 24: d’Orleans, death (II)-Nicolas Couillard is killed on the Island d’Orleans with Mr. Jean de Lauron. Nicolas is burried with the English of Quebec.

July 13: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Fournier, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married 1685 Barbe Girard.

July 20: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth Pierre la Moyne d’Iberville died July 9, 1706 son Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685) a very wealthy and influential merchant and Catherine Thierry Primot. Pierre is classified as a greedy man with a lust for conquest for personal financial gain, but is dedicated to France. During his lifetime he used cruelty and generosity as he saw fit.

August 7: Quebec, birth Francois Chevalier, Metis, died December 19, 1661, Quebec son Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec

September 26: Quebec, marriage (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier (1596-1679) and Jeanne Roussy, sauvagesse (1622-1689) (Doc Lussier suggests she is Micmac from Porty Royal); 1st married Dorthee La Sauvagesse, died April 13, 1661; 2nd marriage September 26, 1661 (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau.

September 30: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Lefebvre, Metis, died October 3, 1745, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married September 3, 1731, Nicolet, Marie Louise Daniau.

October 7: Quebec, Daniel Vvil was shot rather than being hung, as was La Violette.

October 10: Quebec, one Frenchman was flogged for having traded brandy to the Savages.

October 14: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Soumande, Metis son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

October 16: Quebec, birth, (IV)-Joseph Hebert, Metis, son (III)-Joseph Hebert, Metis, b-1636 and Helene Desportes, b-1620 epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin.

October 18: Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Anne Pinguet, Metis, died July 12, 1687, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married November 24, 1676 Quebec (I)-Isaac Hervieux b-1751.

December 5: L’Ange Gardien, Quebec (Auber): (I)-Louis Garnault aka Garnauld and Guerineau later Garneau (1634-1698) yielded to Jean Jacquereau, his associate, then established on the ground #16, his share of work qu ils had carried out jointly on the grounds quils had together so much with the Cote de Beaupre qu a l ile dOrleans, for the sum of 500 pounds. They had ground in common on Island Orleans and with the Coste de Beaupre.

December 21/26, Quebec, birth/death (III)-Antoine Pelletier, Metis, son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704)

1662

Thirty nine marriages, one hundred forty four births and thirty four deaths are recorded in New France.

Thirty seven Fillies a Marier arrived Quebec this year with no support of the King.

New France now has 3,300 permanent residents.

Starting this year commerce with New France is open to all merchants. Prior to this it was highly controlled.

Birth (II)-Marie Jeanne Chouart daughter (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/1621-1696) and (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, b-1632

(II)-Marie Angelique Couc, aka Caou, Metis, b-1662, died January 7, 1750 Pointe du Lac, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Miteameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine; married January 7, 1682, Sorel Francois Delpe aka St. Cerny/St. Sorny/ St. Serny

Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (1631-1699) an Algonquine, she 1st married 1645 Assababich b-1620 and they had two children.

Birth (II)-Madeleine Marsolet, Metis, died February 27, 1677, daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:

A Ville-Marie (Montreal) tribunal convicted Rene Besnard of casting a spell of impotence over his former-lover’s husband Pierre Gadois. Besnards was imprisoned. In 1665 Bishop Laval annuled the still-barren marriage of Pierre Gadois and Marie Pontonnier on the grounds of “permanent impotence caused by witchcraft”. Pierre’s 2nd wife bore him 12 children.

Father (I)-Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708) departed for France to request King Louis XIV to terminate the Company of New France because, he contends, they are not adequately supporting the Roman Catholic Church. A coil of fiery serpent is seen in the sky. Later, a great ball of fire passed over the colony to the northwest. The clergy used this as a sign to entrench their religious views.

Thomas Temple (1615-1674) became Governor of Acadia ( Nova Scotia), but is forced to restore the colony to France in 1670.

The French established a small fishing settlement at Placentia, Newfoundland.

Quebec, commerce is opened to all merchants and 11 ships arrived this year, the Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvrelle at 200 tonnage with captain Jacques Jamain, the Aigle Blanc at 80 tonnage with captain Elie Raymond, the Petit Saint Jean, the Armes de Zelande at 250 tonnage with captain Janvier de Combes, the Saint Jean Baptiste at 150 tonnage with captain Guillaume Heurtin, the Flute Royale at 300 tonnage a Royale vessel with captain Guyon, the Aigle d’Or at 300 tonnage a Royal vessel with captain Nicolas Garnot dit Jambe de Bois (aka Peg Leg), the Fortune Doree at 140 tonnage with captain Francois Janot and two unnamed Royal vessels.

January: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Guerineau and Garnaud (1634-1698) is working for the account of (I)-Jacques LeRoy, an inhabitant who lived on the third ground east of Montmorency River, Quebec. This #3 ground was eventually turned over to France for unrecorded reasons.

February 23: The Ordinary or Prelate can forbid, under penalty of excommunication ipso facto, the Europeans to sell alcohol, and treat as excommunicated those who will prove disobedient and intractable.

February 27, Quebec, birth (II)-Augustin Cordeau, Metis son (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678)

May 6: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)- Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married November 14, 1679 Trois Riviers Bernard Joachim

May 16: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Prevost, Metis, died May 12, 1737, son (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620; married August 18, 1683, Beauport, Marie Anne Giroux; 2nd marriage February 3, 1712, Ste Foye, Genevieve Sedilot.

May 6: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Ursule Pepin Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)- Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married 1st Nicolas Geoggroy; married 2nd November 30, 1680 Louis Pinard

May 28; Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Vachon, Metis, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married 1679 Champlain, Leonard Paillart.

June 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Batiste Prevost, Metis, son (I)-Martin Prevost (1611-1691) and Marie Olivier Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626- 1665); married May 4, 1690, Quebec, Francoise Cadieu.

July 25: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) went to see (I)-Laurent Denis b-1635 and borrowed 25 pounds and 15 grounds from him. From the profits he purchased 2 arpents facing LeRoy grounds to the western/south. This ground had 5 arpents of face and (I)-Jean Grignon b-1636 bought the 3 arpents remaining.

July 26:: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Martineau dit LaPile, to Claire Morin de N.-D. de Mortagne, au Perche, Normandie, France, died March 29, 1666, Quebec.. epouse November 30, 1636, Kebec (I)-Jamen Bourguignon, d-1660

July 29: Montreal, birth, (II)-Marguerite Froget, Metis, died July 26, 1704 St. Francois, Ill Jesus, daughter (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis; 1st married 1681, Montreal, Jean Muloin; 2nd marriage, 1695, Montreal Jean Berloin

August 14: Ste Familie, birth (II)-Etienne Racine, Metis, died January, 1722 Ste Anne, son of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married October 25, 1683, St. Francois, I.O., Catherine Guyon.

August 21: Quebec, marriage (II)-Jean Pelletier Metis (1647-1692) son (I)-Nicolas Peltier dit Marolles (1596-1679) and Jeanne de Voisy (Roussey) Indian/Metis (1622-1689) to Marie Genevieve Manevely De Rainville

August 25: Thirty five Iroquois attacked 14 Frenchmen on a small Island near Ville-Marie (Montreal). Monsieur Brignac and two other Frenchmen stood their ground but the other 11 fled. Brignac killed the Captain of the Iroquois on the first assault, they retreated and fired on the deserting Frenchmen killing or wounding some of them. The next assault saw Monsieur Vignal being killed and Brignac being wounded. As prisons of war Brignac was killed and Rene Fresne was adopted into the tribe.

Autumn: We saw fiery serpents, over Quebec, we beheld a great ball of fire, which illuminated the night almost with the splendor of day. This same meteor appeared over Ville-Marie (Montreal).

September 19: Quebec, marriage (I)-Laurent Du Bocq (Dubeau), b-1636, married Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, sauvagesse, died November 1, 1689, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter Joachim, de la Conception.

September 23: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671)?? to Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, Anota, Annanonis, Ananontha, b-1649, Epouse 1672 (I)- Jacques Couturier b-1646.

September 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671), married Catherine Kateri Annennontak (Annannontok), Huronne, sauvagesse, born October 1648 Georgian Bay, near Lake Huron, daughter Nicolas Arendanke and Jeanne Otrihoandat;. epouse July 22, 1702 Quebec, Fancois du Carreau.

October 14: Sillery, birth (III)-Marie Angelique Pelletier Metis daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married 1st Francois Baillac; 2nd marriage May 25, 1709 Trois Rivieres Antoine De Gerlais..

November 6: Quebec, marriage (II)-Louis Cote, Metis, born October 25, 1635, d-1669, son (I)-Jean Cote d-1661 and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis; and married (I)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1634) and Francoice Grenier (Garnier) d-1665, sauvagesse: Elizabeth epouse December 15, 1669, Quebec Guillaume Lemieux

December 26: Quebec, birth (II)-Jacques Rate, Metis, d-1666, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

1663

Sixty seven marriages, one hundred forty three births and thirty five deaths are recorded in New France.

Between (1634 to 1663) 262 Fillies a Marier, girls from France sponsored by individuals for marriage in New France were recruited

The Ursuline reported they were educating between 60-80 Indian girls as future wives of Frenchmen. Some only last a few hours, to a few days, to a few months. Some left to marry Frenchmen before their education was completed.

Rene Martin, Metis, b-1663, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; (1671 census)

Some suggest Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) was made governor of all Natives and Traders of the Northwest Wilderness.

Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619–83) was concerned that the French population was mainly unmarried males, many of whom interbred freely with the Indians, wasting their seeds among the pagans instead of increasing the strength of the colony. It is noteworthy that most of these Metis children went unrecorded and left in the hands of the mother for rearing.

Trois Tivieres, Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699).

(I)-Jean Verdon, b-1613, d-1663, Chateau Richer.

King Louis XIV issued an edict, taking all the assets of the Company of New France, making New France a Royal Province. In return, he sent hundreds of troops to deal with the Iroquois. Louis Gaudais Dupont appointed special agent for New France to take possession in the name of the King. He is commanded to take a census of New France, its economy, its lack of women and girls so that provisions can be made for sending some in coming years. The Hundred Associates, this year, abandon their seigniorial rights to the French crown.

King Louis XIV established a Superior Council of Quebec to resolve pressing problems, being composed of the governor, a senior cleric and five others whom they will choose jointly, and an Attorney General to be governed by the laws of the Kingdom. The council can establish lower courts at Quebec, Three Rivers and Ville-Marie (Montreal). Augustin de Saffray Mezy (1663-65) is appointed Governor.

The French King Louis XIV, himself, nominated the Bishop of New France as part of his campaign to bring the Roman Catholic Church under his control. This is a reaction to the previous Jesuit rule of both France and New France.

The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), lost his power and the authority to appoint members to the Sovereign Council of New France. As a result, his influence declined and his attendance at Council became less frequent. He lost this privilege because he squabbled with the Governor of New France and had been trying to regain Jesuit power in the colony over temporal matters.

Augustin de Mezy de Saffray is appointed Governor of New France.

A Ville-Marie (Montreal) resident was fined 10 livres for plowing in plain view on a Sunday.

Seventeen ‘Young Ladies’ (Filles du Roi) arrived in Quebec this year.

(I)-Marie Mazoue (1644-1703) baptized a Calvinist La Rochelle, Aunis, France daughter Etienne Mazoue and Marie Merand departed La Rochelle, Aunis, France (Charente Maritime). Her dowry of four hundred pounds included three hundred pounds from her godmother, Marie Flacquemesle. Her dowry suggests a high probability that she is one of the King’s Daughters or Fillies du Roi.

It is noteworthy that the term ‘Filles du Roi’ was not used at this time and likely became popular about 1700. At this time they were called ‘girls’ or ‘young ladies’
King’s Daughters The King’s Daughters are defined, by some, as the period of 1663 to 1673, where the King provided dowry for poor or adventurous young girls, some as young as sixteen, who would immigrate to New France. This is likely based on the doubling of the number of marriages of this year over last year (39 vs 67). Others suggest this practice started in 1660 rather than 1663. The Jesuit Relations suggest girls or young ladies were being sent to New France as early as 1639. Jean Baptiste Cilbert ordered the scouring of orphanages for robust girls of good character as filles du Roi for Kebec.

The reality of the times, these early young ladies of the King (Filles du Roi) were gathered from the streets of Paris and other towns. The program was to sweep clean the streets of homeless woman. Female criminals, prostitutes, orphans and the poor were gathered up for export to New France.

However, some suggest that before1660, the girl’s relatives paid the dowry and the girls were known as filles des marier or marriageable daughters. Others suggest few girls actually received the promised dowry. The estimate, including the Kings daughters, is that four thousand eight hundred and ninety four girls arrived from 1608 to 1700 in New France. The Kings daughters were to receive a dowry of one hundred livres (only 5 of 606 sampled received this amount), ten for personal and moving expenses, thirty for clothing and sixty for passage. Included is a hope chest filled with necessities such as needles, thread and cloth. The records indicate that the Province of origin of the eight hundred and fifty two Fillies du Roi, who arrived during 1663 to 1673, was as follows:

314 Ide De France 5 Brie
153 Normandy 5 Berry
86 Aunis 5 Auvergne
43 Champange 4 Limousin
38 Poitou 3 Angoumois
22 Anjou 3 Provence
22 Beauce 3 Savoie
19 Maine 2 Franche-Comte
19 Orleanais 2 Gascogne

This year there are six bachelors for every girl of marrying age, 12 years or older, in the colony. The average age of the men is 22.2 years. The statistics are 67 marriages, 143 births, 35 deaths and 108 excedant (single or surplus) in New France. (I)-Marie Mazoue (1644-1703) arrived with thirty King’s girls between the ages of twelve and forty-five. It is the custom to deport any pregnant girl who arrived. The Priests and Notaries are on hand with the expectation that the girls will select her husband upon arrival. Given the shortages of women, the men are on their best behavior, and extensive questioning takes place as to their economic status with health being a priority. (I)-Marie Mazoue (1644-1703), age 19, with her dowry of four hundred and fifty pounds, could be more discerning as to his character, beliefs and values, as was her priority. She could afford to select a young man.

The men’s preference is for peasant girls because they are healthy and industrious. The men prefer the plumpest girls first. They overlook a bad complexion or squint if the figure is buxom, as this is considered a sign of fertility. The marriage follows selection, priests being on hand to conduct the ceremony and notaries to make out the necessary papers. The State gives each couple an ox, cow, two pigs, a pair of chicken, two barrels of salted meat and eleven crowns in money.

The Filles du Roi first question was about the Suitor’s home, finances, land and occupation. Marie de I’lincarnation says: “The smarest [among the suitors] began making an habitation one year before getting married, because those with an habitation find a wife easier. It’s the first thing that the girls ask about, wisely at that, since those who are not established suffer greatly before being comfortable.” The average interval between arrival and marriage is four to five months, although the average interval for girls aged 12 to 16 was slightly longer than fifteen months.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1663 and entered into contract of marriage

Marie-Anne Agatha, married. Armand, Laurent,
Mary Albert, married. Jean Chauveau, dit Lafleur,
Marguerite Ardion, b-1638, a protestant, a widow and child Laurent Beaudet, married Jean Rabouin.
Catherine Barré, married. Nicolas Roy
Catherine De Boisandré, married . Marc-Antoine Gobelin dit Cinq-Mars, said his name was Cinq-Mars
Francoise Brunet, b-1635, widow 1st married 1654 Martin Durand, came with two children, married 1663 Theodore Sureau dit Elder
Louise Charrier, married. Guillaume (William) Baret,
Marie-Madeleine De Chevrainville, said Lafontaine, married. Joseph-Isaac Lamy,
Helen Dufiguier, married. Jacques Fournier, Sieur Delaville,
Catherine Dupuis, married. Charles Martin,
Mary Faucon, married Guillaume Chartier; 2nd marriage 1708 François Jocteau,
Anne Labbé, Anne married. Guillaume Gilles, (in France), 2nd marriage 1663 Marc Girard,
Marie Lafaye, married. Rene Emond,
Catherine Fievre, married. Charles Allaire, Charles,
Louise Gargotten , b-1637, married Daniel Perron dit Suire
Anne Lemaître, married. Adrien Blanquet dit La Fougère,
Susan De Licerace, married. Michel Bisson, dit Amos, said his name was Amos
Francoise Moisan, married. Antoine Brunet, Antoine, dit Belhumeur, said his name is Belhumeur; 2nd marriage 1707, Pierre Perthuis, dit Lalime, said his name is Lalime,
Marguerite Moitié, married. Joseph-Élie Gauthier,
Catherine Paulo b-1645, married Etienne Canpeau
Marguerite Peuvier, b-1640, married Jacques Meneux dit Chateauneuf; 2nd marriage 1696 Guillaume Lizot
Catherine Pillant, b-1650, married Pierre Charon dit Ducharme
Marie Targer, married Jean Royer; 2nd marriage 1676 Robert Tourneroche,
Masthurine Thibault, married. Jean Milot, dit Bourguignon,
Marie Valade b-1647, married Jean Baptiste Cadieux; 2nd marriage 1682 Philippe Boudier,
Populating this list it is fairly obvious that records compiled in France did not accompany the girls. Some created a family name upon arrival because they didn’t possess one or didn’t know it or they created it during the promise of marriage phase. Place of birth was also created in some cases. The names of some husbands was also created during the process.

