A History of French Canada 1635 to 1649

Disclosure

We are very pleased to be one of the few sites offering fully searchable versions of Cyprien Tanguay’s Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Canadiennes and related research. These documents provide authoritative historical evidence regarding the individuals who settled French Canada and are referred to in this document.

We strongly recommend using the Tanguay texts in your genealogical efforts.


Note: Several ManyRoads readers have questioned the accuracy of some of the Metis claims presented in this document by Mr. Garneau. Should you have evidence that you would like to refute the veracity and accuracy of any claims made by Mr. Garneau, which you would like us to publish on ManyRoads, please contact us directly with a copy of your “draft publication(s)”.

We are happy to present all relevant information here, in the interest of fairness, full disclosure and accuracy.

The following material is written by: R.D. (Dick) Garneau, who is solely responsible for its accuracy.

1635

Three marriages, four births and thirteen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

  • (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle married Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619, see (II)-Pierre Boucher 1634 who married their daughter b-1636

About 31 women were recorded in Kebec at this time, three being Indian girls for marriage to French settlers. These are:

  • Three native maidens of marriageable age
  • (I)-Thomasse Gabarette, wife (I)-Francois Albert
  • Anne Couvent (Convent), b-1601 wife Phillippe Amyot
  • Simone d’Orgeville (1589-1649) wife (I)-Adrien d’Abancour dit Lacaille, d-1641,
  • Anne Ardouin d-1670 wife (I)-Jacques Badeau d-1658
  • (II)-Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet de Belleborne, Metis, b-1630 daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) and Nipissirinienne sauvagesse, b-1610. (I)-Jean 2nd marriage Oct. 7, 1737 Kebec, (II)-Marguerite Couillard (1626-1705)
  • Francoise Grenier (Garnier) Algonquin Metis, d-1665 wife (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684)
  • Indian girl wife (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717), they would settle Trois Rivieres about 1642
  • Nicole Lemoine (Lemaine) wife (I)-Gaspard Boucher
  • (I)-Pierrine Mallet (1604-1687) wife (I)-Martin Boucher (1589-1671)
  • Jacqueline Potel, Metis d-1654 wife (I)-Jean Bourdon d-1668
  • Eleonore de Grandmaison wife Francois de Chavigny
  • (I)-Xainte Dupont wife (I)-Zacharie Cloutier (1590-1677)
  • (II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis, b-1606 wife (I)-Guillaume Concillard
  • (II)-Anne Martin wife (I)-Jean Cote (1603-1661)
  • Marie Faverie wife Pierre Le Gardeur de Repentigny
  • Catherine de Corde d-1657 wife (I)-Rene Le Gardeur du Tilly
  • Jeanne Labraye wife (I)-Charles Garnier
  • (I)-Marie Renouard, b-1599 wife (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668)
  • (I)-Mathurine Madeleine Robin,d-1662 wife (I)-Jean Guton (Guyon) (Dion) dit du Buisson (1592-1663)
  • (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649 epouse Hebout (Hubou) widow (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627)
  • Helene Desportes wife (II)-Guillaume Hebert (1620-1639)
  • Jeanne Le Marchand wife (I)-Mathieu Michel Le Neuf du Herisson (1601-1642) brother (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606
  • (II)-Marguerite Le Gardeur, b-1608, wife (I)-Jacques Le Neuf de la Potherie, b-1606
  • (I)-Marie Le Neuf du Herisson (1612-1683) wife (1636) (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy de Linclot (1608-1681)
  • Marie d’Abancour (Avaugour) wife (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651)
  • Louise sauvagesse wife (1604-1704) (I)-Oliver De La Tour, Judge of Champlain
  • Marie Langlois wife Jean Junchereau de Maure
  • Madeleine Le Neuf du Herisson wife Jean Poutrel di Colombier

The Jesuits have established this year 6 residences in New France:

  1. Residence of Sainte Anne at Cape Breton
  2. Residence of Saint Charles at Misku, an island in the Bay of Chaleurs.
  3. Residence of Nostredame de Recouvrance at Kebec, near the fort.
  4. Residence of Nostredame de Anges about 1/2 league from Kebec. This is supported by Monsieur le Marquis de Gamache.
  5. Residence of Conception at Trois Rivieres (Three Rivers)
  6. Residence of Saint Joseph at Ihonatiria among the Huron (Wendat).

Their desire is to open a second residence this year among the Huron but at a different location.

Most Frenchmen were committed to the idea of having marriages that they considered to be valid by their own customs, and those who could afford to make the trip to a local priest generally had their marriages consecrated within the church. However, they could only receive clerical sanction of they married Indian women who had converted to Catholicism and received the sacraments. This and the continual shortage of clergy in the upper country would make this type of marriage uncommon.

The Jesuits send the second barbarian (savage) girl to France for education hopefully to discourage country marriages. They open a school at Quebec for Indian and French children.

The winter of 1634/1635 scurvy visited the Trois Rivieres settlement.

  • (I)-Rene Brisson b-1635, married (II)-Anne Vesinat (1651-1687) daughter (I)-Jacques Vesinat (Votmine) and Marie Bourdon. (I)-Rene Brison could be son Rene Risson of 1619?
  • (I)-Georges d’Eudemare arrived Kebec this year and is still in Kebec in 1645.
  • (I)-Robert Drouin (1607-1685), arrived Kebec 1635 married 1st July 12, 1837, Kebec, Anne Cloutier; see 1634
  • (I)-Gilles Nicolet arrived Kebec this year and returned to France 1657.
  • (I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is at Trois Rivieres this year
  • (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint-Aignan (1587-1677) arrived Kebec having spent (1608-1677) as chief interpreter at Tadoussac, (Quebec). He would spend 1635 to 1677 in Kebec and 2nd married 1636 Marie Lebarbier, b-1620, epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec Denis Lemagire. No mention is made of his first wife in Tadoussac or his Metis children. He did however frequently visit them looking after their welfare.
  • (I)-Andre de Malapart (Malapart) is in Trois Rivieres this year and is made commandant in 1639.

The mission Trois Rivieres de la Province de Kebec is established this year.

  • (I)-Andre Malapert is at Trois Rivieres this year. He was still here in 1649.
  • Birth (II)-Francois Pelletier (1635-1690) son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and (I)-Jeanne Du Roussy (1614/1622-1689); married April 1660 Tadoussac, (Quebec) Dorthee sauvagesse (1613-1661), Dorthee died L’Hopital de Quebec.
  • (I)-St. Jean arrived Kebec in 1635 or earlier.

The Huron People noticed that, with the arrival of the Jesuits, an unknown epidemic struck the villages.

Some Jesuits would prefer that New France remain lightly populated with Frenchmen, as they would be easier to control than a multitude. Immigration will decrease the peace, happiness and good feelings, but France needs an outlet for the multitude of workmen who lack employment. It is noteworthy that France has established a three level class system in New France:

  • The lowest paid people (engages) are the soldiers, ploughmen, diggers and pit men.
  • The middle class are tradesmen, masons, carpenters, nail smiths, ironmongers, wet coopers and bakers.
  • The highest paid are sailors, gunners and masters.

The New France engages are normally indentured for 3-5 years, then offered an opportunity to become colonists or return to France. Most would choose to return to France. After six years of service, one could aspire to become a master and thereby hold shop and train apprentices. The future reality, however, is that the system is designed so that 90% of the people remained as commoners, while only 10% can aspire to middleclass and none to nobility. 80% of New France will be farmers while 20% will be administrators, merchants, religious, soldiers, craftsmen and travelers. This system would encourage young men to become coureur de boise.

The Jesuit have six residences in New France, compared to three French settlements. The residences are; Sainte Anne at Capr Breton; Saint Charles at Miskou; Nostre Dame de Recouvrance near Fort Kebec, Nostre Dame des Anges, a half league from Kebec; Conception at Trois Rivieres; Saint Joseph Ihonatria in Huron Country. All residences are maintained by the Gentlemen of the Company of New France.