Roomers persist that some of the King’s girls are the prostitutes of France. The authorities continue to deny this claim. If they behave badly on the trip over, they are sent back, But in reality few, if any, are returned. Many poor girls, however, are sent against their wishes.

Once married, women were the property of her husband. She could never get a divorce, and could not get a separation unless he beat her with a stick thicker than his wrist. For all intent and purpose, she was a slave. The savages thought this practice was barbaric and belittled women, the givers of life.

The population of New France is two thousand, five hundred, of whom eight hundred are in Fort Quebec. This is an increase of only 500 over the past ten years.

The Church, at this time, also held about one tenth of the seigniorial lands in the St. Lawrence valley.

Quebec becomes the capital city of New France.

January 7: Three suns are seen in the sky at once over New France.

January 15: Three suns are again seen in the sky at once over New France.

January 24: Quebec, La Badaude’s house was robbed, and the thief, Larose, set fire to it to conceal his crime; he was convicted and hanged. Several other thieves were found out, but few were punished.

February 5: Just before the Great Earthquake, Quebec was in carnival, orgies, drinking bouts, and dances, not to speak of some things more serious, which may offend chaste ears and are better passed over in silence than mentioned. Heaven and earth have spoken to us many times during this year.

February 5, 5:30P.M.: A great earthquake, centered near the mouth of the Saguenay River, shook the whole country, and some people thought the world was about to end. The priests used this natural phenomenon as a sign to align the people with their beliefs and values. Father (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673) wrote: “Mountains were swallowed up, forests were changed into great lakes, rivers disappeared, thunder rumbled beneath our feet, which belched forth flames.” The Savages say: “All the woods were drunken.” Pikes and lances of fire were seen, waving in the air. At Three Rivers: The first and severest of all the shocks began with a rumbling like that of thunder, the house were shaken like tree tops during a storm, amid a noise that made people think there was a fire crackling in their garrets. Both shores of the St. Lawrence River for 300 miles are strewn with uprooted trees. The first shock lasted 1/2 hour and was felt beyond Ville-Marie (Montreal) to Acadia and New England. The after shocks continued for more than 6 months, well into August, some suggested until September 9. Not a person lost his life or even his earthly possessions.

The shocks which continued for months and, in September (some say December, see note end 1663), an eclipse of the sun are used by Father Jerome Lalemant to a revival of piety. Lalwmant also used this natural phenomena to terrorize the Savages.

February 20: (I)- Louis Garnault aka Garnaud and Guerineau (1634-1698) at age 29 became sedentary on the territory of the Coste de Beaupre, that was later called the Guardian Angel.

February 24: Quebec, birth Jean Chevalier, Metis, son Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married February 25, 1686 Beauport, Marie Madeleine Lvisse

February 24: The French Crown acquired all assets of the Company of New France, making New France a Royal Colony.

April 17: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francoise Volant de St. Claude, Metis,died July 1663. Trois Rivieres, daughter (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636.

April 22, Quebec, birth (III)-Jean Pelletier, Metis, d-1739 son (II)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); married January 8, 1689, Riviere Ouelle, (II)-Marie Anne St. Laurent Huot born January 6, 1666 Riviere Ouelle veuve Louis Garnaut.

May 1: Augustin de Saffray de Mezy is appointed Royal Governor of New France from September 15, 1663 to May 5, 1665.

May 7: Louis Gaudais Dupont is appointed special commissioner for New France to take possession in the name of the King.

May 29: Sieur de Beaulier and his valet is burned to death in his home on the Island de Orleans being set by another valet who was convicted. It was ordered that his hand be cut off, and to be hanged and burnt, which was carried out June 8.

June: Quebec, (I)-Marie Mazoue also Masoue, (1644-1713) arrived Quebec in the Phoenix de Flessingue ship of 200 barrels. She was a girl of the King and had an estimated 150 pounds, plus a gift from her godmother of 300 pounds.

June 2: Quebec, (I)-Jacques Gourdeau b-1614 or 1624, was assonated and his house burned downed to hide the murder.

June 18: Quebec, birth (III)-Francoise Miville. Metis, died December 6, 1727Cap St. Ignace, daughter, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687; married November 16, 1680 Cap St. Ignace, Pierre Richard.

June 24: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth, (II)-Jean Tessier dit Lavigue, Metis, died December 7, 1734 Ville-Marie (Montreal), son (I)- Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) and (II)-Marie Archambault, Metis, baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal); 1st married November 21, 1686 (II)-Laprairie Jeanne Leber b-1671, died December 4, 1687 Laprairie daughter (I)-Jean Leber: 2nd married April 21, 1688 Laprairie (II)-Louise Caron b-1671, died April 13, 1703 Ville-Marie (Montreal),daughter (I)-Claude Caron; 3rd marriage August 27, 1703 Laprairie (II)-Marie Catherine de Poitiers, b-1671 died January 22, 1745 Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Poitiers.

July 5: Father (I)-Rene Menard (1605-1661) party of 7 Frenchmen reached Ville-Marie (Montreal) with 35 canoes and 150 men with furs to trade. Father Menard and Jean Guerin, d-1662, died on this expedition.

July 9: Quebec, (I)-Louis Garnaud aka Garnault and Guerineau, (1634-1698) seeking a wife meets (I)-Marie Mazoue also Masoue, (1644-1713) and signed a marriage contract

July 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Fournier, Metis, died October 8, 1664, Quebec, daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637:

July 21: Father Claude Allouez (1622-1689) is assigned Vicar General of the Quebec diocese which includes the central region of America.

July 23: Marie Mazoue (1644-1703) had selected Louis Garnaud (1641-1698) to begin the Garneau ancestry as recorded by the Notary Guillaume Audouart. They moved to Coste de Beaupre aka Garden Angel.

July 31: Sillery. birth (III)-Jean Francois Xavier Pelletier Metis, killed November 2, 1692 by Iroquois, son (II)-Jean Pelletier Metis (1647-1692) and Marie Genevieve Manevely De Rainville; married May 7, 1685 Sorel, Genevieve Le Tendre

August 15: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Joseph Cloutier, Metis, died April 7, 1671, Chateau Richer, son (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699);

September: A ship arrived from France with Commissioner Louis Gaudais Dupont and 159 settlers who were indentured for three years, sixty settlers had died at sea.

September 1: A solar eclipse is noted at Quebec.

September 18: The Conseil Souverain (Sovereign Council) of New France is established, consisting of the Royal Governor, Bishop and five councilors.

September 19: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Madeleine Cote, Metis, died August 25, 1689 Cap Ste Ignace, daughter (II)-Louis Cote d-1669 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis b-1645: married November 26, 1682 Cap St. Ignace, Louis Lemieux.

September 22: Thirty-six girls (some claim the first group of Filles du Roi) arrived Quebec.

September 28: The Sovereign Council banned the sale of liquor to Indians.

October 2: A ship from Normandy brings 82 girls and women, and one hundred and thirty laboring men.

October 7: Jean Baptiste Legardeur de Repentigny is appointed the first Mayor of Quebec.

October 20: Kebec, marriage (I)-Catherine De Boisandre, (1640-1685), a Filles du Roi to (I)-Marc Antoine Gobelin dit Cinq Mars.

October 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Catherine Barre, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Nicolas Roy

October 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marie Lafaye, (1633-1708) a Filles du Roi to (I)-Rene Emond, b-1636

October 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marie Madeleine De Chevrainville dite Lafontaine, b-1650, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Joseph Isaac Lamy, b-1640

October 23: Chateau Richer, marriage (I)-Marguerite Le Peuvrier, b-1638, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jacques Meneux dit Chateauneuf, b-1639; 2nd marriage Lizot Guillaume

October 24: Chateau Richer, marriage (I)-Marguerite Moitie (1648-1701) a Filles du Roi to (I)-Joseph Elie Gauthier (1626-1700)

October 24: Kebec, marriage (I)-Helene Dufiguier, b-1644, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jacques Fournier, sieur Delaville, b-1633

October 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marie Anne Agathe, d-1700, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Laurent Armand.

October 28: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marguerite, b-1643, a Filles du Roi arrived with her son (II)-Laurent Beaudet, married (I)-Jean Rabouin (1637-1707)

October 29: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marie Albert, b-1645, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jean Chauveau dit Lafleur, b-1635

November 2: Chateau Richer, marriage (I)-Marie Targer, b-1641 a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jean Royer, b-1636 (epouse 1st Madeleine Du Bois): epouse February 16, 1676 Ste Famille, Roberta Tourneroche

November 7: Kebec, marriage (I)-Anne Le Maitre (veuve Louis Le Roy), b-1617, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Adrien Blanquet dit La Fougere, b-1604

November 8: Kebec, marriage (I)-Francoise Brunet, d-1677 (veuve Martin Durand), a Filles du Roi to (I)-Theodore Sureau, d-1677.

November 10: Kebec, marriage (I)-Catherine Fievre, b-1645, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Charles Allaire aka Alaire, b-1635.

November 12: Kebec, marriage (I)-Louise Menacier, b-1638 a Filles du Roi to (I)-Toussaint Ledran (1638-1711)

November 19: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Louise Charrier (Charier), a Filles du Roi to (I)-Guillaume Baret

November 19: Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy (1596-1670) is appointed Lieutenant General of all French territories in North and South America.

November 23: Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Anne Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645; married November 23, 1683, St. Pierre, I., Ignace Gosselin.

November 24: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Louis Gervaise, Metis, son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married November 25, 1686, Ville-Marie (Montreal) (II)-Barbe Pigeon daughter (I)-Pierre Pigeon.

November 26: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 son (I)-Christophe Crevier and Jeanne Enard Metis b-1619; married (II)-Marguerite Hertel daughter (I)-Jacques Hertal (1630-1651) and Marie Harguerine d-1700

November 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Mathurine Thibault, a Filles du Roi to Jean Milot dit Bourguignon

November 26: Ville Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Marie Valade, b-1644, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jean Cadieux, (1634-1681): epouse February 9, 1682, Montreal, Philippe Boudier

November 28: Ville Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Catherine Dupuis aka Dupay, b-1644, a Filles du Roi to (II)-Charles Martin , b-1644

November 28: Ville Marie (Montreal), marriage (I)-Francoise Moisan, b-1645, a Filles du Roi to (II)-Antoine Brunet dit Belhumeur, b-1644: 2nd marriage February 13, 1707 Pierre dit Lalime

November 28: Montreal, marriage (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 son (I)-(II)-Pierre Martin and Madeleine Panis (slave); married 1st Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

November 28: Young Ladies (Fillies du Roi) are not allowed to marry at their leisure, and the priests are forbidden to slow down marriages for fear that some are not free and of a marriageable state.

December 1: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Jean Trepie.

December 2: Sillery birth (III)-Francoise Pelletier Metis son (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married May 2, 1689 Champlain Madeleine Thunes.

1663

QUEBEC, NEW FRANCE

Kebec, New France marriage (I)-Louis Garnaud aka Garnault and Guerineau, is born 1634, La Grimaudiere, Vienne, France, died April 2, 1698, L’Ange Gardien, New France, son of Pierre Garnault and Jeanne Barault (Barrault) of Grimaudiere, Leveche De (Vienne) Poitiers, Anjou, France.

Married; July 23, 1663, Quebec, New France, (I)-Marie Mazoue also Masoue, born, December 3, 1644, baptized December 8, 1644 La Rochelle, Aunis, France, died, June 19, 1713, L’Ange Gardien, New France. Daughter: of Etienne Mazoue and Marie Merand of La Rochelle, Aunis, France. Sources: (Voy., Vol. I, P252), Tanguay & Cyrrien, The French Canadians 1600-1900 (PQ441-252) & November 14, 1681 census C-2474 Seigneurie de Beaupre. Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families du Quebec. She was a junior of a family of 7 children. Her father died when she was age 9 and her mother when she was age 18.

Events:
1656 Louis arrived Fort Kebec.
1660 February 24 Louis is confirmed at Kebec.
1661 Louis joined the L’Ange Gardien, New France colony.
1663 Marie arrived Fort Quebec.
1713 June 19, inventory of Louis possessions.
1715 October 4, inventory of Marie possessions.

EIGHT CHILDREN ARE RECORDED:

(II)-Francois Garnaud, born, September 28, 1665, at Chateau Richer, New France, married, February 7, 1689, at L’Ange Gardien, New France a (II)-Louise Carreau, born, April 18, 1664, Quebec, New France, daughter (I)-Louis Carreau alias Lafraicheur, born 1621 who arrived from Bordeaux, France and married, April 30, 1654, Fort Quebec an (I)-Jeanne Lerouge, born 1625, died March 9, 1696.

(II)-Louis Garnaud, born, April 2, 1670, died, October 6, 1750, and married, April 14, 1692, all at L’Ange Gardien, New France to (II)-Marie Anne Huot, born, May 14, 1674, died, March 4, 1703, at L’Ange-Gardien, New France; daughter (I)-Mathurin Huot, born 1646, D’Angers, Anjou, France, died 1712 and (II)-Marie Letartre, born 1653.

(II)-Louis Garnaud second marriage, June 25, 1705, at Beauport, New France a (II)-Marguerite Catherine Soulard (Miville), born, March 13, 1669, (elle espouse 1696 Pierre Vachon); daughter (I)-Jean Soulard, born 1646, died 1710 married 1666 a

(II)-Catherine Boutet, born 1637, (widow Charles Philippeau).

(II)-Anonyme-1 Garnaud, was born and died, January 29, 1671, at Chateau Richer, New France.

(II)-Charles Garnaud, was born, August 9, 1671, at L’Ange Gardien, New France and assumed to have been still born.

(II)-Anonyme-2 Garnaud, was born and died, October 7, 1673, at L’Ange Gardien, New France.

(II)-Jean Garnaud was born, October 9, 1676, at L’Ange Gardien, New France, died, November 27, 1749, at Charlesbourg, New France, married, April 8, 1698, at L’Ange Gardien, New France a (II)-Louise Huot, born, December 20, 1679, L’Ange-Gardien, New France, died, July 7, 1730, Charlesbourg, New France; daughter (I)-Mathurin Huot born, 1646 and (II)-Marie Letartre born,
1653.

(II)-Jean Garnaud second marriage, March 7, 1735, at Charlesbourg, New France a (III)-Marie Ursule Martin, born, August 27, 1707, daughter (II)-Antoine Martin, born 1654 and married 1699 a (II)-Marie Bonet, born 1677; (Ursule second marriage, November 23, 1750 at Charlesbourg, New France a Charles Corvaosier).

(II)-Louis Garnaud is born, March 23, 1678, at L’Ange Gardien, New France and probable marriage about 1710 Beauceville, New France.

(II)-Jacques Garnaud, born, May 1, 1679, died, July 15, 1711, and married October 6, 1701 all at L’Ange Gardien, New France a (III)-Angelique Trudel, born, August 4, 1682, L’Ange-Gardien, New France, daughter (II)-Pierre Trudel, born 1658 and married 1680 a (II)-Francoise Le Francois, born 1663; Angelique second marriage, November 23, 1711, a Jacques Huot at L’Ange Gardien, New France.

(I)-Louis and Marie Garnaud immediately departed for L’Ange-Gardien in the parish of Chateau Richer. There is no church at L’Ange-Gardien. L’Ange Gardien is located between the rivers Montmorency and Petit Pre that is about ten miles north east of Quebec city on the north side of the St. Lawrence river. This colony claimed to have existed since 1570, but it must have been a wintering or unauthorized trading location.

Meanwhile, (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?), with three hundred canoe loads of northern pelts, returned to Fort Quebec. These prominent Coureurs des Bois are arrested and fined by the Governor and their furs are seized. They had been refused permission to trade in 1661 unless they gave one half of all future trading profits to the monopoly. This gross act of free trade suppression would ultimately lead to the creation of the Hudson Bay Company by (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1696?) and the ultimate loss of New France to England. Groseillier immediately departed to France to request an over turning of the New France trade decision, but he got a cold shoulder in France. As a result, a directive effectively placed the Metis and French free traders- those Coureurs des Bois- to the status of criminals.

The Jesuits ousted the Recollects from New France because of their humility. The Jesuits now exercised a complete religious monopoly and, now, had a better chance to control the trade. When the King hears of this treachery he would restore them in 1668. As a result of this tampering, the King decreed he would appoint future Bishops to New France. The Company of New France, deemed a complete failure by King Louis, surrendered its charter in 1663. The Royal Government of France replaced it, remaining the same until New France fell in 1760.

Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) is again made Governor of Three Rivers (1663-1665).

(I)-Augustin de Saffray, chevalier de Mezy, died May 5, 1665, is appointed Governor of New France from September 15, 1663 to May 5, 1665. His rule was undermined by the Jesuits who politically appointed Bishop Lavel (1623-1708) with overlapping roles and responsibilities with the Governor. The Jesuits considered Mezy as a violent and arbitrary ruler. Had Mezy survived, he likely would have labeled the Jesuit Bishop Lavel as more political than religious. History would verify this predominant role of the Jesuits.

“I just visited you site and the sun eclipse which followed the February earthquake did not happen in December but rather on 1 September 1663. It is specified in a letter from Mother Marie de L’Incarnation to her son (was married before entering the convent) in which she says she was ready to die when the earthquake happened. The letter is dated 1 September 1663 and it finishes abruptly like this (quoted by memory) : “I have to close this letter to watch the sun eclipse just starting; it is 1:00 p.m.” With a reliable astronomy software called Red Shift 3, I could reproduce the eclipse for Quebec City and it started at 1:10 p.m. I could also check other eclipses described even in antiquity (namely 28 May -585 in now Turkey said to have stopped a war) and the reproduction is really neat.” Source Denis Hamel of Ville-Marie (Montreal), Quebec.

Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619–83), a French statesman who took over direction of colonial affairs, strongly opposed French westward expansion. He considered the clergy as a group of parasites. (I)-Jean Talon, Intendant of New France (1625/26-1694), had proposed the establishment of a vast French Empire from the St. Lawrence to Florida and Mexico. Colbert argued it would be poor policy to depopulate France in order to populate Canada. Colbert wrote that to strengthen the colony is to cause justice to reign, to establish a good civil administration, to take care of the settlers, to give them peace, tranquility and abundance, and to train them to defend themselves against all manner of foes; for these are the basis and foundation of every establishment. Colbert had misgivings in allowing Canadians to trade, as he feared the habitants would remain idle a good part of the year, whereas if they were not allowed to engage in it, they would be obliged to apply themselves to cultivating their land.

Autumn: The Agniehronnon (Iroquois) captured two Frenchmen out hunting from Three Rivers, but they eventually escaped to tell their tales. The Iroquois do most of their trade for fire-arms, powder and lead with the Dutch at New Holland.

1664

Thirty eight marriages, two hundred four births and thirty eight deaths are recorded in New France.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1664 and entered into contract of marriage
Marie-Madeleine Boutet, married. Gervais Bisson, , le 15 septembre, 1664 Bisson, Gervais,
Madeline Carbonnet, married. Sédilot, (Stephan) Étienne, dit Desnoyers, said his name is Desnoyers
Francois Charron, no marriage in 1664
Claude De Mangeon married. Thomas Lesueur dit Lagrandeur, said his name Lagrandeur,
Joan Dodier, married. Adrien (Adrian) Joliet, Sieur de Chansenaye; 2nd marriage 1672 Antoine Baillargé; 3rd marriage 1674 Mathurin Normandin dit Beausoleil, said his name is Beausoleil
Margaret Gaillard, said her name was Duplessis, married. Francois Provost,
Margaret Gambier, married Michel. Legardeur dit Sanssoucy, said his name was Sanssoucy,
Louise Gargottin, married. Daniel Perron dit Suire, said his name is Suire; 2nd marriage 1679 Charles-Louis Alain,
Anne Gendreau, married. René Leduc,
Margaret Gaillard, said her name is Duplessis, married François Provost; 2nd marriage 1671 Louis Saucier; 3rd marriage 1677, Michel Legardeur dit Sanssoucy, said his name is Sanssoucy
Françoise Huché, married Guillaume Bonhomme,
Joachine Lafleur, married Pierre Martin,
GenevièveLaurence, b-1643, married. Adrien Michelon; 2nd marriage 1681, Jean Journet dit Guespin, said his name is Guespin
Jacqueline Lauvergnat, married, Pierre Gaulin, Pierre; 2nd marriage 1679 Marc Bareau,
Jacquette Ledoux, married Jacques Grimault; 2nd marriage 1668 Marc Tessier, Marc,
Anne Lépine, married François Boucher dit Vin d’Espagne,
Anne Loiseau, married. Guillaume Gendron dit La Rondière, told his name is Rondiere; 2nd marriage 1688, Charles Lemoine dit Charleville, said his name is Charleville
Marthe Ragot, married Louis Samson,
Jeanne Repoche, married Jérôme Bilodeau,
Marie Repoche, married Julien Jamin,
Marie-Sainte Vié dite Lamotte said her name is Lamotte, married Jean Poitras

(I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Sauvagesse, b-1621

Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Leloutre, b-1648

(I)-Francoise Charron a Filles du Roi arrived Quebec 1664.

Port Royal, Acadia, (III)-Anne Le Borgne b-1664 daughter (II)-Alexander La Borgne (1640-1693) and (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654; married Jacques Muis, sieur de Poubomcou.

Quebec, marriage, (I)-Genevieve Laurence, b-1643, a Filles du Roi to 1st (I)-Adrien Michelon (1644-1681): 2nd September 9, 1681 Quebect, Jean Jorunet, dit Guespin.

Central L’Ange Gardien had the following settlers from 1664 to 1680 and appears to have been Church controlled Seigniorial land during this period. The settlers from west to east are:

(I)-Jean Clement alias Lapointe (b-1626) married Madeline Surget (b-1638) farming 2 arpent,
(I)-Pierre Boivin (b-1646) married 1664 Etienne Fafard (b-1652) farming 2 arpent,
(I)-Nicholas Quentin alias La Fontaine (b-1633) married 1660 Madeline Roulois (b-1646) farming 4, arpent, north of Nicholas; 8 arpent was farmed by de Louis Couillart de Lespinay,
Joseph Guion farming 5 arpent, Francois Herbert alias Le Comte de Roussy farmed 3 arpent,
(II)-Charles Letartre (b-1657) married Marie Maheu born 1663 and also living here (I)-Mathurin Huot (b-1646) married 1671 Marie Letartre (b-1653) farming 2 arpent,
(II)-Rene Letartre (b-1627) married 1652 Louise Goulet (b-1626) farming 2 arpent,
(II)-Nicholas Roussin married Madeleine Pardis (b-1653) farming 1.7 arpent, which also included the first chapel,
North of Herbert, Letartre’s and Roussin; 8.7 arpent farmed by de Guillaume Couillart Des Chesnes,
(I)-Daniel Perron alias Suire married 1664 Louise Gargottine and his heirs farming 3 arpent,
Pierre Genfreau alias La Poussiere and his heirs farming 3 arpent and this property included the second church site,
(I)-Jacques Goulet (b-1615) married Marguerite Maillier (b-1631) farming 3, arpent,
(I)-Robert de Laberge (b-1638) married 1663 Francoise Gausse (b-1634) farming 3 arpent,
North of Perron, Gendreau, Goulet and Laberge; 12 arpent farmed by (I)-D’Olivier Le Tardif married 1637 (II)-Louis
Couillart (b-1625),
Dennis Guion farming 3.5 arpent,
Charles Godin farming 2.5 arpent,
North of Guion, Godin; (II)-Guillemette Herbert (b-1608) (E’P G. Couillart, died 1663),
(II)-Nicholas Roussin married 1668 Madeleine Pardis (b-1653) farming 3 arpent,
(I)-Jean Roussin married Madeline Gigueres and second marriage 1655 Marie Lessard farming 2 arpent,
North of Roussin’s; Francois Bissot married (II)-Marie Couillart (b-1633) (E’P Francois Bissot) second marriage
Marie 1675 Jacques de Lalande,
Guillaume Paget farming 2 arpent,
(I)-Jean Mathieu (b-1637) married 1669 Anne Dutertre (b-1654) farming 4 arpent.

At this time the colonists rarely bathe, believing a bath would cause colic, headaches and vertigo. This European tradition usually resulted in a May bath with June weddings before they started to smell too bad. The brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hid the body odor. Both male and female wore sachets of dried flowers for the same purpose. The natives bathed fairly often and couldn’t understand this strange practice of the French. Some said you could smell an European before you could see him. The savages had another custom to washing themselves before a meal, with the notion that, if they failed to do so, they would transgress rules absolutely necessary for obtaining success in hunting.

The French court was told most of the Quebec population were mainly unmarried males, many of whom interbred freely with the savages, wasting their seed among the pagans, instead of increasing the strength of the colony. Most of these Metis offspring are absorbed into the Indian population and are not recorded in the French records. This situation led to the filles du roi program of sending orphan girls, daughters of debtors, streetwalkers and runaway wives to New France. Only fifteen out of the first 150 could not find husbands and ended up in domestic service.

The first history of Canada, ‘Historia canadensis’ was published this year in Paris, France.

Maryland passed the “black code” which declared that any Negro in the colony was a slave for life by virtue of his color. This conflicted with Church doctrine that stated only pagans could be enslaved and must be released when baptized.

The Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency (1623-1708), established tithe to the church of Canada at 1/20 of the labor of men (cultivation of the soil), but the fur trade is naturally excluded.

The New France Colony begs France to send an army to deal with the Iroquois who now control the St. Lawrence River system. The King agrees that the Iroquois must be exterminated.

The denier tournois along with the copper double liard, the denier was one of the predominant coins in circulation in New France up to the 1660′s. The denier, although rated at 1 denier in France, circulated as a 2 denier piece in New France. The merchants saw a chance for a quick profit and imported these coins in large quantities. This resulted in an over supply prompting the government of Quebec to ban the denier altogether in 1664. The Order of the Sovereign Council which demonetized the denier allowed the double tournois to remain in circulation but reduced its value to 1 denier to curb its excessive importation. It had formally circulated at 4 deniers in New France. The liard had circulated as a 6 deniar coin and this was devalued to a 2 denier coin to discourage its excessive importation.

Parish of Beauport aka La Native de Notre Dame de Beauport is established this year

Parish of Cap de la Madeleine aka Ste. Marie Madeleine du Cal de la Madeleine is established this year

January 22: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jeanne Dodier a Filles du Roi to 1st (I)-Adrien Jolet sieur de Chansenaye: 2nd 1672 Antoine Baillarge

February: A Savage named Robert Hachel ravished a young woman whom he met on the road, due to drunkenness.

February 4: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jeanne Repoche, b-1646, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jerome Bilodeau, b-1638

February 11: Quebec, marriage (I)-Joachine La Fleur, a Filles du Roi, to (I)-Pierre Martin, d-1711

February 26: Chateau Richer, marriage (I)-Louise Gargottin, a Filles du Roi to 1st. (I)-Daniel Perron dit Suire: 2nd January 7, 1679, L’Ange Gardien, Charles Louis Alain:

February 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marthe Ragot (Ragu), (1632-1693), a Filles du Roi to (I)-Louis Sampson (1638-1724)

March: The English by order of James Promptly under command of Richard Nicolls sent an army, to reduce the Dutch Colony to obedience. Thus ended the Dutch influence by the capture of New Amsterdam (New York).

March 12: King Charles II granted the territory between the St. Croix River and the Kennebec River to James, Duke of York.

April 21: Chateau Richer, marriage (I)-Jacqueline Lauvergnat, b-1637, a Filles du Roi to 1st Pierre Gaulin (1630-1677; 2nd epouse Marc Bareau

April 21: Quebec, marriage (I)-Anne Lepine, b-1637, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Francois Boucher dit Vin d’Espagne, b-1637

May 17: Quebec, birth (II)-Louise Soumande, Metis, died November 28, 1708, Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

May 28: The Company of The West Indies, organized by Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), is created this date to exploit the resources of the French Colonial possessions. These include Acadia, Newfoundland, the mainland from north of Canada to Virginia and Florida, as far and as deep as they could extend to the interior. Besides full seigniory and proprietorship is included a monopoly on the fur trade.

June: Thirty six (36) girls (Filles du Roi) arrived in Quebec and were distributed between Quebec, Trois Rivers and Ville-Marie (Montreal). It is noteworthy that by month end, only three remained unmarried and one was seized by the Iroquois and taken captive.

June 1: Trois Rivieres, marriage (II)-Jean Masse Fafart, b-1657, died December 21, 1756, Detroit son (I)-Francois (1630-1711) and Marie Richard (1636-1696): married to (II)-Marguerite Couc (Couck), Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Coug dit Lafleur, b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e Algonquine, sauvagesse, b-1631, died August 6, 1665 Trois Rivieres

June 5: Trois Rivers, Quebec, baptism, (III)-Marguerite Couc alias Couck, dit Lafleur, Metis, birth June 1, 1664, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); 1st married 1690 d’en Haut, likely Detroit?, (II)-Jean Fafard dit Jean Fafart dit Maconce or Macons, b-1657, died December 21, 1756, Fort Detroit, he was a voyageur and interpreter; 2nd marriage 1705 Detroit, Michel Masse..

June 7: Trois Riviers, birth (II)-Maurice Menard, son (I)-Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine, b-1629 and Catherine Fortier, b-1637: married 1692 St. Ignace, Michillimakinac, married (II)-Madeleine Couc, Metis, born 1669 daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine, (1631-1699);

July 21: Quebec, marriage (I)-Anne Loiseau, b-1636, a Filles du Roi to 1st Guillaume Gendrn (1630-1687): 2nd epouse August 2, 1688, Montreal, Charles Lemoine dit Charlesville.

July 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marguerite Gaillard dite Duplessis, a Filles du Roi to 1st. Francois Provost (Prevost): 2nd January 12, 1671 to Louis Saucier: 3rd November 1677 to Michel Legardeau die Sanssoucy

July 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marguerite Gambier, b-1641, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Michel Nicolas Legardeau dit Sanssoucy, b-1636

July 26: The Sovereign Council of New France fixed the prices of commodities and stipulated that price tags be attached to goods. The cost of passage from Quebec to France is fixed at 33 livres, and the shipment of beaver skins to France at 10 livres per hundredweight.

August 15; Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Vachon, Metis, died September 26, 1715 Beauport, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married November 26, 1681, Beauport, Raphael Giroux

August 27: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marie Sainte Vie dite Lamotte, b-1650, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Jean Poitras, b-1639

September 8: Fort Orange was captured by Richard Nicolls and renamed Fort Albany. Richard Nicolls became governor and named New Amsterdam as New York

September 11: Montreal, birth (III)-Jean Martin Metis son (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

September 16: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marie Repoche, b-1636, a Filles du Roi to (I)-Julien Jamin (Jamein), (1634-1704)

October 4: Quebec birth (II)-Daniel Joseph Amiot (Amyot) Villeneuve son (I)-Mathieu Aymot Villeneuve (1628-1688) and Marie Miville (1632-1702); 1st marriage Marie Kape8apnok8e (Outaouaise) Indian; 2nd marriage 1719 Michillmachic Domitilade dit Neveu.