(I)-Marc Antoine Brasdefer de Chateaufort (Chasteau-fort) assumed command of Kebec on December 25, 1635 until June 11, 1636, but the effective leadership of New France passed to the Religious Order; in particular- the Jesuit. Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), of France ensured their religious control. One of their first steps was to prevent the French traders from living on Wendat (Huron) lands. Their intent was to control the trade by becoming middlemen as translators. Louis de Baud, Count of Frontenac (1620-1698), Governor (1672-82 & 1689-98), the Huguenot, would later denounce the Jesuit for not making the Natives adopt the dress and manners of the French, for keeping them isolated and for teaching them in their own language. He and others suggested that the Church’s motivation is economic control of the fur trade rather than spiritual control.

The Commandant at Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) is Marc-Antoine de Bras de Fer, Sieur de Chasteaufort, a Lieutenant who was made acting Governor of New France. The Jesuit had their doubts about the new acting Governor and requested his replacement. New France is controlled by Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), so his removal is inevitable.

A colony is established at Fort Amsterdam on Manhttes Island, (Manhattan Island), New Holland officially dated to1625. Actually Peter Minuit created a deed with the Manahatta Indians in 1626 thus ensuring legal possession of Manhattan. Others date the colony to 1609 when the Dutch ship captained by Henry Hudson landed New York Bay.

At Kebec 7 men harvested 8 puncheons wheat, 2 puncheons peas, 3 puncheons Indian corn, while also making hay, and other work.

(I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636) (some suggest he died 1635) sent a vessel to Penobscot, (Maine) under command of (I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) to take the English trading house and to fortify this location. The settlers were told to remove themselves to below 40 degrees which is the end of French territory. The English hired Mr Girling for a payment of 200 £ to attack and take Fort Penobscot, (Acadia, New France) with his 25 man crew. He expended all his powder and failed to dislodge the 18 French defending their position so he withdrew.

The French abandoned their Fort La Have and moved the inhabitants to Port Royal, Acadia. This effectively changed the Capital of Acadia from La Have to Port Royal. Those settlers who had married Micmac women remained at La Have, Acadia.

(I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny, d-1651, Governor of Canada (1635-1648) ordered the building of the Jesuit College, Kebec

January: Kebec (I)-Pierre Delaunay, b-1616 is in Kebec as agent of the Hundred Associates, he married 1645, Kebec, (II)-Francoise Pinguet, d-1661. He was killed by the Iroquois in November 28, 1654. The savages had complained he was charging exorbitant prices.

January 6: Kebec, a savage girl b-1625 is baptised and is living with a French family.

January 15: (II)-Charles de La Tour (1593-1666) is granted land at the mouth of the St. John River, (Acadia, New Brunswick), where he built a trading post called Fort La Tour.

January 16: Kebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Couillard, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684);

February 18: Trois Riviers baptism Anne 8iperig8e 8a8akhi b-1600 a savagesse of Tadoussac, god father is Mr. de la Violette Governor Trois Riviers

January 27: The Algonquian arrived Trois Rivieres (Quebec) to show the French how to ice fish, thereby avoiding starvation, a secret not known to the Montagnas.

February 2: Kebec, a little savage girl who was sent to France for education is returned with smallpox, is baptised and died.

February 6: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Jean Guiot Le Negrier of Normandie.

March 6: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Pierre Drouet, a carpenter.

March 29: (I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is with the Huron Nation having escaped from the Hiroquois last year.

April 7: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Michel sonet.

April 10: (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, born April 10, 1635, Kebec, died April 25, 1699, Chateau Richer, daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’ecossais, (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis b-1611?); married January 21, 1648, Jean Cloutier..

April 22: William Alexander, now Earl of Stieling, was given a new land grant in Canada by King Charles I.

May 25: A canoe arrived Kebec to say a French ship was at Tadoussac (Island of Bic) and 5-6 more are on their way. They are determined to attack all those found in the river without commission.

June: Kebec was in panic, all month, as all the men were away trading when they expected a Hiroquois (Iroquois) attack at any moment.

July: Kebec, (I)-Pierre Pijart, Jesuit b-1608 arrived Kebec.

July: Kebec, (I)-Claude Quentin, Jesuit arrived Kebec.

July: Kebec, (I)-Francois Joseph Le Mercier, Jesuit, born October 4, 1604 arrived Kebec.

July: Kebec, (I)-Jean de Quen, Jesuit born May 1603, arrived Kebec.

July: (I)-Pierre Feaute, Jesuit lay brother arrived Kebec.

July: Kebec, chevalier de la Roche Jacquelin led 4 ships, one captained by Bontemps, Pierre de Nesle and Castillon.

July 4: A shallop arrived Kebec advising 8 ships arrived, 6 for Tadoussac, 2 for Miscou and 1 for Cape Breton.

July 12: The ship Saint Jacques cast anchor before Kebec.

July 18: Quebec, birth, (II)-Robert Langlois, Algonquin Metis, died June 19, 1654, Kabec, son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis, born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec.

July 22: The French held an assembly at Kebec using interpreters between the French and Huron. The French were ceremonious, greatly offending the Savages, by demanding that the alliance is only possible if the Huron abandon their religion and culture and adopt the French beliefs and worship. The promised to marry the the Savages when they become Christians. This was a change from the Champlain agreement. They promised great trading advantages and would teach the People to make metal goods like hatchets and knives. The People learned that the French will promise anything to achieve their ends and don’t intend to deliver on their promises. The conclusion of the assembly did not end with an agreement as the Huron had no intention of honoring the demands. The Jesuit said their objective is to make the Savages sedentary and docile to French direction.

August 1: Trois Riviers, Father Buteux is at Trois Rivieres with some Montaignais savages hoping to make them sedentary and plant corn.

August 17: This season’s ships brought more Jesuits: Father Pierre Pijart (1608-1676), Father Claude Quentin (1597-1676), Father Le Mercier (1604-1690) and Father Jean de Quen (1603-1659), as well as lay brothers Pierre Le Tellier and Pierre Featue. It is reported that Turkish ships are pirating ships bound for the New World. The Jesuit record the waves of the sea, with hundreds of encounters with Turks, icebergs, reefs, and horrible storms mark our crossing upon leaving the English Channel, the Turks pursued us for 24 hours.

August 28: Fifteen Jesuit reside in New France and four brothers.

September 9: Quebec, marriage (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, married Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis who died from a fall September 11, 1654: 2nd marriage August 21, 1655, Quebec, Anne Gasnier b-1614, died June 27, 1698, Quebec, veuve Jean Clement DuVault, seigneur de Monceaux, chevalier de St. Louis.

October 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Louis Cote, Metis, d-1699 son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married November 6, 1662, Quebec. Elizabeth Langlois.

November 17: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 to (II)-Anne Martin, Metis died December 4, 1684, Kebec, daughter (I)-Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and savage and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611, see 1624.

November 20: Kebec, marriage (I)-Martin Grovel to (II)-Marguerite Auber daughter (I)-Francois Auber (leader of a boat) and Anne Fauconner, died November 30, 1676, L’Ange Gardien, eglise: Marguerite epouse September 26, 1661, Quebec, Michel Filion. It’s interesting she is not on the 1635 list women in Kebec? Possible Metis not living Kebec?? see 1619 Felix Aubert?

December: Kebec, The savages inquired why thy Great King does not forbid them (Frenchmen) from bringing over these drinks that kill us. The Jesuit answered that the (civilized) Frenchmen needed them upon the sea and in the intense cold of this country.

December 9: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) is at Trois Riviers this date.

December 22: Monsieur de Malapart is at Trois Riviers involved in a baptism.