October 18: (I)-Louis Garnaud assisted at the L’Ange Gardien’s first mass at the home of Jean Trudel on October 18, 1664. The celebrant is Father Louis Ango Des Maizerets who arrived at Fort Quebec on September 15, 1663. The following year, the residents built a small chapel on the property of Nicholas Roussin.

October 28: Quebec, marriage (I)-Anne Gendreau (Gentreau), b-1643, a Filles du Roi, to (I)-Rene Le Duc, b-1639

October 29: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Etienne Volant de St. Claude, Metis, son (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636: married December 9, 1693 Sorel, Genevieve Le Tendre..

October 30: Quebec, marriage (I)-Francoise Huche, (1644-1699), a Filles du Roi, to (II)-Guillaume Bonhomme, d-1710

November 5, Chateau Richer, birth (II)-Marie Cordeau, Metis daughter (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678)

November 23: Kebec, marriage (I)-Claude De Mangeon, b-1644, a Filles du Roi, to (I)-Thomas Lesueur dit Lagrandeur

1665

Seventy four marriages, one hundred seventy eight births and fifty four deaths are recorded in New France. The first triplets were born in Ville-Marie (Montreal).

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1665 and entered into contract of marriage

Margaret Abraham, married Joseph-Ozanie Nadeau dit Lavigne; says his name is Lavigne’ 2rd marriage 1678 Guillaume Chartier, Guillaume;
Anne Bardet, married Jean Paulin,
Catherine Barré, married Mathurin Chaillé, Mathurin,
Mary Beauregard, married Sébastien Langelier; 2nd marriage 1682 Étienne Gélinas (Stephen)
Anne Bellesoeur, said her name was Lucas, married Nicolas Massard, Nicolas; 2nd marriage 1686 Jean (John) Lambert; 3rd marriage 1688, Jean-François Chevaudier, dit Lépine, said his name was Lepine
Joan Benard, married Pierre (Peter) Gadois,
Marie-Anne Blain, married Pierre Gervais,
Joan Bouchard, married Martin Foisy,
Madeleine Boucher, married François Blanchard, François, dit Belleville, said his name was Belleville,
Jeanne Bourgeois, married André (Andrew Coudray; 2nd marriage 1708 Pierre Glaumont dit Beauregard, said his name was Beauregard,
Anne Brandon, married Pierre Dagenais, Pierre, dit Lépine, said his name was Lepine
Anne Brunet, married Pierre (Peter) Coirier,
Marie Charrier, married Jacques Renaud,
Denise Cherfault, married Thomas Grandry dit Faverolle, said his name was Faverolles,
Marie Chevreau, b-1652, married Jean Rabouin
Claude De Chevrainville, said her name was Lafontaine, married August 12, 1665, Quebec (I)-Henri Brault, b-1640
Perrine Coirier, married Clement Guérin,
Marie-Catherine Cottin, called herself D’Arras (a illegitimate child, Jeanne b-1665), married Pierre Brunet; 2nd marriage 1685 Pierre Mandin,
Francois Cousin, Frances, married Charles Gaudreau,
Anne Couture, married Jean Moreau dit Lagrange, said his name was Lagrange
Anne Couture, b-1641, married Jean Moreau dit Lagrange
Denise Damane, married Rene Houray dit Grandmont, said his name was Grandmont,
Gabrielle Danneville, married Louis Blanchard; 2nd marriage 1684 Mathieu De Lagrange, Mathieu; 3rd marriage 1712 Hilaire Bernard, Sieur de La Rivière,
Marie Debure, b-1644, married Jean Bernard dit Hinse
Mary Debure, married Gilles Enard; 2nd marriage 1666 Jean Bernard dit Anse, said his name was Anse,
Adrienne Delastre, married Pierre (Peter) Mortrel,
Frances Desjardins, married Nicolas Droissy,
Isabella Dubreuil, married Bernard Faure,
Anne-Julienne Dumont, married Rene Dubois dit Brisebois, said his name was Brisebois
Catherine Durand, married Pierre Piché dit Lamusette, said his name was Lamusette,
Antoinette Eloy, married Mathurin Masta,
Marie-Therese Galien, married Laurent Gouin: 2nd marriage, Louis Gilbert,
Anne Girard, married Nicolas Dodelin,
Marie-Anne Guédon, married Gabriel Benoist; 2nd marriage Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre,
Madeleine Guerin, married Jean Julien,; 2nd marriage 1673 Pierre Boivin,
Bonne Guerrier, married Jacques Fauque; 2nd marriage 1674 Charles. Marchand,
Catherine Guyard, married Antoine Beaudry dit L’épinette,
Jacqueline Héron, (must be savage), married Jacques Galarneau; 2nd marriage 1706 Jean Picard, Jean,
Marguerite Hiardin, married Nicolas Vérieul, Nicolas dit Labécasse,
Marie Lanfillé, married Pierre Roche
Marie Langlois, married Jacques Gladu, Jacques dit Cognac
Marie-Anne Laporte, married François Genaple Sieur de Bellefonds; 2nd marriage 1711 Rene Hubert,
Marguerite Laverdure, married Maurice Crépeau,
Marie Lebon de Champfleury, marriedFrancois Bidard,
Marguerite Leclerc, married Julien Beloy dit Servigny
Suzanne Lecomte, married Francois Arsenault,
Louise Lecoutre, b-1648, married Nicolas Crevier, Louise had no point of birth recorded.
Marie Lemoine, married Jacques Duhault, Jacques dit Paris,
Marguerite Leroux, (arrivé 1665) not married 1665
Marie Lespérance, married Benoît Ponsart,
Anne Magnan, married Jean Gauvin,
Marie Magnier, married Michel Chartier, Michel; 2nd marriage 1673 Louis Jinchereau,
Jeanne De Mérinne, (arrived 1665) not married this year
Marie Mesuré, marriage Michel Montambault dit Léveillé
Antoinette Meunier, married Jacques Aubert,
Marie Meunier, married Charles Bonin,
Marie Meunier, married Michel Chrétien,
Marie Montminy, (Mont Meeny) (enfant illégitime, Julienne, 1665), married 1666 Noel Rose; 2nd marriage 1687 Francois Dumas,
Marie Morin, married Étienne Dauphin; 2nd marriage 1694, Pierre Chaignon,
Catherine Normand, married Pierre Normand dit Labrière, it would appear Catherine takes the name of husband?
Anne Pelletier dite Passavant, married Pierre Papin,
Marguerite Pelois, married Jacques Boivin dit Panse; Panse=Slave, likely a savage marriage
Francoise Pilois, b-1639, married Antoine Casse dit Lacasse
Catherine Pillat, married Pierre Charron dit Ducharme; 2nd marriage 1709 Sébastien Brisson dit Laroche
Françoise Pilois, married Antoine Cassé
Marthe Pointel, married Abel Benoît dit Laforest
Marie-Anne Poussin, Married Jean Larchevêque
Claude Prat, married Nicolas Giard dit St-Martin
Marthe Quitel, married Barthélemy Verreau dit La Bourguignon
Florimonde Rableau, married Pierre Chamard,
Marie-Catherine Renouard, married Nicolas Durand; 2nd marriage 1702, Francois Ducarreau,
Élisabeth Roy, married Pierre Paillereau,
Marguerite Roy, married Hilaire Chardonneau,
Jeanne Servignan, married Jean Ronceray dit LeBreton,
Nicole Souillard, married Louis Gaboury dit Lemajor
Perrette Vallée, married Jean Bourassa
Marie Vaublin, married Pierre Cochereau,
It becomes clear that some savages sent to France to be educated were returned under the Fille du Roi program. This gave them the opportunity to adopt a French name and birth place.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Artaut, Metis son (I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Sauvagesse, b-1621

(I)-Medard Chouart Sieur Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) take their plan to England to go to the Sea of the North (Hudson Bay) to harvest furs.

Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Marie Barbe Crevier, Metis daughter (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis and Louise Leloutre, b-1648

(I)-Jeanne De Merinne a Filles du Roi arrived Quebec 1665

illégitime, Julienne Montminy (Mont Meeny) daughter Marie Montminy, (Mont Meeny) who married 1666 Noel Rose

Port Royal, Acadia, (III)-Marguerite Le Borgne b-1665 daughter (II)-Alexander La Borgne (1640-1693) and (III)-Marie La Tour b-1654; married Abraham Muis.

(III)-Jeanne de Saint Etienne de La Tour, Metis, daughter (II)-Charles (Turgis) de Saint-Etienne de La Tour (1595-1665), married 1625, Acadia, a Mi’Kmaw; married 1665 Pentagouet, Acadia d’Apprendestiguy de Martignon.

(I)- Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin born June 19, 1665 d-1707 arrived Acadia June 30, 1665 with Carrignan Salieres Regiment; married 1670 Acadia to three daughters Chief Madokawando Abenaquis (1630-1696). He spent a few Months (Weeks) among the Micmac and Etchemins and obviously like what encountered. The native girls were very liberal with sex. Jean was a known young philander before later settling down about 1684 or 1685. He arrived with his man servant Renaud de Bordenave. He returned back to France but returned to Penobscot River, Acadia in 1670

The Jesuits claim that hitherto Canada has been regarded simply as Canada.

A census at the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal) listed five hundred and twenty five people. The total French population of New France is 3,215. Quebec, at this time only had seventy private houses.

The New France Governor Augustin de Saffray de Mezy, d-1665 is on bad terms with the Jesuits.

Alexandre de Proville, Marquis de Tracy, d-1670, is temporary Governor of New France.

Groseilliers and Radisson, the Coureurs des Bois, after being rejected by France, New France and New England, find themselves meeting with the king of England. This encounter will lead to the formation of the Hudson Bay Company and the loss of America to the English.

Fort Saint Louis aka Fort Chambly is built on the Richelieu River (near Chambly, Quebec). It was replaced by a stone fort in 1709.

The soldiers, 350 in all, are ordered to build a fort at Lake Champlain to cut the route of the Iroquois. They, however, have no carpenters or skilled trades people to assist them. The were given very few tools. Many of the men are sickly, barefoot and without proper clothing and have too few cooking pots.

Fort Saint Louis, later renamed Fort Chambly, is built by the Carignan Salieres Regiment on the Richelieu River near Chambly, Quebec, in burned down in 1702.

This year the Dutch attacked St. John’s, Newfoundland.

About 100 canoes of Outaouax (Ojibwa) arrived from Lake Superior at Three Rivers to trade their furs. A Frenchman who traveled with them reported they had 100,000 fighting men. They had more than 100 villages. He is likely referring to the whole region from the Iroquois in the east to the Nadouessioux (Dakota) to the west, south to the Illinois and north to the Bay of the north. These Nations visit to trade with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior at both Sault Ste Marie and La Pointe.

Parish of Cap St Ignacet aka St. Ignace du Cap St. Ignace is established this year

February 1: Cap St. Ignace, birth (III)-Jean Cote, Metis, died November 3, 1687 son (II)-Louis Cote d-1669 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis b-1645: married January 8, 1691 Cap St. Ignace, Genevieve Bernier..

March 19: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Fournier, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married 1687, Quebec, Marie LeRoy.

March 22: Sillery, birth (III)-Joseph Pelletier Metis son (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau.

March 23: The French King divided the responsibilities of New France between the Intendant and the Governor. The new Governor is (I)-Daniel de Remy, Sieur de Courcelle (1665-1672/98). The Royal Governors term is September 12, 1665 to September 12, 1672. They say he arrived ‘breathing nothing but war’, determined to destroy the Iroquois. He quarreled frequently with (I)-Jean Talon, Intendant. The Intendant handles civil matters and the Governor handles military affairs.

March 23: (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) is appointed Intendant to New France (September 23, 1665-October 22, 1668) and the new Viceroy de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, arrives in Fort Quebec. Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) issued a decree that forbade all bachelors to leave the colony for hunting, fishing or furs until all the ‘filles du Roi’ from France were married. It is noteworthy that Talon never married himself, yet orders others to marry. About 150 ‘filles du Roi’ arrive each year. The French Minister of Marine, Jean Baptiste Colbert, established the King’s dowry to encourage migration to New France.

April 13: Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Miville. Metis, daughter, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687; married November 12, 1684 Michel Gosselin.

April 28: Quebec, birth (III)-Genevieve Pinguet, Metis, died December 23, 1702, Quebec, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married January 19, 1682, Quebec (I)-Pierre Gatien.

May 6: Jacques Leneuf de La Potherie (1606-1685), the Governor of Trois Rivieres, acted as interim Governor of New France from May 6, 1665 to September 12, 1665.

May 10: Quebec, birth Guillaume Chevalier, Metis, son Rene Chevalier (1626-1679) and (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis b-1643, Quebec: married February 3, 1689, Beauport, Jeanne Gauthier.

June 3: Quebec, birth (II)-Therese Prevost, Metis, died May 20, 1743, Beauport, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665): married August 18, 1683, Beauport, Michel Giroux.

June 17 & 19: Two ships arrived Kebek (Quebec) from La Rochelle, France with four Companies of the Carignan Salieres Regiment. All the soldiers arrived in good health.

June 30: Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, arrived in Quebec with the Carignan Salieres Regiment, with 100 French officers arriving in 4 ships which included 1,000 to 1,100 of Frances best. These French veterans of wars with the Turks were shipped by Marquis de Troy to put down the Iroquois rebels. Their commander is Heri de Chastelard de Salieres. The Jesuits told the soldiers that this was a holy war against the Iroquois. The soldiers, however, are poorly equipped for service in Canada. The regiment built the following forts this year: Fort Sorel on the site of Fort Richelieu; Fort Saint Louis on the Richelieu River directly east of Ville-Marie (Montreal); Fort Sainte Therese on the Richelieu River; Fort Sainte Anne at the north end of Lake Champlain; and Fort Saint Jean on the Richelieu River. A road was built between Ville-Marie (Montreal) and Chambly.

July 1: illegitimate birth Jeanne Cottin, baptized May 21, 1666 at Chateau-Richer daughter Marie Cathherine Cotton, , called herself D’Arras b-1651 a Filles du Roi (a Kings Daughter) and unknown father, Marie married January 1, 1666, Quebec, Pierre Brunet; marriage June 30, 1683 Trois-Rivieres, (I)-Jacques Godfroy b-1653.

July 16: Twelve horses from Havre, France arrived and the Savages called them the moose of France. The ship also brought 8 girls and others.

July 16: King Louise XIV of France shipped 21 mares and 2 stallions from the Royal stables to New France. This is the source of the Quebec hardy black horses, later called the French Canadian or Canadian breed, still prized by many Quebec farmers. Others suggest only twelve horses are brought to Quebec at this time, the first since Montmagny time. The shipment of 2 stallions and 20 mares to the colony and 8 of the mares having perished on the journey.

August 6: About 400 Outawak (Ottawa) arrived with furs to trade at Kebec (Quebec).

August 6: Trois Rivieres, death, (II)-Pierre Couc, Metis son (I)-Pierre Coug dit Lafleur, b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e Algonquine, sauvagesse, b-1631, died August 6, 1665 Trois Rivieres

August 7: Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) returned with the Outawak, and then set out for Lac Tracy (Lake Superior) region. He followed the trail of trader Jean Nicolet to Green Bay.

August 11: Quebec, marriage (I)-Madeleine Carbonnet, (1642-1711), a Filles du Roi, to (II)-Etienne Sedilot dit Desnoyers, d-1688

August 18-19: Two more vessels arrived with 4 more companies of soldiers including Monsieur de Salieres, colonel of the regiment.