December 25: Kebec, death (I)-Samuel Champlain, b-1567, died December 25, 1635, Kebec son Antoine Champlain and Marguerite: married to Helene Boulle, died December 20, 1654

December 25: Stricken with a paralytic stroke, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), Lieutenant of Fort Kebec, died on Christmas day, one hundred years after the discovery of Hochelaga. He left no known relatives. Some historians believe he suffered from senility, as he dictated a will leaving his possessions to the Virgin Mary. Dates of his death vary from 1635 to 1637. Some believe his grave is in Mountain Hill cemetery which adjoins the Chapel of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance. It is noteworthy that Champlain had crossed the ocean more than 20 times to support his colony in New France.

December 25: New France is effectively controlled by the Jesuits under the direct control of Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessie duc de Richelieu (1585-1642). The Jesuits were given a monopoly over New France. (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) Superior of the Jesuits in New France is also authorized to be Governor of New France in case of extraordinary events. He likely appointed (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort Commandant of Trois Rivieres as acting Governor. In fact the Jesuit had drawn up secret papers assigning him Governorship in the event of Champlain’s death.

(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort assumed command at Kebec after the death of Champlain. He was General in command at Trois Rivieres.

December 27: Monsieur Maupertus is at Trois Rivieres involved in a baptism.

December 29: A notice is posted on the pillar in front of the Kebec Church listing prohibitions, with certain penalties against blasphemy, drunkenness, failing to attend mass and divine services on holidays.

1636

One marriage, six births and seventeen deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. It is noteworthy that Arnault’s marriage is not acknowledged.

  • (II)-Jeanne Crevier Metis b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married July 9, 1652 Quebec (II)-Pierre Boucher, Metis (1622-1717) Governor Trois Riviers son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lemaine (Lemoine)
  • (I)-Jean Rousseau de Paris, d-1743, killed by a discharge of a gun, arrived Kebec 1636 then relocated to Trois Rivieres.
  • Most likely Trois Riveries, birth (II)-Peter Esprit Radisson et Chonards, Metis, (1636-1710) son (I)-Sebastien Hayet de St Malo dit Radisson and unknown Metis or savage mother. Some suggest he was born 1640 but (II)-Peter himself claims 1636 as his birth year. He is known as a half brother to (II)-Marguerite Radisson, b-1632 daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet de St Malo dit Radisson and Madeleine Herault. (II)-Peter claims his ‘natural parents’ are alive and well in Trois Rieieres in 1654, as are his brother and his brothers wife and children. (see Radisson 1631)

Six women and some children relocated from Tadoussac to Kebec this year. These likely include Metis or Savages with Metis children.

The Jesuits has caused much hostile criticism in France of their involvement in the peltries (Fur Trade).

The Jesuits said the barbarians prefer Trois Rivieres to trade than Kebec.

The Jesuit’s say the barbarians at Trois Rivieres do not usually harm women or children. Indeed, many a young man will not hesitate to marry a prisoner and she obtains full tribal status.

  • (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) aka “The Little King of Tadoussac” has been in Canada since 1608 spending most of his time at Tadoussac married for the fourth time to Marie La Barbide, b-1619 epouse May 8, 1681, Kebec, Denis Lemaitre. His first three wives were at Tadoussac and likely relocated to Kebec. Marsolet was not subordinate to Champlain and it is presumed he still reported directly to France.
  • The Jesuits receive a few little native girls at Trois Riviers to educate in the French manner, who they expect to become wives of Frenchmen. These girls are sent to France for an education, usually adoption by a French family and returned to New France for marriage to a Frenchman. One unnamed Iroquois girl who was sent this year to Paris, France returned only to die of smallpox in 1640 in Quebec, she had acquired the French names of Anne Therese but her last name was not recorded..
  • (I)-Francois de re de Gand is given a small savage girl who he housed with Sieur Hebout’s. She is likely destined to be his wife?

    Two or three little savage girls from Kebec are sent to France in care of the Hospital nuns for education and marriage to Frenchmen in New France.

  • One young savage girl could easily pass for a well-born French girl but her father will not allow her being sent to France for education.

    An Algonkin woman is sent to France for education and to return to become a wife to a Frenchman. These women/girls are often taken in by French families and assume the family name. The Savages prefer Trois Rivieres over Kabec and another savage girl is given to the Jesuits who name her Marie. It would appear that 20-30 little girls are available for education in the manner of the French.

  • (I)-Martin Appendestiguy de Martiigon, France married (III)-Jeanne de Saint-Etienne La Tour, Metis daughter (II)-Charles de Saint-Etienne La Tour (1595-1665).
  • (II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?), baptised, 1636, daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married September 28, 1648, Quebec Urbain Tessier. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.
  • (I)-Antoine Arnault, a carpenter married 1636, Kebec Madeleine savage.
  • (I)-Francois Belanger (1612-1685), arrived Kebec, 1636, married July 12, 1637, Kebec (II)-Marie Madeleine du Buisson Guyon (1623-1696) daughter (I)-Jean Guyon, (1592-1663) and Mathurine Robin, d-1662
  • Monsieur de Castillon is at Trois Rivieres this year.
  • Monsieur de Courpon is at Trois Rivieres this year.
  • (I)-Nicolas Courson, surgeon, is at Trois Rivieres
  • (I)-Guillaume Du Plessis, died November 11, 1651 arrived Trois Rivieres as Governor.
  • Monsieur (I)-Francois de Gand is at Trois Rivieres this year.
  • Sieur (I)-Guillaume Hubou (Hebout), d-1653 who married the widow Marie Rollet d-1649 of Monsieur Hebert takes in a savage girl for education and marriage to a Frenchman at Trois Rivieres.
  • (I)-Jacques Le Neuf de la Poterie, b-1606 arrived Kebec 1636 with (II)-Pierre Le Gardeur De Repentigny, d-1675, (married Marie Favery d-1675 l’eglis of Quebec) whose sister (II)-Marguerite L Gardeur, b-1608 was his wife; He was made Governor in 1665. Governor (1645-1648), (1650-1651), (1652-1653) and (1658-1662). This family is confusing it appears he and his brother were here in 1634 and Marguerite was here in 1635? If this be true then (II)-Marguerite L Gardeur, b-1608 is actually Margaret Favery l’eglise of Quebec. Le Neuf has a son born 1640 Trois Rivieres, a daughter born 1640 no location recorded and a daughter b-1632 no location given. I highly suspect the Le Neuf brothers and Le Gardeur may be married to Metis or savagees?
  • Monsieur de Lisle (L’Isle) is at Trois Rivieres this year.
  • (I)-Nicolas Marsole(Marsollet) (1587-1677) the Little King of Tadoussac (1608-1635) upon hearing of the death of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed Tadoussac for Quebec where he spent his remaining years. Some suggest he arrived Kebec 1635. This year he married 4th (I)-Marie Le Bardier (1620-1688), likely a savage or Metis. He had three savage girls previously by country style. He was a 50 year old man who married a 16 year old girl and they had 10 children. After his death Marie married 1680 Quebec, Denis Gabriel. It is noteworthy that there is no mention of his Montagnais Metis children fathered over the 27 years that he lived among them. He did however visit Tadoussac frequently over his life time. He went over to the English during the occupation.
  • (I)-Nicolas Peltier dit Marolles (1596-1679), (some suggest this marriage took place April 5, Kebec this year, his wife Jeanne de Voisy (Roussey) Indian/Metis (1612-1622-1689) and some suggest his sons (II)-Jean Peltier (1633-1692) (1) and (II)-Francois Peltier (1635-1688) (2) arrived Kabec this year. Some say he also married (2nd?) Madeleine Tegochix aka Tegoussi, Montagnaise, veuve d’auguste sauvage (*) and 3rd marriage June 3, 1677, Tadoussac, Francoise Ouechipichinokoue, Algonquin. It is highly likely Jeanne de Voisy (Roussey) (1612 or 1622-1689) is an Indian or Metis girl. (2) How can Francois arrive before he is born? (1) Also Tanguay positions Jean birth between 1646-1649? (*) this was the wife of Nicolas Jr. and no record of a third marriage, this appear unlikely if anything it was a first wife at Tadoussac.. (Doc Lussier suggests Jeanne Roussey is Micmac from Porty Royal)
  • (II)-Francois Peltier Metis (1635-1688) married Dorthee La Sauvagees who died April 13, 1661 Quebec; 2nd marriage September 26, 1661 Quebec Marguerite Mousseau.
  • (II)-Marie Peltier Metis born April 5, 1637 Kebec 1st married October 17, 1750 Quebec Nicolas Goupil; 2nd marriage August 30, 1655 Jean Denis
  • (II)-Louise Peltier Metis born May 10, 1640 Kebec, died November 9, 1713 Quebec, married November 17, 1653 Quebec Jean IIayot

    (II)-Francoise Peltier Metis born April 13, 1642, Kebec, died July 17, 1707 Ste. Foye, 1st married August 17, 1654 Quebec Jean Beriau; 2nd marriage October 11, 1655 Quebec Sebasten Lienard

  • (II)-Jeanne Peltier Metis born March 19, 1644 married January 29, 1659 Quebec Noel Jeremie

    (II)-Genevieve Peltier Metis born April 6, 1646 Kebec, died December 17, 1717 Quebec, 1st married November 5, 1663 Quebec Vincent Verdon; 2nd married Thomas Lefebcre.

  • (II)-Jean Piltier Metis died November 2, 1692 married August 21, 1662 Quebec Marie Genevieve Manevely de Rainville
  • (II)-Nicolas Piltier Jr. Metis born May 2, 1649 Sillery 1st married June 22, 1673 Madeleine Tegoussi; 2rd marriage Francoise Lamy.
  • Monsieur de la Poterie is recorded in Kebec this year.
  • (I)-Claude Poulin (1615-1687) arrived 1636 Kebec, married August 8, 1639, Kebec Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687).
  • (I)-Jean Rousseau who died 1643, killed by discharge of a gun, is at Trois Rivieres this year.
  • Issac Presseley arrived Acadia.
  • Monsieur de Repentigay is recorded in Kebec this year.
  • (II)-Jeanne Trahan likely daughter (I)-Guillaume Trahan, arrived Acadia and married Acadia (I)-Jacques Bourgeous who arrived Acadia 1641.
  • Sieur (I)-Oliver le Tardif (1601-1665) who married November 3, 1637 (II)-Louise Couillard d-1641 took in another savage girl for education and marriage to a Frenchman at Trois Rivieres.
  • Sieur de la Treille is at Trois Rivieres this year.

The mission (first Indian reservation) Sillery de la Province de Quebec is established this year.

De Lisle (L’Isle), a chevalier of the Knights of Malta is posted to Trois Rivieres (Quebec) 1636-1641.

The 7th Congregation of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit) forbids all kinds of commerce and business, under any pretext, whatever. The Canadian Jesuit argued that peltry is the coin of this country and the Jesuit continue to be involved in the trade. They are also becoming the largest land owner in the country.

Warfare, between the Savages, at this time, consists of small ambushes, one side against the other, in retaliation of some previous killing. It is true the Barbarians do not usually harm the women or children, except in sudden attacks. Many young men will not hesitate to marry a prisoner.

(I)-Guillaume Herbout (Hubou) who married 1629 (I)-Marie Rollet, the widow of (I)-Louis Herbert, the first resident of Kebec, houses a little Savage girl named Marie Oliver Sylvestre, b-1626 daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Huron wife. Oliver Letardif keep another. (This is the same girl that Tardif adopted from his good friend Roch and placed with the Hubou’s for education). These little Savage girls dress in the French fashion and will eventually marry November 3, 1644, Kebec, a Frenchman named (I)-Martin Prevest (1611-1691). Some Savage girls, are being sent to Old France for education and then returned. The French have not yet allied with the Tadoussac Savages by any marriage, (this however is not true). The Captain (savage) of Tadoussac said ” When your young men return from war after the massacre of our enemies, they will not have any trouble in obtaining our girls in marriage.” “As to children one does not see anything else but little savages in the houses of the French.” The Metis children would be considered as savage. “There are little boys there and little girls, what more do you want.” ” You are continually asking for our children, next you will be asking for our wives.: You continually ask for our children, and do not give yours.

Complaints were coming from Old France of how few baptisms were being performed in New France. The Jesuit are well aware that funding of their enterprise is dependent upon the good will of their patrons in Old France. As a result the Jesuit began to baptize, in secret, against the wishes of parents. Hereafter results would drive baptism rather than good judgment. This appears to be a fundamental turning point in the relationship of Europeans to the Native People.

Francois Oliver, a Savage is baptized at Kebec attended by Oliver, Clark, an interpreter and Madame Hebout. The Jesuit say baptism prevents death by sorceries.

Immigrants, of little means, to New France are expected to be indentured for five to six years. They should possess, in their own right, one-half of all land they clear after indenture is completed. Most, however, would return to France or become Coureurs des Bois before their terms had expired. One or two years of labor without wages should cover their board and tools.

Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) estimated that the Huron (Wendat) Nation numbered about 30,000 people in twenty towns. About 20,000 people would be killed over the next four years by disease and war.

The Island of Mont Real is still being used as a temporary camp and the Savages called the place ‘The Island Where There Was a Village’. The Savages like Trois Rivieres better than Kebec, they stop there oftener, and in greater numbers.

Governor (I)-Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), a.k.a Onontio, Governor New France from June 11, 1636 to August 20, 1648, went out of his way to pacify the Jesuits, fully understanding they controlled the position. (I)-Marc-Antoine Brasdefer, Sieur de Chasteaufort, becomes Governor Trois Rivieres, (Quebec). Influenza hit the colony and the Indians, this and next year. Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), a Jesuit, wrote that there are mines of iron, copper and other metals discovered that will soon be worked. The Jesuit Father (I)-Pierre Chastellaine (1606-1684), Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649), Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), Father (I)-Nicolas Adam (1588-1659), Father (I)-Paul Ragueneau, Father (I)-George Alexander d’Eudemare and brothers (I)-Ambroise Cauvet and (I)-Louis Gaubert arrived in New France. Monsieur (I)-Pierre Le Gardeur de Repentigny from Thury Normandy, arrived with his wife and four children as well as his brother and sister. He is a lieutenant of the Governor of New France. Monsieur (I)-Jacques Le Neuf de la Poterie b-1606 from Caen in Normandy, came with his wife (II)-Marguerite La Gardeur aka Favery l’eglise) b-1608 who was in Kebec in 1635? and daughter Marie b-1632, his brother (I)-Michel and two sisters and their families. (I)-Michel Le Neuf du Herisson is the head of the family. This appears to be speculation rather than fact.

The Governor of New France ordered that the Chateau Saint Louis at Kebec be rebuilt in brick and stone. (I)-Jean Bourdon (1601-1668), an engineer, is to draw up plans for the town.

Peltry is the coin of New France, and a 25% markup exists between Fort Kebec and France to cover the risk they run upon the sea, especially from pirates..

The Colony of Ville-Marie (Montreal) aka Hochelaga was a religious enterprise conceived in 1636 by Jerome Le Royer de la Dauversiere, Receiver of Taxes at la Fleche, in Anjou; and Father Jean Jacques Olier de Vemeuil, a young Sulpician priest of Paris.

Every year more come to cast themselves into the forests as if into the bosom of peace, to live here with more piety, more immunity and more liberty. The are leaving the exactions, deceits, thefts, rapes, assassinations, treachery, enmity, black malice that only visits Kebec once a year in the letters and gazettes which people bring from the Old France. The families of Monsieur de Repentigny, and Monsieur de la Poterie have recently joined the colony and word is that more settlers have arrived at Tadiussac, (Quebec). Kebec however has no room for those who cannot work.

The following questions were raised in Old France:

* Concern was express, because of the recent incursion of England into New France, if the Spanish were in a position to make incursions into New France?

* Is enough land cleared, ploughed and will it support the inhabitants. Sieur Giffard has been clearing land for two years and hopes to raise enough wheat to feed 20 people.