September 12: Eight more companies of soldiers arrived from France. Monsieur de Courcelles, lieutenant general arrived this contingent. At the same time, ships came filled with over four hundred settlers, mechanics and girls of marriageable age to provide wives for those who lacked them. The officers of the Carignan Salieres Regiment had the first choice of the filles du roi (Kings Girls). Ships also contained livestock and all manner of supplies. The final ships arrived in September, being one hundred and seventeen days at sea. Twenty men died as soon as they set foot on shore. One hundred fell so ill they were in hospital. In all, more than two thousand people arrived this summer.

September 19: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Pierre Paul Cloutier, Metis, died September 25, 1665, Chateau Richer, son (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699);

September 23: (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) was Intendant of New France from September 12, 1665 to 1668. His official title said he was Intendant of justice, police, and finance “in Canada, Acadia, and Newfoundland.” He is to assist at the Councils of War and, in the absence of the Governor General and the Governor, will preside over the Sovereign Council. The Jesuits have interfered with temporal authority in the past, and Talon is commanded to ensure the Jesuit stay to Episcopal functions and to maintain a just balance between the two authorities without disclosing his motives. Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694), Viceroy de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, and Governor Sieur de Courcelle (1665-1672) came to agreement with the Jesuit Bishop, Father (I)- Francois Xavier de Laval Montmorency, (1623-1708) that church tithe shall be 1/26 on grains only and payable to the parish priest. This formally established all parish priests as tax collectors.

September 25: Quebec, marriage (I)-Marie Madeleine Boutet (1644-1703), a Filles du Roi, to (I)-(II)-Rene Gervis Bisson, b-1637

September 28: (II)-Francois Garnaud is born on September 28, 1665 at L’Ange Gardien son (I)-Louis Garnaud and (I)-Marie Mazoue. His baptism is at Chateau Richer, as there is no church at L’Ange Gardien at this time. It is noteworthy that early settlers to New France excluded Jews and Protestants. If there was any doubt as to religion, the Bishop of Quebec had to reiterate their baptismal and communion vows.

September 29: (II)-Germain Morin (1642-1702) is ordained a priest; the first Canadian born.

October 2: A ship arrived from Normandy, France with 82 girls and women. Fifty of the girls were from charitable institutions in Paris. The ship also brought 130 laboring men.

October 4: Quebec birth (II)-Daniel Joseph Amiot (Amyot) Villeneuve son (I)-Mathieu Aymot Villeneuve (1628-1688) and Marie Miville (1632-1702); 1st marriage September 2, 1709, Montreal, Marie Kape8apnok8e (Kapiouaphokoue) (Outaouaise) Indian b-1665; 2nd marriage 1719 Michillmachic Domitilade dit Neveu.

October 5: Quebec, birth (III)-Daniel Joseph Amiot (Amyot) Villeneuve died December 19, 1688 son (II)-Mathieu dit Villeneuve Amyot and Marie Miville; married Marie Kape8apnok8e (Outaouaise).

October 12: Quebec, marriage (I)-Francoise Desjardins, a Filles du Roi to Nicolas Droissy.

October 15: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Galarneau b-1642 to (I)-Jacqueline Heron b-1645, France, epouse May 9, 1706 Ville-Marie (Montreal), Jean Picard. Tanguay suggests Heron = Huron but Johan suggests Heron was a family name in France and that she was born in France.

October 19: Chateau Richer, marriage (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) son (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1634) and Francoice Grenier (Garnier) d-1665, sauvagesse; married (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau..

October 19: Montreal, marriage (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) to Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, baptized March 30, 1646, La Rochelle, France. The mother’s name was not recorded on this document. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France. She is likely one of the many Indian girls sent to France for education and returned under the Filles du Roi program for marriawge to New France settlers.

October 26: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jeanne Bouchard, b-1644, a Filles du Roi, to (I)-Martin Foisy, b-1689: epouse June 1689, Rene Dumas

December 13: A peace treaty with the Iroquois is made in Quebec.

1666

France made a decision not to send more colonists to New France. They thought it “would not be prudent to depopulate its kingdom to populate Canada”.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1666 and entered into contract of marriage
Joan Barbereau, married. Jean Arrivé, who arrived, Jean, 1666
Marie-Jeanne Beaujean, married Pierre Juin,
Joan Bilodeau, married Pierre Couillard,
Margaret Cardillon, married Claude Desjardins dit Charbonnier, said his name was Charbonnier
Louise Chiasson, married Jacques Chapelain (Chaplain)
Perrine Coirier, married Clément Guérin
Marie Charlotte de Coppequesne b-1636 married Jean Gateau
Marie-Catherine Cottin, called herself D’Arras b-1651 (illegitimate child, Jeanne n. 1665), married Pierre Brunet b-1642; 2nd marriage 1685, Pierre Mandin
Mary Debure, arrived 1665 married 1665 Gilles Enard Gilles; 2nd marriage 1666 Jean Bernard dit Anse, said his name was Anse,
Joan De Lahaye, married Philibert Chauvin,
Elizabeth Doucinet, married Jasques Bédard,
Jeanne Dufresne, married Marin Dalleray
Adrienne Grandjean, married Rene Baucher dit Sanssoucy, said his name is Sanssoucy,
Anne Lamarre, married Pierre Duquet dit Delachesnaye,
Perrine Lapierre, married Honoré Danis dit Tourangeau,; 2nd marriage 1705 Yves Lucas dit St-Venant
Élisabeth Leconte, (arrivé 1666) not married yet
Françoise Lemoine, married Pierre-René Niquet,
Anne Mabille, married Claude Salois,
Marie Martin, married Jean Vallée dit Lavallée
Mary Martin, married Jean Vallée dit Lavallée, said his name is Lavallee; 2nd marriage 1673 Jacques Charier dit Lafontaine, said his name is Lafontaine
Marie Meunier, married Jacques Hudde; 2nd marriage 1690 Jean Guillet,
Marie Montminy (Mont Meeny), (enfant illégitime, Julienne, b-1665), married Noel (Christmas) Rose b-1642; 2nd marriage 1687 François Dumas,
Marie-Geneviève Plémaret, married Antoine Renaud dit Letambour
Andrée Remondière, married Thomas Rondeau,
Marie Rémy, married Pierre Desautels dit Lapointe
Anne Rivet, married René Ouellet,
Catherine Rivet, married Pierre Duchesne dit Lapierre
Renée Rivière, married Mathurin Croiset,
Suzanne Rousselin, married Jacques Leblanc
Marie Roy, married Pierre Pérusseau,
Gillette Savard, married Pierre Filteau,
Anne Tavernier, married Robert-Charles Moussion dit Lamouche
Marguerite Ténard, married Charles Boayer,
Anne Thomas, married Claude Jodoin; 2nd marriage 1691 Pierre Godambert dit Desjardins,
Suzanne Tru, married Jean Cadou,
Catherine Varin, married Pierre Tessier,

The mission Ste. Famillie, Ile d’Orleans de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

Thirty five marriages, two hundred six births and fifty four deaths are recorded in New France.

(II)-Charles La Tour (1594-1666) dies in Acadia.

Andre Martin, Metis, b-1666, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; (1671 census)

Birth (II)-Michelle Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-1645.

An ancestor of the Garneau clan, (II)-Marie Catherine Durand, is born June 4, 1666 at Cap Rouge (Sillery), New France daughter (I)-Jean Durand born 1640 and (II)-Catherine Annennontak (Huronne) born 1649. (I)-Jean Durand is the son of Louis Durand and Madeleine Malvande of Deuil, Diocese of Saints.

The first Canadian census, by (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694), showed that 11,448 arpents (1 arpent = 5/6 acre) are under cultivation, there are three thousand one hundred and seven heads of cattle and eight five sheep in all of New France.
Quebec 555
Beaupre 678
Beauport 172
Ile d’Orleans 471
St. Jean, St. Francois and St. Michel 156
Sillery 217
Notre Dame des Anges and the St. Charles River 118
Cote de Lauzon 6
Ville-Marie (Montreal) 584
Three Rivers 461
Total 3,418

Others suggest the population count was 3,215; 2,034 men, 1,181 women and 528 married couples. It is not known if the 1,200 to 2,500 soldiers are included or excluded from the count.

The Jesuits considered this year as a continuous series of wars with the Iroquois Nation.

King Louis XIV of France restored the fur trade to the inhabitants but they were required to pay a royalty to the Company of The West Indies.

Parish of Charlesbourge aka St. Charles Borromee co de Quebec St. Charles de Charlesbourg is established this year

The parish L’Ange Gardien aka L’Ange Gardien co de Montmorency is established this year.

The parish Sorel aka St. Sillery Pierre de Sorel is established this year.

The parish Ste Famille L.O. aka Ste Famille de I’lle d’Orleans is established this year.

January 6: Montreal, birth (III)-Catherine Martin Metis daughter (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

January 9: Viceroy de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, and Monsieur de Courcelle (1665-1672) chose January, during the coldest period, as the time to tell the soldiers to attack the Iroquois (Mohawk). They were not provided with snowshoes, axes or proper equipment. Sieurs de la Fouille, Maximin and Lobial with their men joined the army. They had 500 French soldiers and 200 Canadian home guards. They searched for a month, trying to locate an Iroquois village. Only 100 would survive, having not fought a single battle nor killed a single Iroquois. These few survivors are saved because they stumble upon an English settlement. The Governors invasion is a total disaster. Others suggest that the Mohawk ambushed the French, killing eleven men and wounding many more. The Mohawk only lost three men and had six wounded. Others suggest only 60 men died from exposure and hunger by March 17. The Jesuits claim a number of Iroquois houses were burned and a number of Iroquois were killed on this campaign. This humiliation, however resulted in the assignment on another 1,300 men to the war effort.

January 26: France or Quebec? Jacques Archambeault (1604-1688) married Marie Denot b-1606, his second or third marriage. No mention of this marriage by Tanguey, See 1620

February 7/27, Quebec, birth/death (III)-Marie Delphine Pelletier, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1739) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704)

February 20: During a French assault, 6 Frenchmen fell along with 4 Iroquois and a number of Savages were taken prisoner. A young half-breed boy was among the captives. A Dutch commandant asked for the return of the half-breed to his uncle.

March 29: death Michel Guibert, b-1648, a nephew of Jean Chicot, in a brule village of Onoi8tsonnans

April 21: Quebec, birth, (II)-Marie Durand, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Annennontank, Huronne b-1649, married July 31, 1688, Mathurin Cadau et Cadot (1649-1729).

May 11: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Nicolas Gervaise, Metis, (1666-1750), son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married July 27, 1693 Pointe Aux Trembles de Ville-Marie (Montreal), (II)-Madeleine Peyet, b-1677 daughter (I)-Pierre Payet.

May 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Soumande, Metis, died July 31, 1677, Quebec, daughter (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

May 25: The Agniehronnons at Fort Sainte Anne, Lake Champlain killed Sieur de Trauersy and Sieur de Chusy. They took a number of prisoners. Monsieur Sorl immediately ordered 300 men to dispatch these Savages but a peace envoy met the army 20 leagues from their village with the prisoners and pleaded for peace.

May 25: A peace treaty with the Seneca in Quebec.

June 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Joseph Du Bocq, Metis son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse.

July 12: A peace treaty with the Oneidas is reached.

August 30: Sillery, birth (III)-Marguerite Pelletier Metis daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married May 7, 1685 Sorel Charles Boucher.

September 14: Viceroy de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, and Monsieur de Courcelle (1665-1672) began a second attack against the Mohawks, with 1,500 men departing Quebec.

September 18; Quebec, birth (II)-Marie Charlotte Vachon, Metis, daughter (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697);

September 23: Montreal, birth (II)-Catherine Charron, Metis, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married 1st. 1681 Francois Chaghon; married 2nd. 1694 Daniel Tetro..

September 28: The Agniehronnons were still defiant so Monsieur de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, assembled a 1,300 man army to deal with this tribe once and for all. They assembled at Fort Saint Anne, recently rebuilt by sieur de la Mothe, on an Island of Lake Champlain, about 4 leagues from the outlet.

October: The Agniehronnons retreated as the French advanced. The French therefore destroyed all their villages, corn and bean supplies. The fields were destroyed if the crops had not been harvested. This winter is the coldest and longest in 30 years and many Iroquois starved to death.

October 15: The French war army reached Mohawk territory, but the Mohawk retreated. Four Mohawk villages are put to the torch and the land was claimed for Louis XIV. New France assembles 600 French soldiers, 600 Canadian home guard and 100 Indians to march on the Iroquois. The Mohawk retreated, and four villages, containing over one hundred long houses, are burnt. This scorched earth policy, the French believed, humiliates the Iroquois Nation.

November: It is reported that ten Frenchmen drowned in Lake Champlain.

November 5: The French army returned to Quebec without engaging the Mohawk.

December 16: The Sovereign Council abolished the death penalty for selling liquor to the Savages, replacing it with fines.

1667

Seventy five marriages, two hundred twenty seven births and thirty three deaths are recorded in New France.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1667 and entered into contract of marriage
Fleurance Asserin, (arrived 1667) not married this year
Susan Aubineau, married Mathias Campagna,
Catherine Ballié, married Pierre Bouvier,
Frances Banse, married Jacques Prou,
Barbara Baron, married Simon Chevreux dit Lataupine, said his name was Lataupine; 2nd marriage 1672, Jean Mérienne dit Lasolaye; 3rd marriage, 1691 Guillaume Duboc dit St-Godard, said his name was St. Godard,
Catherine Basset, married Pierre Bourgouin dit Bourguignon, said his name was Bourguignon
Catherine De Belleau, married Jean-Baptiste Morin, dit Debelleroche, said his name was Debelleroche
Mary Blanchard, Mary, married Mathieu Brunet dit Létang, said name was Letang; 2nd marriage 1722 Yvis-Luc Lucas dit St-Venan, said his name was St-Venan.
Jeanne-Claude De Boisandré, married Louis Lachaise; 2nd marriage 1668 Jean Létourneau,
Helen Bonneau, married Jacques Desmoulins,
Margaret Bonnefoy, said her name was Ste-Foy, married Jacques Achon, Jacques; 2nd marriage 1671, Claude Carpentier (Carroll)
Louise Bouchard, married Simon Guillory
Marie Bouet, married Martin Guérard; 2nd marriage 1676 Nicolas Groinier
Catherine Bourgeois, married René Binet,
Mary Bremaille, married Jacques Doublet dit Delisle, said his name is Delisle
Jeanne Burel, married Andre Poutré dit Lavigne, said his name was Lavigne
Jeanne-Claude De Boisandré,married Louis Lachaise; rnd marriage 1668 Jean Létourneau,
Mary De Bretigny, married Denis Leclerc dit Lécuyer, said his name was Lecuyer
Frances De Charmesnil, married Jean Gélinas, Jean, name was John Contract Gelinas,
Marie-Charlotte De Coppequesne, married Jean Gateau; 2nd marriage 1688 Jacques Brault,
Mary Charron, married Mathurin Petiot,
Joan Charton, married Jean Robin dit Lapointe, said his name was Lapointe,
Mary Chaton, married Pierre Lagarde,
Frances Conflans, b-1649, married Charles Rancin,
Marie Crépin, married Jean Fournier
Catherine De Fontenay, (arrived 1667) not married this year
Marie Devauly, b-1649 married Antoine Coderre dit Emery
Joan Denot, married André Robidou; 2nd marriage 1678 Jacques Surprenant, Jacques, dit Sanssoucy, said his namre was Sanssoucy,