* How much can be cleared and at what cost. Twenty men can clear 30 arpents of land. The usual task is 1 1/2 arpents per man. The cost per man is 2 loves bread or 6-7 lbs, a week, a puncheon of wheat a year, 2 lbs lard, 2 oz butter, a little measure oil and of vinegar, a little dried codfish, that is, about a pound, a bowlful peas, a chopine (pint) all this for one week. A chopine of cider per day, or a quart of beer and occasionally a drink of wine, in the winter they are given a drop of brandy in the morning. The men also augment this by hunting and fishing.

* What is required. We have oxen and cows but horses would be helpful but no hurry to bring them over. We have cod fish at out door but eat cod from France because we have no men to fish. Porpoises and white whales swim in front of Fort Kebec but we lack men to capture them.

The Basques are still harvesting whales at Tadoussac, (Quebec) and further up stream.

A vessel arrived La Heve with an additional 78 passangers including (I)-Jeanne Motin, who immediately married (I)-Charles d’Aulnay who succeded (I)-Issac de Razilly.

The French ship Saint Jehan landed LaHave, Acadia with the first French women for that settlement. Eighty five men and 11 women arrived that date. It is noteworthy that (II)-Charles La Tour (1594-1666) arrived Port Royal, Acadia in 1630 with his wife Louise Indian. Some contend the first Acadian child is born, Mathieu Martin ((1636-1724), he died, unmarried. This is highly unlikely given the French were in Acadia in the early 1500′s.

After 40 years scarcely a family is added to Acadia. (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Charnisay (1604-1650) took possession of Port Royal and erected a new fort and brought his people from La Heve, Acadia. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) held his fort at the mouth of the St. John River (Acadia) and his father (I)-Claude La Tour (1570-1736+) held Fort La Tour (Acadia)

The third Kebec fort was constructed in 1636 by Governor Charles Huault de Montmagny, who covered the second fort’s earthen ramparts with stonework. Construction lasted 24 years, finishing in 1660.

At this time in New France we see trees bearing apples, pear, plum, cherry and other wild fruit. Vines are loaded with grapes which is being turned into wine. Oxen, cows and asses are evident but no horses can be found.

The Jesuits are absolutely forbid all kinds of commerce and business, under any pretext whatever.

January: Kebec, (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668), with 7 men has been clearing the land for 2 years now. The usual task is an arpent and a half per year per man.

January 1: Kebec (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort issued his first edict as Governor New France: Forbidding blasphemy, drunkenness and absence from church service. This was likely a condition of him being appointed as Governor.

January 6: Kebec, (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort condemned a drunkard and blasphemer to the pillory.

January 7: Sieur de Chesne, a surgeon is at Trois Rivieres.

January 7: (I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) is at Trois Riviers this date.

January 7: Sieur de Launay is at Trois Rivieres this date.

January 22: Kebec, A frenchman was fined 50 livres for making a savage drunk.

January 25: It was not uncommon for the French to surname baptized Savages with a French name, thereby losing their cultural identity. A Savage was so named today as Paul Le Cadet (1619-1636).

January 15: Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny de St. Jean de Jerusalem, soldier (1583-1653), governor (1636-48), Knight of Malta, is appointed the first Governor of New France before the death of Champlain was known in France.

January 15: Jacques Castillon was granted the Isle d’Orleans (Quebec). He did not develop it and it was given to the Jesuits in 1662.

January 15: Antoine Cheffault is granted the seigniory of Cote de Beaupre.

February 18: Kebec Sieur (I)-Oliver le Tardif (1601-1665) the interpreter and Madame Hebout agreed to be god parents to a savage baptism who was named Francois Oliver.

March 10: France, (I)-Charles Hualt de Montmaguy is officially appointed Governor New France. Others as early as January 15, 1636 knew of his pending appointment.

March 17: A young un-named Frenchman, who can read and write, wintered with the savages, his brother is at Trois Rivieres this year. He sent a letter on a piece of bark to Trois Rieieres to inform the Jesuits a little boy was sick and dying, so he baptized him.

April 1: The St. Jehan arrives in Port-Royal, Acadia with French settlers, that includes both men and women.

April 1: When this document was discovered in the Paris, France Archives this was the first known passenger list to be found [and perhaps the only list] of the French who had sailed from LaRochelle, France to Acadia. No other lists has been found. Not all on the list remained in Acadia. It is believed some may have returned to France. Whatever the case may be, their names do not show up in later enumerations of Acadia so they did not become permanent residents of Acadie.

Nicollas LeCreux (Dubreuil), with Anne Motin (de Reux), his wife

Claude Motin, her brother,

Jehan Motin, also her brother,

Jehanne Motin, her sister,

Jacqueline de Glaisnée, their cousin

Jehanne Billard with their group

The following names are those of laborers who traveled with said Le Creux.

Firstly:

Jehan Chalumeau, laborer and his and wife

George Migot, from Dijon, laborer

Jehan Hyechtier, from Dijon, laborer

Simon Merllin, from Dijon, laborer

Jehan Pericaud from Dijon, log splitter

Jehan Guiot from Dijon, Laborer

Nicollas Bayolle, from Dijon

Isaac Pesselin from Champage

Hilaire Bicau from Champagne

Jehan Donno, native of Angers, master mill carpenter usually living in Paris

Roch Roche, also a carpenter, from Paris

Martin Le Doux, also a carpenter, from Paris

List of Anjou peasants who sailed on the Saint-Jehan to work in New France.

Firstly:

Tibault Destouches, with his wife and three children, laborer from the parish of Bourgueilavec near Chinon

Pierre Martin, laborer with his wife and one child, from Bourgueil

Jehan Mangoneau, laborer with his wife and one child also from Bourgueil

Pierre Choiseau, laborer with his wife and two children, also from Bourgueil

Widow Perigault with Michel and Julien Perigault, her children, also from Bourgueil, laborers

Hadrien Benoiston, laborer, also from Bourgueil

[Omitted], laborer, also from Bourgueil

Julien Aury, laborer, also from Bourgueil

Pierre Le Moine, laborer, also from Bourgueil

Nouel Tranchant, laborer, also from Bourgueil

Guillaume Trahan, officer of the cavalry, with his wife and two children and a servant, also from Bourgueil

Louis Deniau, from the city of Chinon, a cooper

Philippe Rat, from the city of Chinon, tailor

Daniel Chichereau, from the city of Chinon, tailor

Jehan Danjon, from the city of Chinon, laborer

Michel Callant, from the city of Chinon, laborer

Jehan Vache, from the city of Chinon, cobbler

Louis Blanchard, from La Rochelle, wine maker

Pierre Paquis, master gunsmith and locksmith

Aimé Diot, laborer from Paris

André Braconneau, laborer from Paris

François Guion, from La Rochelle, master baker

Gilles Tionne, master gardener from Paris

List of carpenters who went to build ships and boats in New France.

Firstly:

Jouannis Daprandestiguy, Basque, master

Jehan Debourgonare, also a Basque carpenter

Jouanis Dahausquin, also a Basque carpenter

Jehan De La Faye, also a Basque carpenter

Bernard Bugare, also a Basque carpenter

Jouanis Lavare, also a Basque carpenter

Bernard Tegarnous, also a Basque carpenter

Jouanis Destiquau, also a Basque carpenter

Abraham Dostique, also a Basque carpenter

Saint-Martin dit Gascon, to be a sailor

François Leteller dit Labrande, from La Tremblade, also a sailor

René Arquange, from La Rochelle, also a sailor.

List of salt workers who went to work in the marshlands in New France.

Firstly:

Jehan Sandre, with his wife, master salt worker or seller

Pierre Gabory, also a salt worker, from La Rochelle

Jehan Pronost, also a salt worker, from the islands

François Baudry, also a salt worker

Pierre Prault, also a salt worker

List of sailors who were part of the crew of the Saint-Jehan

Firstly:

Pierre Sauvic, master of said ship, from d’Auray river

Martin Lebagous, sailor, from d’Auray river

Jehan Margar, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Jacques De Lamer, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Marc De La Mer, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Jehan Piluesrie, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Guillaume Bellego, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Etienne Le Rouzic, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Allen Malloin, also a sailor, from d’Auray river

Domingo Basque, from Bayonne, also a sailor

Jouanis Basque, also a sailor, from Bayonne

Bertholome Demairon, also a sailor, from Bayonne

Jehan Roou, carpenter from St-Malo

Pierre Moysieau, master gunner from La Rochelle

Jehan Guiot, master valler from d’Auray river

Bonaventure Guibermin, “garçon” from Morbien

Henry Quinper, “garçon” from Brittany

Petiolle Périn,”garçon” from d’Auray river

(signature) N. Denys

Nicolas Denys

April 17: Trois Riviers baptism Mary a savagesse of Tadoussac born 1622/1623, god father is Mr. de la Violette Governor Trois Riviers. It is noteworthy that Mr. de la Violette Governor Trois Riviers was reported to have departed this date for France. This hardly seems likely?.

April 24: Kebec, (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy de Linclot (1608-1681) is a god parent to Madaelaine Savage. This is likely (II)-Madeline Hayet dit Radisson, b-1632 daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Radisson and Madeleine Heraut. She is found living at the home of (I)-Jean in November 25, 1646, likely as a servant girl.

May 21: (I)- Francois Derre de Gand on route to Trois Rivieres gave the name Joseph (Miskouaseroutin) savage to a boy age 15

June: Kebec, the Norman family of (I)-Rene Le Gardeur, sieur de Tilly, married to Catherine de Corde, d-1657 arrived with two sons and a daughter, arrived in the same ship as (I)-Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), Governor New France

(II)-Pierre La Gardeur, b-France, d-1648, married Marie Favery, d-1675

(II)-Charles Le Gardeur, b-1611, France, died November 10, 1695 Quebec, married October 1, 1648 Kebec, (II)-Genevieve Juchereau Le Gardeur, b- France, d-1687

(II)-Marguerite Le Gardeur, aka Favery l’eglise, b-1608, married 1639 (I)-Jacques Le Neuf de la Poterie b-1606 (II)-Pierre Le Gardeur arrived with his wife Marie Favery d-1675 l’eblise (sister of (II)-Marguerite Le Gardeur, aka Favery l’eglise, b-1608,) of two daughters and one son:

(III)-Marie Madeleine Le Gardeur, married October 3, 1646, Kebec, (I)-Jean Paul Godefroy (Godfroy

(III)-Catherine Le Gardeur, married September 16, 1652, Quebec, Charles Daillebout

(III)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur, b-1632, married July 11, 1656, Quebec, Marguerite Nicolet

(III)-Charles Le Gardeur born March 17, 1637 Kebec married January 18, 1663 Marie MaCard; 2nd marriage December 22, 1669, Jeanne De Matras

(III)-Ignace Le Gardeur born January 29, 1639,Kebec, died June 5, 1644, Kebec

(III)-Ognace Le Gardeur b-1648

(III)-Godfroy Marie Charles b-1652.

June: Kebec, the Norman family of (I)-Mathieu Michel Le Neuf, (Leneuf) de Herisson (1601-1642), married to Jeanne Le Marchand, arrived with two sons and two daughters, arrived in the same ship as (I)-Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), Governor New France: Michel and brother Jacques appear to be in Kebec in 1634.

(II)-Marie Le Neuf, married December 15, 1636, Caen, (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy (Godfroy (1608-1681)

(II)-Michel Le Neuf,

(II)-Jacques Le Neuf, married Marguerite De Repentigny

(II)-Anne Le Nuf, married Antoine Desrosiers and settled Trois Rivieres

June 3: Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1636) is killed by the Mohawks at Ossernenon near Auries, New York.

June 11: A resident of Fort Kebec is pilloried in the market place for the crime of blasphemy. Pilloried = punish by placing in a wooden frame; and subject to criticism and ridicule

June 11: Kebec, Three ships arrived led by Duplessis Bochart, captain Savinien Courpon de la Tour and the ship Saint Joseph.

June 11: Kebec, (I)-Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), Governor New France, served in this position until August 19, 1648. He took over from (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, (Gras-De-Fer) sieur de Chasteaufort who had assumed command upon Champlain’s death, last year. He returned to Trois Rieieres to resume as Commandant of that location (1636-1639). Monsieur de la Poterie and 45 colonists arrived the same ship as (I)-Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), Governor New France,.

June 11: (I)-Pierre Chastellain, a Jesuit and (I)-Charles Garnieu, d-1649, Jesuit arrived Kebec.

June 11: (I)-Philippe Amyot aka Amiot, d-1639, arrived Kabec June 11, 1636, married 1626 France Anne Convent (1603-1675), epouse September 26, 1639, Kebec, Jacques Maheu, Two children were born France Jean b-1627 and Mathew b-1628. However Jean is not listed Tanguay and (II)-Jean Amyot (Amiot), also Gencien aka Antaiok, b-1627, an orphan, is sent by the Jesuits to live among the Huron at a young age. This appears strange unless he was adopted?

June 12: Kebec, (I)-Nicolas Adam, Jesuit arrived Kebec and 4 days later suffered a stroke causing paralysis of his hands and feet.

June 15: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny, d-1651, the second French Governor of Canada (1635-1648). He was appointed Governor in 1635 before the death of Sieur de Champlain (1570-1635) was known in France.

June 16: Kebec, (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy (Godfroy (1608-1681) attended the baptism and named the savage, b-1635 as Jean Paul.

June 16: (I)-Robert Hache lives with the Jesuits in Trois Rivieres.

June 24: Kebec, the Jesuit record the first celebration of Saint Jean Baptiste Day. It originated about 1 AD in Gaul to celebrate Summer Solstice. Christianity combined the Summer Solstice celebration of June 21 with celebration of John the Baptiste and changed the day to June 24. This French celebration would eventually lose its Christian content and revert to its pagan source.

June 26: Monsieur Chevalier de I’Isle became godfather of Marie Savage.

July 7: Trois Rivieres, Sieur de la Treille as godfather named Marie Savage.

July 8: Trois Rivieres, Monsieur de Repentigny as godfather named Joseph Savage.

July 8: Kebec, Monsieur de Courpon, monsieur Gand, and Monsieur de Castillon are at Kebec.

July 21: (I)-Pierre Chastellain, a Jesuit and (I)-Charles Garnieu, d-1649, Jesuit arrived Trois Rivieres.

July 27: Quebec, contract of marriage, (II)-Anne Cloutier, (1625-1648), daughter (I)-Zacharie Cloutier (1590-1677) and (I)-Xainte Dupont; at age 10 years entered into a 1st. marriage to (I)-Robert Drouin, (1606-1685) son Robert Drouin and Marie Dubois. The contract states the marriage not to be consummated until Anne age 13. Drouin 2nd marriage November 29, 1649, Quebec, Marie Chapelier, b-1621, veuve de Pierre Petit.

June 28: Monsieur Charles du Plessis Bochart, commandant of the fleet, arrived Kebec. About 100 settlers arrived in this fleet including Father Ragueneau and Brother Louis Gobert.

August: Kebec, Sieur Hebout (Hubou) has taken into his home some savage girls to be brought up Christian and then married to Frenchmen.

August: Kebec, Sieur Oliver Le Tardif has taken into his home one savage girl to be brought up Christian and then married to Frenchmen.

August: Kebec, two or three savage girls are sent to France to be educated and returned to marry Frenchmen.

August: Kebec, Monsieur Grand gave a savage boy to Monsieur de Noyers

August 9: Five ships of the Gentlemen of the Company arrived Kabec.

August 14: Three Rivers: The French are given a young Savage slave girl captured in a Hiroquois war in compensation for three Frenchmen killed. The Slave girl said she is now of their nation, if she is commanded to marry, she would obey, but that no one, except he to whom she has been given, should approach her. She and a number of other girls are sent to France for education and eventual marriage to Frenchmen.