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;
Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Mary Devault, married Antoine Emery dit Coderre, said he was Antony Coderre,
Mary De Limoges, married Noel Laurence,
Simone Doriant, married Jean Hébert,
Madeleine Dumortier, said her name was De Leur, married Timothée Roussel,
Suzanne Durand, married Gabriel Gibaul dit Poitevin, said his name was Poitevin
Anne-Marie Firman, (arrived 1667, departed 1667)
Jeanne Fourrier, married Jean Baillaux; 2nd married 1671 François Vanasse
Marguerite Foye b-1638, married Francois Dumas
Margaret Foy, married François Dumas
Marie Girard, (arrived 1667) not married this year
Marceline Goard, married Louis Marie dit Ste-Marie, said his name is Ste-Marie
Marie Gravois, married Philippe Étienne, said he was Philip Stephen,
Mary Grusseau, married Jean Chénier; 2nd marriage 1700 Pierre Senay dit Lapierre, said his name was Lapierre,
Marie-Jeanne Guérin, said her names is Brunet, married Antoine Dupré; 2nd marriage 1682, Louis Charrier, Louis,
Marguerite Itas, marriage Jacques Aubuchon dit Le Loyal
Anne Javelot, married Jacques Leboeuf
Marguerite Jourdain, married Bernard Delpêche dit Bélair; 2nd marriage 1689, Louis Mageau dit Maisonseule
Geneviève Laîné, married Pierre De Vanchy,
Antoinette Lamoureux, (arrivé 1667) not married this year
Louise Landry, married Pierre Content,
Marie Larteau, (arrivé 1667) not married this year
Marie Lasnon, married Pierre Feret, Pierre; 2nd marriage 1701. Pierre Ledoux dit Latreille,
Catherine Laurent, married Moïse Hilaret,
Gabrielle Lemaître, (arrivé 1667) not married this year
Marie Léonard, married René Rémy dit Champagne
Marie-Rogère Lepage, married Roch Thoéry, Sieur de L’Ormeau; 2nd marriage Jean-Baptiste Peuvret,
Jeanne Levasseur, married Barthélemy Tesson,
Catherine Marchand, married Laurent Nafrechou,
Reine Martin, (arrivé 1667) not married this year
Marie Michel, married Charles Morin,
Catherine Moitié, married Désiré Viger, Désiré; 2nd marriage Jean Poirier dit Lajeunesse
Madeleine Niel, married Étienne Charles dit Lajeunesse
Marie Madeleine Olivier, b-1642, married Thomas Rousseau,
Marie-Madeleine Ouache, (arrivé 1667) not married this year
Françoise Piéton, married André Achin dit St-André
Marie Quequejeu, married Pierre Rivault,
Marguerite Renaud, married Emmanuel Lopez dit Madère
Geneviève Rigaud, married Pierre Têtu, Sieur Dutilly
Anne Rousseau, married Pierre Jouineau,
Marie Roy, married Mathurin Thibodeau dit Lalime
Geneviève Sageot,married Antoine Adhémar, Sieur de St-Martin
Marie Sel, married Nicolas Guillemet; 2nd marriage 1701 Jean Flibot; 3rd marriage 1711, Vincent Bériau,
Louise Senécal, married Pierre Guilbault,
Catherine Topsan, married Julien Dumont dit Lafleur
Ursule-Madeleine Turbar, b-1649, married Jean Gély dit Laverdure; 2nd marriage 1689 François Hubert
Marie Varin, married René Branche; 2nd marriage 1681 Pierre Courois dit Lacroix; 3rd marriage 1684 Anicet Boyer dit Jolicoeur
Catherine Vieillot, married Jacques Dubois; 2nd marriage 1675 Pierre Guénet,

The first Canadian census recorded 3,215 non-Native inhabitants.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Sauvagesse, b-1621; married 1680, Michel Des Rosiers

(II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667 in the country, daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut, Sieur de la Tour, b-1630 country married 1670 Louise Sauvagesse, b-1621; married 1680 Michel des Rosiers dit St. Michel.

(II)-Marie Charlotte Charron, Metis, b-1667, New France, daughter (I)-Pierre Charron (1640-1700) and Catherine Pilliar, ou Pilet-Pillard, b-1651?, a Filles du Roi, and Metis or Indian, of New France, baptized March 30, 1646 La Rochelle, France. DNA analysis ‘suggests’ she is either Indian or Metis from New France: married 1st. 1686 November 30, 1686 Boucherville, Claude Louis Le Mer: married 2nd. 1700, Raymond Vegard.

Trois Rivieres, Quebec, birth (III)-Isabelle-Elisabeth Couc dit Lafleur/Montour, dit la femme de Tichenet and La Tichenette, (aka La Chenette), Metis, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); 1st married April 30, 1684, Sorel, Richelieu, Quebec, Joachim Germano/Germaneau. of Riviere dite du Loup, son Jean Germano/Germaneau and Catherine Choury, Metis; 2nd married 1704 Pierre Tichenet, d-1706 Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit);3rd marriage 1706, Oneida Carandawana.

Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Joseph Crevier Metis son (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 and (II)-Marguerite Hertel; married (II)-Angelique LeBoulanger, daughter (I)-Pierre LeBoulanger

Etienne Trudeau (1641-1712) married Adrienne Barbier, who arrived 1642. They had 14 children, three of who became voyageurs.

West L’Ange Gardien is du Fief de Charleville from 1677 to 1694. The settlers of this area, until 1680, starting from the Montmorency River East, are as follows:

(I)-Louis Carreau alias La Fraicheur (b-1621) married 1654 Jeanne Lerouge (b-1625) farming 2 arpent,
(II)-Francois Vesina (b-1644) married 1670 Jeanne Le Marie (b-1645) farming 4 arpent,
(I)-Louis Garnaud (b-1641) married 1663 (I)-Marie Mazoue (b-1644) farming 2 arpent,
Jean Grignon married 1645 Elizabeth Couillart farming 3 arpent,
(I)-Charles Garner (Grenier) (b-1636) married (II)-Marie Louise Vesina and second wife? (Gertrude Couillart) farming 4
arpent,
Raymond Paget alias Quercy &? (Charles Couillart des Islets) farming 6 arpent, Possible (I)-Raymond Pagets who arrived Kebec 1619.
(I)-Jacques Marette alias Lespine (b-1631) married 1660 Marie Paget (b-1648) farming 3 arpent,
(I)-Rene Brisson (b-1635) married 1665 Anne Vesina (b-1651) farming 3 arpent,
North of Marette and Brisson; Nicholas Couillart de Belleroche,
(I)-Jacques Vesina married Marie Bourbon farming 3 arpent,
(II)-Pierre Tetu Du Tilly (b-1636) married 1667 Genevieve Rigault (b-1649) farming 3 arpent,
North of Vesina and Tetu; Arrierre-Fief Maquart (Marguerite Couillart)
Pierre Maheust Des Hazards farming 2 2/3 arpent,
(I)-Jean Trudel (b-1629) married 1655 Quebec a (I)-Marguerite Thomas (b-1634) farming 2 2/3 arpent,
North of Maheust and Trudel; de Jean-Baptiste Le Gardeur (b-1635) married 1656 (II)-Marguerite Nicolet (b-1642)
(Fief Le Gardeur) farming 8 arpent,
Domain du Fief de Charleville farming 6 2/3 arpent,
(I)-Thomas Touchet (b-1626) married Susanne Ferrier (b-1618) farming 3 arpent,
North of Charleville and Touchet; Germain Le Barbier farming 7 arpent,
(I)-Laurent Gignard born 1636 married Marie Elisabeth Sorin (b-1641) farming 3 arpent,
(I)-Antoine Ossant (b-1645) married Marie Vesina farming 2 arpent,
(I)-Jean Jacquereau (b-1628) married 1663 Catherine Guilot farming 2 arpent,
North of Gignard, Ossant and Jacquereau; Arriere Fief Maquart.

The Treaty of Breda restored Acadia to France. Paris largely ignored Acadia, and Quebec’s war with the Iroquois left little time for Acadia concerns. The colonists of Port Royal expanded to establish colonies at Grand Pre, Piziquid (Windsor, Acadia ( Nova Scotia), Cobequid (Truro, Acadia ( Nova Scotia)) and Beaubassin (New Brunswick-Acadia ( Nova Scotia) border). They are living like true republicans, not acknowledging royal or judicial authority. They became a new culture of people called the Acadians. Their natural abundance freed them from daily drudgery, and outsiders considered them lazy, obstinate, ignorant (few could read or write), yet say they have great hospitality are content and practical. The Acadians would suffer for the actions of the Quebec French against the English.

Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived in New France and is granted a signatory at Lachine by the Sulpicians.

The Jesuits believe the upper town of Kebek (Quebec) is of importance only on account of the churches and religious houses.

Caughnawaga across the river from Ville-Marie (Montreal) is established by Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724) a Jesuit, for the Onedia and some French settlers and later a group of Mohawes from New York. The settlement moved a number of times finally settling near St. Regis in 1755.

Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724) a Jesuit, wintered Isles Perees (Islets in the St. Lawrence, opposite Boucherville, now called Isles Communes).

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (1644-1717) formed a fur trading company.

The parish Ste Foy aka Notre Dame de Foy is established this year.

February 4: A celebration ball was held in New France for their victory over the Iroquois, even though they never engaged them in combat. The ball was reported to be the first in Canada and was given by sieur Chartier’s. The Jesuits prayed, “that it do not set a precedent.”

February 5: The mining of iron ore began at Trois Rivieres this year.

February 24: Quebec, birth (III)-Francois Miville. Metis, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687

February 28: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Jean Francois Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau: married 1692 Genevieve Rousseau.

March 7: Quebec, birth (III)-Jean Cote, Metis, died November 3, 1687 son (II)-Louis Cote d-1669 and (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis b-1645:

March 27: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived at New France, having been relieved of his vows to the Society of Jesus (Jesuit) because of mental instability (moral weakness).

April: The Iroquois Nation sued for a peace that was to last for approximately twenty years. Four hundred soldiers elected to stay in New France, most settled along the Richelieu and St. Lawrence Rivers as a buffer to the Iroquois. Charlesbourg, seven kilometers north of Fort Quebec, was created by (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694), the Intendant at the time, to reduce the population pressure on Fort Quebec. Three separate communities called Bour Royal, Bourg La Reine and Bourg Talon have erected forty houses. A shrewd plan to make these new villages easy of defense, the tracts of land for individual use cut in triangle shapes. The houses built at the narrow angle where the tips of all the tracts came together for security against attack. Shipbuilding was introduced by (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694), and by 1667, the building of six ships employed three hundred and fifty men. The Viceroy de Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, is returned to France.

April 2: King Louis XIV issued a civil code for New France and established courts.

April 16: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Pierre Cloutier, Metis, son (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); married February 27, 1696, Chateau Richer, Jeanne Verreau

April 28: Quebec, birth (II)-Simon Fournier, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married 1691, Catherine.

May 5, Ste Famille, birth (III)-Marie Pelletier, Metis, died November 6, 1725 Cap St. Ignace, daughter (I)-Jean Pelletier (1631-1698) and (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, (1637-1704); 1st married May 5, 1686 Cap St. Ignace, Jacques Gerber; 2nd married November 26, 1700 Cap Ste Ignace, Mathieu Geillet

June 28: A coiner of counterfeit money is hanged in Kabek (Quebec).

July 19: Sieur Bondy, while intoxicated, was drowned near the Island of Orleans, he was buried like a dog, near the Jesuit Mill.

July 25: Chateau Richer, marriage (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, born July 12, 1639 son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis d-1684; married (II)-Suzanne Page..

July 31: The treaty of Breda returned Acadia to the French.

August 6: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Couc, Metis son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624, and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, Algonquine sauvagesse (1631-1699).

August 7, Ste Family, birth (II)-Pierre Cordeau, Metis son (I)-Jean Cordeau dit Desloriers b-1636 and Catherine Latour dit Simonet Metis (1638-1678)

August 16: Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Nicole Martin Metis daughter (II)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 and Catherine Dupuy (1644-1682); 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville Marie Attanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier.

August 25: The French King sent 350 laboring men and 60 girls, to Kabek (Quebec), to populate the country. Horses and sheep are also provided.

August 28: Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, d-1670, military governor New France, departed for France.

September 14: Father Francois Elie is dismissed by the Jesuits, leaving under secular garb and under the name sieur de Bennecour.

September 25: A number of girls, over 80, and more than 100 workmen, 14 or 15 horses arrived in Kabek (Quebec).

October 24: Quebec, marriage Barthelemy Tesson to Jeanne Levasseur, a Kings Daughter, making her the 5th of his 6th wives 4 of whom are still in France.

October 27: One hundred and nine (109) young ladies (Filles du Roi) arrived in Quebec from Dieppe and La Rochelle; 84 from Dieppe, 25 from La Rochelle. Only 15-20 were from good families, several are real young ladies and well brought, up according to (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694). He had requested 50 from good families. The term young ladies could include girls from 12 to 30 years of age. Real young ladies must suggest less than 12 years of age? This shipment of girls arrived in poor condition, being badly fed and robbed of half their clothing. (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) tried to charm them out of their sadness and helped them regain their vigor and plumpness. He did this to ensure early marriage and to prevent this becoming an obstacle to sending young ladies next year.

November 30: A man was hanged for having ravished a little girl, eleven years of age.

December 7: Ste Familie, birth II)-Jean Baptiste Rate, Metis, son (I)-Jacques Rate, (1630-1690) and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, b-164; married 1697 Madeleine Blouard.