August 16: Kebec, (I)-Guillaume Isabel is granted 24 arpents of land by (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny, (Montmaguy), d-1651, the Governor.

August 18: (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy (Godfroy (1608-1681), young man beat one of the visiting Huron in a race at Trois Rivieres.

August 19: Quebec, birth, (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis, died August 15, 1687, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, and Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis, born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec; Married August 10, 1660 Kebec Francois Miville.

August 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Amyot, died December 10, 1669, Kebec, son (I)-Philippe Amyot, and Anne Convent epouse September 26, 1639, Kebec Jacques Maheu; married May 2, 1660, Genevieve De Chavigny.

August 28: Kebec, at present there are 26 Jesuits in New France, 20 priests and 6 lay brothers:

Saint Joseph in the Huron country.

Jean Brebeuf

Francois Mercier

Pierre Pijart

Chastelain

Charles Garnier

Isaac Jogues

Residence of the Conception at Trois Rivieres

Jacques Butex

Charles du Marche

Residence Nostre Dame de Recouvarance at Kebec

Jean de Quen

Paul le Jeune

Residence Nostre Dame Des Anges

Charles Lallemant

Nicolas Adam

Edmond Masse

Anne De Noune

Daniel

Ambroisedavost

Brothers, Gilbert Burel, Pierre le Telier, Jean Liegeois, Pierre Feaute, Ambrose Cauvet, & Louys Gobert

Residence Misku

Claude Quentin

Charles Turgis

Residence Ste Anne at Cap Breton

Daudemare

Andre Richard

August 29: Monsieur Commandant weighted anchor at Fort Kedec bound for France taking three little Savage girls with him. These savages would be adopted by French families, given French names, educated and returned as wives to the colonists.

September 4: The Huron arrived Trois Rivieres (Quebec) stating that Monsieur de Champlain had promised the French and Huron would be one people. They asked for some Jesuit and Frenchmen to come to the Huron country and we will give some Huron.

October 1: Kebec, birth (III)-Joseph Hebert son (II)-Guillaume Hebert d-1639 and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin

November 3: Kebec, birth, (III)-Joseph Hebert, Metis son (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes (see 1602): married October 12, 1660, Quebec, DePoitiers.

November 12: Kebec, birth (III)-Ignace Sevestre, died June 24, 1661, Quebec son (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec.

November 30: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jamen Bourguignon, d-1660 to Claire Morin de N.-D. de Mortagne, au Perche, Normandie, France, epouse July 26, 1662 Quebec, (I)-Jean Martineau dit LaPile, died March 29, 1666, Quebec.

December: A Frenchman is fined 50 francs to be paid in peltries for supplying wine to the savages.

December 1: Trois Rivieres (Quebec) burns but the storehouse was saved, for they said we are lost if that burns. Trois Rivieres is like Anjou, France, it is a sandy country and the fishing is excellent.

December 15: Kebec,or Caen France? marriage (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) to Marie Le Neuf (1612-1688) daughter (I)-Mathieu Michel Le Neuf (1601-1642) and Jeanne Le Marchand

December 15: Kebec, marriage (I)-Mathieu Michel Leneuf (1601-1642) to Jeanne Le Marchand

December 15: Kebec, date of contract to marriage of (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681) ** married (II)-Marie Le Neuf, (1612-1688) (I)-Mathieu Michel Le Neuf, sieur du Herisson (1601-1642) and Jeanne Le Marchand de Caen

ELEVEN CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

(II)-Michel Godfroy, born October 21, 1637, died May 18, 1709, Quebec, married September 2, 1664, Montreal, Perinne Picote

(II)-Louis Godfroy, born March 20, 1639, married March 1663 Marguerite Seigneuret

(II)-Jacques Godfroy, born March 6, 1641,

(II)-Anonyme Godfroy, bor/died April 25, 1643

(II)-Jeanne Godfroy, born April 11, 1644, died 1669, religious Ursuline

(II)-Joseph Godfroy, born July 20, 1645, married October 21, 1675, Trois Rivieres, Catherine Poulain

* November 25, 1646

(II)-Amator Godfroy, born July 18, 1649, died September 10, 1730, Trois Rivieres, 1st married July 18, 1649, Trois Rivieres, Marguerite Jutrat: 2nd marriage July 22, 1682, Trois Riviers, Francois LePele

(II)-Pierre Godfroy, born January 20, 1651

(II)-Marie Renee Godfroy, born October 19, 1652,died 1736, married May 16, 1677 Quebec, Pierre Boulanger

(II)-Pierre born Godfroy, September 30, 1655,

(II)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy, born April 1, 1658

* (II)-Madeline Hayet dit Radisson, b-1632 daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Radisson and Madeleine Heraut. She is found living at the home of (I)-Jean Godfroy on November 25, 1646, likely as a servant girl. She had two half-sisters and one half-brother in New France. She likely resided with this family until her marriage of November 25, 1646. The dowry given her by Godfroy suggests she was a servant or daughter of a servant..

** Is the founder of Trois Rivieres, according to Grace Lee Nute in Ceasars of the Wilderness.

1637

Six marriages, eight births and eight deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(II)-Antoine Arnault, Metis, b-1637, Kebec, son (I)-Antoine Arnault and Madeleine Savage.

(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon arrived Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Francois Boule established Sillery and married, likely a sauvagesse.

(I)-Chateauneuf? is commandant aux Trois Rivieres; Governor is (I)-Marc Antoine Brasdefer de Chateaufort (1636-1639)

(I)-Nicolas Deny resided in the La Heve region and focused on fishing, fur trade and lumbering.

(I)-Thomas Hayot married Kebec, this year, Jeanne Boucher, one child is recorded (II)-Genevieve Hayot born this year, died March 1, 1651, Quebec, married 1650, Quebec, Claude Dorval, some suggest he was married July 15, 1629, St. Jean, Normandy and arrived Kebec 1638.

(I)-David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) the French Huguenot is awarded Newfoundland for his conquest of New France in 1629. He and his wife (I)-Sara d-1680′s settled there and they had 3 sons.

(I)-Louis Henri Piguet (1588-1670) arrived Kebec with his family before 1637:

His wife Louise Bouche and three children:

(II)-Francoise Piguet d-1661, 1st married November 7, 1645, Kebec Pierre Delaunay: 2nd married February 8, 1655, Quebec, Vincent Poieier.

(II)-Noel Piguet, (1630-1685) married October 15, 1652, Quebec Marie Madeleine Du Mont, b-1636

(II)-Pierre Piguet (1630-1704) married November 4, 1659 Quebec, Anne Lechevalier.

(I)-La Treille is at Trois Rivieres.

Kebec or Tadoussac, birth (II)-Marie Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688) epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married April 30, 1652 Mathieu D’Amours. This is likely the daughter of one of his 1st three wives?

(I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1671) arrived Kebec 1637 with 2nd wife Francois Marie Grimoult.

(I)-Jean Terriau, b-1601, France, arriced Avadia, 1637, married 1635 (I)-Perrine Bourg.

Sieur (I)-Jean Nicolet (Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1742) is acting as the Huron interpreter in Kebec and Trois Rivieres (Quebec). At Trois Rivieres, the River St. Jean is named after (I)-Jean Nicolet, interpreter and clerk of the store at Trois Rivieres. The River Des Prairies is named after a man, Des Prairies, who lost his way. Trois Rivieres was previously called the Island that contained a village. Sieur Nicollet brings three children to Kebec for the newly created Jesuit Residential School. It is not know if any of these children are his own Metis children.