1668

The mission Boucherville de la Province de Quebec is established this year. Pierre Boucher began farming this year but did not receive his Seigneury until 1672 when he built a palisade to protect the community from the Iroquois.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1668 and entered into contract of marriage
Frances Aubé, married Michel Roy dit Châtellerault, said his name is Chatellerault
Frances Baiselat, b-1646 married Laurentr Cambin, Laurent, dit Larivière, said his name is Lariviere; 2nd marriage 1670 Pierre-Francois Marsan dit Lapierre, said name is Lapierre, married 3rd 1693 Andre Corbeil dit Tranchemontagne, said his name is Tranchemontagne, January 4, 1693
Frances Barbery, married René Dardenne,
Mary Benoit, married Pierre Favreau dit Deslauriers, said his name was Deslauriers
Louise Bercier, , married Michel Feuillon,
Lucretia Billot, (illegitimate child, Louise n. 1668), married Jean Sigouin, Jean,
Mary Boileau, married Pierre Chauvin; 2nd marriage 1669, Simon Chamberland; 3rd marriage 1690, Jean Jolin,
Françoise Boivin, married Louis Lamoureux,
Mary Bouart, married Jacques Antrade; 2nd marriage 1672 Francois Dessureaux dit Le Bourguignon and Laplante, said his name was Le Laplante; 3rd marriage 1689, Jean Boismené,
Marie Bouillon, Marie, married Alexandre (Alexander) Téchenay,
Marie Bourgeois, married Jacques Anet,
Mary Caille, married Pierre Paquet,
Silvina Carcireux, married Antoine Andrieu,
Margaret Chabert La Charière, married Jacques Dumesnil,Sieur de St-Marc
Michelle Charlier, married Massé Besnier; 2nd marrage 1684 Laurent Castel; 3rd marriage 1710 Louis Petit
Margaret Charpentier, b-1641, married René Meunier dit Laramée, said his name is Laramee; 2nd marriage John Fanie
Marie Chauvet, married Pierre Faye dit Villefagnan, said his name is Villefagnan
Frances Chevalier, married Jacques Habert,
Joan Collet, married Grégoire Simon,
Antoinette M. Companion, married Jacques Gerny,
Marie Dallon, married Pierre Bissonnet; 2nd marriage1693 Jacques Anet; 3rd marrioage1694 Pierre-Guillaume Hublé,
Mary Dalton, married Pierre Bissonnet; 2nd marriage 1693 Jacques Anet; 3rd marriage 1694, Pierre-Guillaume, Hublé,
Claude Damis, (illegitimate child, Andrew c. 1676), married Pierre Perthuis dit Lalime, said his name is Lalime
Helen Damours, married Louis Foucher dit Laforest, said his name is Laforest; 2nd 1686 marriage Isaac Lemire,
Esther Dannessé, said her name is De Longchamps, married François Couillard dit Lafontaine; 2nd marriage 1688 Pierre Janson dit Lapalme, said his name is Lapalme,
Jeanne-Claude De Boisandré, married Louis Lachaise, Louis; 2nd marriage 1686 Jean Létourneau,
Joan Déchard, married Jean Collet dit Le Picard, said his name is Le Picard
Marie De Lamarre, Marie, married Guillaume (William) Renaud,
Catherine De Lostelneau, married Charles Denis,
Marie Angelique De Portas, married Jean Lecompte,
Claude Deschalets, married Simeon Roy dit Ody, said his name was Ody
Elizabeth Deschalets, married François Paris,
Madeleine Deschalets, married Jean Giron,
Marie Deshayes, married Adrien Bétourné dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette,
Mary Devault, married Antoine Emery dit Coderre, said his name is Coderre
Barbara Dumont, married François Breton; 2nd marriage 1702 Raymond Courrier dit Bourdelais, said his name is Bourdelais
Hope Durosaire, married Simon Longueville,
Margaret Eloy, marriage Jean Cosset; 2nd marriage 1688 Jean Collet dit Le Picard, said his name is Le Picard,
Marie-Jeanne Fauconnier, married Antoine-Nicolas Dufresne,
Louise Faure, said her name is Planchet, b-1636, married Pierre Gagné,
Catherine Ferre, married Louis Lefebvre,
Madeleine Gaumond, married Jean Langlois; 2nd marriage 1670, Pierre François,
Marie-Jeanne Gauthier, married Gilles Masson,
Joan Groisard, married Zacharie Dupuis,
Françoise Guillin, married André Trajot; 2nd marriage 1709 Claude Robillard,
Marie Guyet, married Pierre Ledoux dit Latreille,
Jeanne Hardy, married Francois Trottain dit St-Surin,
Françoise Hébert, Married Jean Baptiste dit St-Amour; 2nd marriage Philippe Cazelier dit Laverdure,
Elisabeth Hubert, married Louis Bolduc
Marie Hué, married Jean Boesme,
Anne Julien, Married Nicolas Choquet dit Champagne
Marguerite Lamirault, married Honoré Martel dit Lamontagne
Jacqueline Langlois, b-1645, marriage Jean Mee; 2md marriage 1678 Gilles Galipeau dit Lepoitevin
Marie Langlois, married Jean Poirier dit Lajeunesse
Madeleine Larcher,married Elie Voisin,
Françoise Larchevêque, married Jean Dubuc,
Marie Lebrun, married Pierre Barbary dit Grandmaison
Anne Leclerc, married Vincent. Chrétien,
Françoise Leclerc, married Michel. Rifault,
Madeleine Leguay, married Jeqan Garnier
Catherine Leloup, married Isaac Nafrechou,
Andrée Lépine, married Claude Chasle,
Elizabeth Lequin, married Jean Gaigneur dit Laframboise; 2nd marriage 1671 , Étienne Léveillé; 3rd marriage 1688, Pierre Girard
Michelle Lesdiller, ,married Nicolas Milet dit Marandais; 2nd marriage 1685 Pierre Gilbert dit Lachasse,
Marguerite Levaigneur, married Léonard Montreau dit Francoeur
Marie Liardin, married Pierre Lancougnier dit Lacroix
Marie Major, married Antoine Roy dit Desjardins
Anne Michel, married Jacques Paviot dit Lapensée; 2nd marriage 1674, Jean Massault dit St-Martin
Jacquet Michel married Jacques Mignier dit Lagacé, said his name was Lagace,
Mary Mullois, married Pierre De St-Ours, Sieur de l’échaillon,
Marie Pasquier, said her name is Defranclieu, married Charles Couillard, Sieur des Islets et de Beaumont,
Catherine Paul, married Jean De Chambre dit Lachambre,
Mary Paviot, married Antoine Mondin,
Mary Magdalene Philip, married Pierre Tousignant dit Lapointe, said his name is Lapointe
Françoise Monvoisin, married Nicolas Gariteau; 2nd marriage 1672 Marin Gervais
Michelle Ouinville, married Nicolas Barabé; 2nd marriage 1677 Michel Lemay, Michel; third marriage 1685 Louis Montenu,
Marie-Rose Petit, married Hilaire Frappier, Hilaire; 2nd marriage 1714 François Chanluc dit Lagrange,
Marie Piton, married Jean Bergevin dit Langevin, said his name is Langevin
Anne Poitraud, married René Bruneau dit Jolicoeur, said his name is Jolicoeur
Catherine Relot, married Charles Badier dit Laforest, said his name is Laforest
Mary Renaud, married François Leroux dit Cardinal, said his name is Cardinal
Madeleine Rentier, known as Courcoul, married Pliver Roy, Olivier,
Margaret Robineau, married Michel Gauron dit Petitbois, said his name is Petitbois
Mary Robineau, married Jean-Pierre Forgues, dit Monrougeau, said his name is Monrougeau
Henriette Rousseau, married Étienne Pacquet,
Charlotte Roussel, married (I)-Pierre Gauthier dit Sanguingoira, said his name is Sanguingoira (1629-1703)
Marie-Marguerite Routy, married Nicolas Guillaud Sieur Delachaume,
Anne Seigneur, married Jean Besset dit Brisetout, said his name is Brisetout
Jeanne Touzé, married Jean Gazaille dit St-Germain
Marguerite Vaillant, married Jean Dania,
Louise Vaucher, marrier Jean Delguel dit Labrèche

Eighty four marriages, two hundred eleven births and thirty one deaths are recorded in New France.

Quebec birth of illegitmate Jacques Boucault, mother Jeanne Marguerite Boucault, (Tanguay puts her birth as 1661 but this must be an error), Fille du Roi. father not know, Jeanne married Louis Colombe

The king of France Louis XIV offered 150 livres to Indian girls to marry Frenchmen.

(II)-Marie Francoise Froget, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis; married Maurice Pasquier.

Les Filles du Roi, most listed their place of birth as Paris but this was not necessarily true. Charitable institutions, where they received and housed orphans and poor girls who were the primary target sources. They were mostly orphans and came from Normandie, Aunis, Poitou, Champagn, Picardy, Orleans and Beauce. The following Alsale, Dauphine, Provence, Lauguedoc, Rousillon, Bearu, Gascory and county of Foix would not participate, however some claimed to be from some of these locations. We assume they were French but Moor, Portuguese, German and Hollandaise to name a few, were included. There was an Indian nation of Brazil or Moorish nation, born in Brazil listed as Fille du Roi. Most are orphans, some were not and some had already given birth to a child. It is likely some savages, were included who were sent to France for education and eventual marriage to Quebec Frenchmen. They argue these girls were sent to Paris, Bordeaux, Tours and La Rochelle. However deception was not uncommon. All Fille du Roi arrived Quebec but some went on to Trois-Rivieres and Montreal. City raised girls were not desired as they were considered lightheaded and lazy. Some girls were as young as 13 years. Good virtue was a perquisite but easy virtue and boisterous, rebellious nature did make it into their numbers. Only 11% of Fillies du Roi had lost both parents.

Marie de I’lncarnation, mother superior of the Ursuline convent at Quebec wrote: “From now on, we only want to ask for village girls who are as fit for work as men, experience having shown that those who are not raised [in the country] are not fit for the country.” She also wrote this year “We have Francized several young savage woman, both Huron and Algonquin, who we then married to Frenchmen and they are getting along very well together. There is one in particular who knows how to read and write perfectly, both in her native Huron and in French. No-one can tell her apart or be convinced that she was born a savage”. “For this purpose, Mgr our Prelate, has taken a great number of them, all dressed like French people and are taught to read and write as in France”.

(II)-Nicolas Volant de St. Claude, b-1668, Metis, died January 26, 1703, Quebec, son (I)-Claude Volant de St. Claude, b-1636 and (II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis. b-1636: married Marguerite Godfroy: married July 30, 1696, Quebec, Genevieve Niel

Marie Sauvagesse b-1668 a Micmac, died August 19, 1738 Ste Anne de la Pocatiere married to Francois Valo.

The King of France wants the Savages children brought up in the French manner of life, in order to civilize them. It was noted the French have as many as 15-16 children whereas the Savages have 2-3 children.

As a result of a suggestion from the Jesuit, (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) saw to the building of the first brewery in St. Charles, a section of Fort Quebec, that could produce four thousand hogs-heads of beer annually. Father Francois Le Mercier wrote that this would force a decrease in the use of intoxicating drinks. Moreover, it will keep in the country, the money now sent to buy much liquor in France. It will use the super-abundance of grain. The population of New France is 6,282 persons.

Father Gabriel Sagard urged the Wendat toward the virtues of chastity. The Wendat asked that if chastity is such a fine thing, why did not all the French Christians practice it? Father Gabriel Sagard commenced pressure on the Intendant. This is the same priest who said Etienne Brule (1592-1632) was much addicted to women. The Intendant (I)-Jean Talon (1625-1694) responded to the clerical pressure and forbade bachelors to hunt, fish or trade with the Natives. The Jesuit, to this time had been focusing their missionary attention on the Wendat (Huron) without much success. They began their campaign against the Algonkin for the first time this year.

This year, 78 girls arrived in New France from France that included a Moor, Portuguese, German and Dutch. Many of these girls are town girls little or not at all prepared to work on the land. Some girls are drawn from the General Hospital in Paris and have a considerable inheritance. It is noteworthy that only 41% or 250 of 606 Filles du Roi marriages received a dowry granted by the King. Only 5 received 100 livres as promised, and 2 received 200 livres.

New France no longer wish to ask for only Country Girls (Filles du Roi), as capable of working as men are. Experience has shown that those who have not been raised to it are not suitable here. Therefore, Anne Gasnier (1611-1698) was chosen to go to France to screen future young ladies.

Sault Saint Louis, later called Caughnanaga, is established when Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724) a Jesuit, invited Ieven Oneida and Mohawk to settle on Jesuit lands across the river from the Island of Montreal. Other Indian settlements include Sillery, Cap de la Madeleine, Lorette and Saint Francois near Lac St. Pierre. The rules are strict. Drunkenness is punishable by imprisonment, forfeit of any lands held and expulsion. Daily prayers are required. The priests scrutinize every aspect of daily life. Self-flagellation, sleeping on a bed of thorns and other masochistic practices are endorsed. Frontanac claimed that the Jesuits sought to isolate and control the Indians rather than follow the Royal Policy of assimilation.

Marie de I’Incarnation, foundress of the Ursuline Order in New France (1639), wrote: “We have observed that of a hundred that have passed through our hands we have scarcely civilized one. We find docility and intelligence in these girls but, when we are least expecting it, they clamber over our walls and go off to run with their kinsmen in the woods, finding more to please them there than in all the amenities of our French house.” It is amazing that the Recollects, Jesuits and now the Ursuline have all failed in their attempts to Christianize and civilize the Savages. It is hard to believe the the French religious had not rationalized that maybe the French were neither civilized nor Christianized. The Jesuit introduced physical punishment of children, intolerance of other religious beliefs, intolerance of other cultures and were very poor in personal hygiene; only bathing once a year. They offered the French/Catholic yoke vs. freedom, they offered eternal fire and damnation vs. love and understanding. The Jesuits believed that a nomadic life was contrary to the laws of the Roman Catholic Church and incompatible with Christian life. The early Jesuits were called wa-mit-ig-oshe or men who wave a piece of wood over their heads.

Although Jean Talon, Intendant boasted that New France had produced a surplus of wheat. The poor peasants would toss manure into the St. Lawrence River than use it to fertilize their fields. They exhausted the soil by failing to practice crop rotation. The did not feed their cattle properly and instead of raising cows and sheep, they preferred to keep horses for joyriding. The potato didn’t become a staple food in Quebec until the 1800′s.

Parish of Chambly aka St. Joseph de Chambly is established this year

January 2: Quebec, birth (II)-Simon Soumande, Metis, died November 13, 1695, Quebec, son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637

February 28: Quebec, birth (III)-Louise Pinguet, Metis, daughter (II)-Pierre Pinguet dit La Glardiere (1630-1704) and (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis; married Gaspard Petit.

March 16: Sillery (III)-Genevieve Pelletier Metis daughter (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1688) Metis, and (II)-Marguerite Madeleine Morisseau; married May 14, 1690 Montreal, Jacques Desgagnes..

August 14: Montreal, birth, (II)-Louise Froget, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Froget dit Despatis, b-1620 and (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis; married 1691, Montreal Elizabeth Ethier

September 6: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Jean Cote, Metis, died October 5, 1668, Chateau Richer son (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, b-1639 and (II)-Suzanne Page

October 22: (I)-Claude de Boutroue d’Aubigny (1620-1680) is appointed Intendant of New France from 1668 to July 1669.

November 16: The habitants of New France abandon their farms and their families to go with the fur trade, sometimes without permission, among the Savage Nations. Many give themselves up to debauchery, living a dissolute life to the scandal of the Savages. They settle among the Savages to avoid paying their creditors. They lead the savages to trade with the English.

November 18: Ville-Marie (Montreal), birth (II)-Charles Gervaise, Metis, son, (I)- Jean Gervaise (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis (1621- 1699); married October 29, 1693, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Marie Boyer

December 1: Ste Famille, birth (III)-Charles Langlois, Metis, son (II)-Jean Langlois dit Boisverdun, Metis (1641-1687) and (II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger, epouse 1695 Thomas Rousseau:

1669

The mission L’Ange Gardien de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

SOME FILLE DU ROI who arrived 1669 and entered into contract of marriage
Mary Allence, married Louis Tardif,
Mary Arcular, married Claude Lefebvre dit Boulanger said his name is Boulanger; 2nd marriage 1692 Pierre Lejamble
Francoise Ancelin, married Guillaume Valade dit Asselin, said his name is Asselin
Jeanne Aubert, married Jean Bisson dit Provençal; 2nd marriage 1669 Jean Bisson, said Provencal; 3rd marriage 1677 Joseph De Morache
Marie Catherin Baillon b-1645 married Jacques Miville dit Deschenes
Mary Bardou, married Mathurin Drouet dit Grandmaison, said his name is Grandmaison
Jeanne Bernard, married Jacques Thuillier dit Desvignets, said his name is Desvignets
Anne Bertault, married Robert Chartier,
Marie Bertin, said her name is Breval, married Charles Séguin; 2nd marriage Pierre Luneau,
Mary Boileau, married Pierre Chauvin: 2nd marriage 1669 Simon Chamberland,
m. m. 3: Jolin, Jean, le 4 avril, 1690 3: Jolin, John, April 4, 1690
Lucretia Billot, (illegitimate child, Louise n. 1668), married Jean Sigouin,
Mary Birard, married Pierre Pivin dit Larécompense, said his name is Larécompense
Elizabeth Blais, married Pierre Roche, Pierre; 2nd marriage Vincent Guillot,
Margaret Blaise, married Jean Paquet; 2nd marriage 1670 Isaac Harnois, Isaac,
Marie Bonheur, married Paul Inard dit Provençal, said his name is Provencal
Mary Boutard, married Pierre Bourgery,
Marie Brabant, married Jean De Lalonde dit Lespérance, said his name is Lesperance; 2nd marriage 1688 Pierre Tabault,
Catherine Bureau, married Étienne Corriveau; 2nd marriage Simon Darme
Andree Caillaud, married Denis. Thibault,
Mary Cartignier, married Germain Vanier; 2nd marriage 1685 Jacques Caillé
m. m. 3: Tessier, Marc, le 3 septembre, 1691 3: Tessier, Marc, September 3, 1691
Renee Chanfrain, married Pierre Garand
Margaret Charpentier, married Toussaint Lucas dit Lagarde, said his name is Lagarde
Joan Chartier, married Pierre Rousset dit Beaucourt, said his name is Beaucourt; 2nd marriage François Lavergne,
Margaret Chemereau, married Jean Piet dit Trempe, said his name is Trempe,
Mary Coignard, married Robert Germain
Mary Coipel, married Guillaume Fagot; 2nd marriage 1677 Claude Renard dit Deslauriers, said his name is Deslauriers,
Anne Colin, married Vincent Boissonneau dit Saintonge, said his name is Saintonge
Marie Couet, married Jean Leclerc,
Charlotte Coy, married Jean Brard dit La Reverdra, said his name is La Reverdra; 2nd marriage 1678 Pierre Brunion dit Lapierre, said his name is Lapierre
Joan Crosnier, married François Magnan,
Martinez Crosnier, married Philippe Destroismaisons dit Picard, said his name is Picard
Frances Cure, married Lucas Loiseau
Marie Dain, married François Marquet,
Mary Damois, married Léonard Faucher dit Saint-Maurice, said his name is Saint-Maurice
Catherine De Baillon, married Jacques Miville dit Deschenes, said his name is Deschenes
Mary De Lacour, married Gabriel Roger
François De Lacroix, married René Hubert
Catherine De Lahaye, married Pierre Guignard; 2nd marriage 1685 Étienne Rageat dit Le Lyonnais, said his name is Le Lyonnais; 3rd marriage 1689 Pierre Cordier
Marie-Claude Delahogue, married Jean Sédilot
Margaret Delorme, married René Chartier,
Jeanne Judith De Matras, married Charles Legardeur Sieur Devilliers,
Anne D’ Esquincourt, married Jacques Damien; 2nd marriage 1687 Maurice Olivier,
Anne DeQuain, married François Lareau,
Anne Deschamps, married Michel. Boutet dit Lépine, said his name is Lepine,

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,
Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;
Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Frances Desfosses, married Jacques Bidet dit desroussels,
Louise Desgranges, m. Delisle, Louis, le 15 octobre, 1669 Delisle, Louis
Louise Desgranges, married Louis Delisle
Marie Deshayes, married Adrien Bétourné dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette,
Catherine Desmarais, married François Hileret
Stephanie Desmarais, married Pierre Beaudin
Françoise Desportes, married Pierre Renaud dit Locat, said his name is Locat,
Marie-Agnes Destouches, married Charles Dompierre dit St-Martin, said his name is St. Martin; 2nd marriage 1690 François Garinet
Anne Dodin, married Jean Mouflet dit Champagne, said his name is Champagne
Ambrose Doiett, married Jacques Magnan,
Barbara Dorange, married Jacques Tardif
Catherine Doribeau, married Jacuqes Genest dit Labarre, said his name is Jacuqes Labarre
Antoinette Dumontier, married Jacques Martineau
Joan Fauvault, married Jacques Provost
Nicole Fleming, married Louis Leparc dit St-Louis, said his name is St. Louis
Mary Fleureau, married Jean Delaunay,
Marie Gaillard ou Daire, married Jean-Baptiste Perrier dit Lafleur, said his name is Lafleur; 2nd marriage 1682, Jean Sabourin,
Mary Gauthier, married Pierre Prou
Joan Leonard Genest, married Noël Cardin; 2nd marriage 1671 Pierre Loiseau,
Anne Giraud (Giraut), married 1669 (I)-Mathurin Gauthier (Gautier) (1633-1711)
Anne Godeby, married Julien Talua dit Vendamont, said his name is Vendamont
Joan Godequin, married Vincent Croteau
Anne Goiset, married André Albert dit Laroche, said his name is Laroche
Marie-Madeleine Grangeon, married Martin Richard, Marin (Marino) dit Lavallée, said his name is Lavallee
Madeleine Groleau, married François Marchand
Catherine Guichelin, married Nicolas Buteau; 2nd marriage 1708 Charles Tissiau dit St-Germain, said his name is St. Germain; 3rd marriage 1716 Jean Roy dit Lapensée, said his name is Lapensée
Marie-Madeleine Guilleboeuf, married Jean Plouf; 2nd marriage 1702 Louis Foisy,
Madeleine Guillodeau, married Jean Poitevin dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette
Perrette Hali, married Antoine Bordeleau dit Laforest, said his name is Laforest
Madeleine Haneton, married Joachim Reguindeau dit Joachim, said his name is Joachim Joachim
Mary Hatanville, married Robert Senate; 2nd marriage 1683 Jean Fauconnet dit Lafleur, said his name is Lafleur; 3rd marriage 1683 Charles Martin
m. m. 4. 4. César, François, dit La Gardelette, le 25 février, 1686 Caesar, Francis, told The gardelette, February 25, 1686
Perrine Hutru, married Théodore Sureau the Elder
Mary Jalais, married Jean Lauzé dit Matha, said his name is John Matha; 2nd marriage 1680 Robert Leclerc,
Mary Jodon, married André Barbeau dit Laforest, said his name is Laforest
Charlotte Joly, married Antoine Drapeau
Renee Labastille b-1649, said her name is Martin, married 1669 (I)-René Gauthier dit Larose, said his name is Larose (1626-1687)
Joan Labbe, married Jean Élie dit Breton, said his name is Breton
Denise Leclerc, married Claude Delomay; 2nd marriage 1703 Marin Dalleray
Anne Laine, married Étienne Content; 2nd marriage René Bisson dit Lépine, said his name is Lepine; 3rd marriage 1708 Marc Tessier
Charlotte Lamarche, married Jacques Lussier
Joan Lambert, married Étienne (Stephen) Bellinier dit La Ruine, said his name is La Ruine
Frances Latier, married Jean Levert
Marie Lefebvre, married Jean Delastre dit Lajeunesse, said his name is Lajeunesse
Barbara Lefebvre, said her name is Lacroix, married Mathurin Goyer dit Laviolette, said his name is Laviolette
Antoinette Legrand, married Nicolas Prunier dit Picard, said his name was Picard; 2nd marriage 1693 Thomas Neveu dit Lacroix, said his name is Lacroix
Joan Legendre, married Claude Sauvageau
Antoinette Legrand, married Nicolas Prunier dit Picard said his name is Picard; 2nd marriage 1693, Thomas Neveu dit Lacroix, said his name is Lacroix,
Nicolle Legrand, married François Noël,
Madeleine Leguay, married Jacques Larchevêque
Marie Lemaire, married Pierre Ratel,
Antoinette Lenoir, said her name is Pirois, married Jacques Leboeuf,
m. m. 2. 2. Arcouet, Jean, dit Lajeunesse, le 18 juillet, 1701 Arcouet, Jean, said Lajeunesse, July 18, 1701
François Loiseau, married Mathurin Grégoire,
Joan Magdelain, married Antoine Tapin
Joan Mansion, married Jean Cherlot dit Desmoulins, said his name is Desmoulins; 2nd marriage 1712 Vincent Tudault
Marie Marchessault, married Pierre Boutin; 2nd marriage 1670 Jean Michel,
Margaret Marshall, said her name is Dubois, married Sébastien Doison
Barbara Menard, b-1649 married Antoine Vermet (Vermette) dit Laforme, said his name is Laforme
Anne Michel, married Jacques Paviot dit Lapensée, said his name is Lapensée; 2nd marriage 1674 Jean (John) Massault dit St-Martin, said his name is Saint-Martin
Francoise Millot, married Lepicq; 2nd marriage 1688 René Mezeray dit Nopces; 3rd marriage 1697, Léonard Debord dit Lajeunesse, said his name is Lajeunesse
Charlotte Morin, married Pierre Letendre dit Laliberté, said his name is Laliberte
Mary Morin, married Noël ( Christmas) Boissel
Marguerite Navarre, married Étienne Roy (Stephen King)
Marie Madeleine Normand b-1651 married Alphonse Morin dit Valcourt
Agnes Olivier, Agnes, married Louis Sivadier
Anne Ollery, married Thomas Frérot Sieur de Lachenaye, kid brother, Thomas, Sieur de Lachenaye
Marie Pelletier, married Mathurin Renaud; 2nd marriage 1677, Pierre Canard,; 3rd marriage 1703, Jean Joubert,
Mary Pérodeau, married Georges Stems
Anne Perrault, b-1646 married Pierre Blais
Mary Petit, married Nicolas Delage, Nicolas; 2nd marriage 1686 Mathurin Thibodeau dit Lalime, said his name is Lalime,
Marie-Therese Petit, married Christophe Laurent dit Champagne, said his name is Champagne; 2nd marriage Jean Coitou dit St-Jean, said his name is St. John, 1676
Frances Pilois, married André Barsa dit Lafleur, said his name is Lafleur
Mary Poire, married Jean Hardy
Catherine Poitevin, married Adrien Isabel; 2nd marriage 1676 Jean Bourassa,
Margaret Prevost, married Martin (Fish) Poisson, Martin,
Marie Prevost, married François Bruneau,; 2nd marriage 1681 Jean Chauvet dit Lagerne, said his name is Lagern
Mary Priault, married Pierre Geoffrion
Anne-Michelle Renaud, married Jean Laspron dit Lacharité, said his name is Lacharité
Mary Renaud, married Charles Petit
Mary Richard, married Antoine Daunay
Catherine Roy, married Pierre Salvail; 2nd marriage 1669 Jean De Miray,
Nicole Saulnier, married Jean Brochu
Joan Sederay, married Pierre Picard,
Catherine Suret, b-1651 married Nicolas Fâche,
Margaret Tesson, marriage Jean-Paul Maheu,
Madeleine Tetu, married Jean Joubert,
Cecile (Cecily) Valet, married Michel Durand dit Larose, said his name is Larose
Madeleine Judith Vallée, married Jean Herpin dit Tourangeau, said his name is Tourangeau,
Catherine Verrier, married Pierre Rondeau
Margaret Vitry, married Jacques Déry dit Larose, said his name is Larose
Marie Vogue, married Louis Chiron

Quebec (I)-Renee Chanvreux, arrived Quebec, a Filles du Roi.

Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) marched southward from Green Bay into the upper Fox River to establish a mission among the Wisconsin People. He recorded this was a very attractive place of plains and open fields and only 6 days march from the Messi-Sipi River. He stayed in this mission until 1670.

The mission Laprairie de la Province de Quebec near Ville-Marie (Montreal), is established this year, as an Iroquois Mission, by Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724), a Jesuit. It was moved around over time and eventually settled at Kalmawake, opposite the Lachine Rapids.

Jacques Martin, Metis, b-1666, Acadia, son Pierre Martin, b-1631 and Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, b-1644; (1671 census)

One hundred and twenty five marriages, two hundred eighty eight births and sixty one deaths are recorded in New France.

Trois Tivieres, Quebec, birth, (III)-Madeleine Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue or Mitedmeg8k8e), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); married October 1681, Boucherville, (II)-Maurice Menard dit Lafontaine, born June 6, 1664 Trois Rivieres and died May 9, 1741 Chambly. Maurice was a voyager, interpreter at Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Michigan).

Trois Rivieres, birth (III)-Louis Crevier Metis son (II)-Jean Crevier Sieur Duvernet-Duvernay, Metis b-1642 and (II)-Marguerite Hertel

(II)-Ignace Durand, Metis b-1669, died November 30, 1697, Cap St. Ignace, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne b-1649; married February 24, 1691 (II)-Marie Catherine Miville daughter (I)-Jacques Miville, epouse September 16, 1701 Quebec, Rene Beaudoin..

A complaint was filed, stating that the last shipload of girls (‘filles du Roi’) from France had arrived and, being taken from a General Hospital, were not strong enough for farm work.

An ancestor of the Garneau clan, (I)-Robert Germain, was born in 1639, married 1669 Fort Quebec, New France Marie Coignart (Courtier) born 1643.

Monsieur de Courcelle (1665-1672) is ordered to organize the male subjects by appointing Captains, Lieutenants and ensigns so that every two or three years, 1,200 well-armed soldiers can be lead into the lands of the Iroquois and also into other Indian nations to maintain them in their obedience and duties to New France.

The French Minister of Marine, Jean Baptiste Colbert, is ordered by King Louis XIV to make the clergy subordinate to the Governor of New France. About this time, Colbert banned lawyers from practicing in New France.

‘Question Extraordinaire’ (torture used to extract testimony) was used in New France at least 30 times against men and women in New France. The Maitre des Hautes Oeuvres or torture master, bound boards to the defendants shins, inserted wedges, and then struck them with a hammer, painfully crushing the bones of the accused.

The people of New France, on their own, could not call a meeting or public assembly.

The inhabitants killed six Oneidas Indians and took their firs and in the spring of 1670 three soldiers killed a Seneca Chief. To prevent an uprising the three soldier were executed.

Parish of Champlain aka Notre Dame de la Visitation de Champlain is established this year

January 13; Quebec, birth (II)-Noel Vachon, Metis, died August 12, 1699, son (I)-Paul Vachon (1630-1703) and (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis (1639-1697); married October 24, 1695 Beauport, Monique Girou

January 21: Marie Chauvet who married August 16, 1668, Quebec to Pierre Faye dit Vilfaghan is accused of adultery with Pierre Vivien and Etienne Le Roy and is condemned to be shaved and beaten with canes in the public square.

February 19: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage (II)- Jean Baptiste Gadois, b-1641, died April 15, 1728 Ville-Marie (Montreal), married (II)-Marguerite Gervaise died January 18, 1690, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal); married February 19, 1669, Ville-Marie (Montreal),

April 5: King Louis XIV inaugurated the ‘baby bonus’ in New France to encourage population growth. The parents of 10 legitimate children received a pension of 300 Livres, and 12 children 400 Livres.

April 24: Quebec, birth (II)-Pierre Fournier, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Fournier, (1619-1699) and (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis b-1637: married November 24, 1695, St. Thomas, Marie Isabelle.

April 28 (29): Francois Blanche dit Langivan of Trois Riveres killed Daniel LaMaire dit des Rochers in a duel. This was the first death as a result of dueling in New France. Francois was sentenced to death and executed on July 8, 1669 in Quebec.

May 14: (I)-Jean Talon (1624-1694) is reappointed Intendant of New France from August 18, 1669 to August 1675.

June 8: Quebec, birth (III)-Joseph Miville. Metis, son, (II)-Francois Miville and (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis (1636-1687); married June 8, 1695, Cap St. Ignace, Genevieve Caron

June 10: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Du Bocq, Metis son (I)-Laurent Du Bocq b-1636 and Marie Felix Arontio, Huronne, Sauvagesse.

July: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) falsely claimed to speak fluent Iroquois in order to join a Sulpician expedition into Iroquois country. Upon encountering the Seneca people, he had to admit his total ignorance of their language and departed the expedition to become a Coureurs des Bois. This expedition included 14 men in five canoes plus the Sulpician Dollier de Casson with three canoes and seven recruits along with Abbe Rene de Brehan de Galinee. The expedition soon realized that La Salle, although of wealthy birth ,was totally incompetent. They wrote that he was in a daze, more or less, not knowing where he is going.

September 28, Montreal birth (II)-Jean Gauthier dit Sakingoara Saguingoira, son (I)-Pierre Gauter dit Saguingoira (1629-1703) and Marie Charlotte Roussel b-1646; married 1701 Kaskakia (Illonois) Marie Suzanne Capei8suec8a

October 7: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Soumande, Metis, died May 22, 1716, Quebec, son (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) and (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637; married October 30, 1698,m Quebec, Anne Chapoux,

October 13: Chateau Richer, birth (III)-Francoise Cloutier, Metis, daughter (II)-Jean Cloutier, (1621-1690) and (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, (1635-1699); 1st married February, 1, 1686, Chateau Richer, Antoine Doyon; 2nd marriage November 16, 1711, Chateau Richer, Joseph Paquier.

October 26: Ville-Marie (Montreal), marriage Jean Baptiste Gadois and (II)-Marguerite Gervaise died January 18, 1690, Ville-Marie (Montreal) daughter (I)- Jean Gervaise, procureur fiscal (1621-1690), and (II)-Anne Archambault, Metis b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Ville-Marie (Montreal).

November: On the north shore of Lake Erie, (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) announced he was sick and returning to Quebec. He disappeared into the bush.

November 1: Quebec, birth, (II)-Jean Dubeau, Metis, died September 12, 1743, St. Augustin, son (I)-Laurent Dubeau, b-1636, and Marie Felix d’Arontio, Huronne, sauvahesse, d-1689: married November 22, 1703, St. Augustin, Marguerite Harnois.

December 15: Quebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Lemieux b-1648 to (II)-Elizabeth Langlois (1645-1696) veuve 1662, Quebec, Louis Cote, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1634) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) d-1665. Guillaume espouse October 12, 1699 Cap St. Ignace, (III)-Louise Picard, veuve Louis Gagne.