The Jesuit opened a Residential School in Kebec but one of the young Savages asked soon after his arrival to return to his own country. Two of the young Savages died shortly after arriving. Paul Tisko, the son of Ouanda Koca, a Captain died after a Frenchman had hit the boy and some believe this caused his death. The boy had complained of the blows he had received to the head. The Jesuit claimed he died from overeating which is an absurd claim. Robert Satouta, a grandson of Tsondechaou Anouan an Admiral of the Savages also died as a result of a blow from a Frenchman, according to witnesses. They say the Frenchman drew his sword and hit the boy. The Jesuit attributed his death to a change of air and especially his diet. The Jesuit fabricated these wild stories out of fear of retaliation if violence can be proven, the French colony could be completely ruined. The Algonquin had witnessed the incidents and were fully aware of the lying nature of the Jesuits. Before their death, both boys were purged and bled to no avail. The Jesuits and Frenchmen involved were not punished.

The Sillery Reserve is cleared and houses built to settle the savages like the French. It later would be classified as a total failure. More Frenchmen went native than savages went French.

One young Savage said the Jesuit tried to make him believe in the French God by threats and by force, and, he refused to be forced by fear. The more threat of fire and eternal torments sometimes repels them.

The Jesuit say these young men are barbarians, have the law of wild asses, they are born, live and die in liberty without restraint, they do not know what is meant by bridle and bit. The Jesuit desire to have them conquer one’s passion is considered a great joke, while given free rein to the senses is a lofty philosophy. The Jesuit desire to place the French yoke on this boys. If you attempt to employ harshness to the Huron Nation is to throw them into rebellion. The Jesuit concluded that the young Savages in their possession being 300 leagues from their homes helps in their control .

The younger Savages defer to the older, but the larger ones do not command the others in an imperious or dictatorial manner, like the French, but amiably and differentially, like country People, as if exhorting them, and testifying their love. They as so united that, if one offends the least among them, they consider themselves all equally offended.

The threat of withholding food is of no value, as the young Savages advised the Jesuit that if they wish to have success in hunting, they fast for a week, drinking or eating nothing.

The young Savages are not taught survival skills; two Savages became lost in the woods, one nearly killed his companion while cutting down a tree. The young Savages attempted to plant a field of corn but they failed.

The ships from France arrived late at Fort Kebec and food was scarce this year. It was clear that the French also lacked basic survival skills.

Only three Savages remain at the first Residential School at Kebec. One is called Teouatirhon, another Arieihoua and a third called Aiacidance, not long removed from the breast.

Teouatirhon (Taratouan), war captain and uncle of Teouatirhon of the Kebec Residential School arrived Trois Rivieres (Quebec). He had come to return his nephew to the country on the pretext that the Hiroquois (Iroquois)are believed to be massing to attack the French. Two of the young Savages of the Residential School threw themselves down from the bastion of the fort, in order to escape and return to their country. The French, under arms, arrested the War Captain to prevent the loss of their young Huron from the school. After much discussion the two Teouatirhon, uncle and nephew departed Trois Rivieres and they fell into a Hiroquois ambush of 500 warriors. The uncle is captured but the nephew escaped and returned to Trois Rivieres.

At the General Assembly of the Huron Nation, the Council openly debated the execution of the Jesuits for bringing disease to the minds and bodies of the People.

Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) says that superstition, savagery and sin reign and triumph in New France. He advocates invading the enemies’ own territory in order to attack him with his own weapons of idiom of the Montagnais, Algonquin and Wendat. He supports starting schools for the Savages and trying inducements to settle in one place so they can be controlled. The Jesuit at Sillery, (Quebec) introduced European penance to the Indians.

An Indian is publicly flogged as a punishment for listening to a pagan suitor. The People learn that the French are intolerant.

The Jesuit Father (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673) wished for more harsh treatment, such as the sword that served the Roman Church so well in the past. The sword, in a holy manner, gives authority to the Roman Church decrees to maintain justice and to curb those who trample under foot, the holiness of her mysteries. The Jesuits, Father (I)-Claude PiJart, (I)-Nicolas Gondoin, (I)-Jacque de la Place and (I)-Charles Raymbault, arrived at Fort Kabec.

The French attacked the Iroquois but lost the battle, and the Iroquois retaliated by waging war on the French and Huron.

Sillery, Kebec is established as the first Indian Reservation in Canada.

January 14: Kebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.

January 16: The Company of New France received a grant to establish a nunnery and Jesuit church and seminary at Kebec.

March 17: Father Superior (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Francois La Mercier (1604-1690) visit Iahenhouton to propose whether it would be acceptable to them that some of our Frenchmen should marry in their country as soon as possible. The People said the Frenchmen who had resolved to marry were free to take wives where it seemed good to them; that those who had married in the past had not demanded a General Council for that purpose, but they had taken them in whatever way they had desired. The Father replied to this that it was very true that the Frenchmen who had hitherto married in the country had not made such a stir about it, but also that their intentions were far removed from ours, that their purpose had been to become barbarians (like the People of the country), and to render themselves exactly like them (Coureurs des Bois). He said we, on the contrary, aimed by this alliance to make them like us. This the People said would require a General Council. This is a significant turning point as most previous marriages are to barbarians by Coureurs des Bois and therefore not recorded in the marriage records of New France.

The Jesuits admit that Frenchmen have been taking savages as country wives where it seemed good to them and their purpose is to become barbarians. They wish to render themselves exactly like the savages.

The conditions necessary for their daughters to marry Frenchmen are as follows:

1. They needed to know what dowry the French would give to the wife, any wife’s family,

2. And know whether the wife would have everything at her disposal.

3. If the husband returned to France, would he take her with him? If not, what compensation would he pay?

4. If wife failed in her duty and is driven off by her husband, what could she take away with her? And if, on her own free will, the fancy seized her to return to her relatives, what could she take with her?

The Jesuits report that some Frenchmen were more hesitant in entering into a marriage with a savage upon learning the terms and conditions of marriage to these barbarian girls. Most Coureurs des Bois, however, didn’t give it a second thought, as they were committed to the relationship. It is noteworthy that many marriages of Frenchmen to barbarians are not recorded as such. Many Savage girls are given Christian names to hid their past.

January 14: Kebec, marriage Antoine Brossard to (I)-Francoise Emery, b-1671, died July 11, 1671, Quebec.

March: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Jacques Gourdeau b-1614 or 1624, a native of Pointou.

March 17: Kebec, birth (III)-Charles Le Gardeur, died September 23, 1684 Trois Rivieres son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.: 1st married January 18, 1663, Quebec, Marie Macard: 2nd marriage December 22, 1669, Jeanne Dematras.

March 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacques Bourdon, Metis, son (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

March 27: The Savages say the country is failing us, there is now scarcely any more game in the neighborhood of the French (Fort Kebec). Unless we reap something from the earth, we are going to ruin.

March 27: Monsieur de Champlain had promised to help the Montagnez to enclose a village at Trois Rivieres, to clear land, and to build some houses. Sieur Oliver, the translator and Sieur Nicolet also a translator confirmed this promise was true.

April 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Peltier Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier (1596-1679) and Jeanne de (Voisy) Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1612/1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. October 17, 1650, Quebec, (I)-Nicolas Goupil; 2nd marriage August 30, 1655, Quebec, Denis Jean.. The family is living at Sillery an Indian reservation so it is highly likely Marie is Metis?

May: (I)-Pierre Pijart (1608-1676), a Jesuit, established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception at Ossossane- the largest Huron village, near Elmvale, Ontario.

May: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Pierre De Laporte, a native of Paris.

June 14: Kabec, birth (II)-Antoine Arnault, Metis, son (I)-Antoine Arnault, a carpenter married 1636, Kabec , Madeleine savage

July: Kebec, an unknown number of ships arrived this month, one ship was called the Nicolas, a vessel with captain Fournier and a bark with captain Faybault, the others are unknown.

July: St Joseph de Sillery, 4 miles above Kebec, is established by Noul de Sillery, and contains two Algonkin families totaling 20 persons. This hardly qualifies as a settlement, but more as a traditional wintering location. Monsieur the Chavalier de Montmagny replaced the late Monsieur de Champellain.

July 5: A ship arrived Tadoussac (Quebec) bringing new settlers from France.

July 12: Kebec, marriage performed by Father Charles Lallemant, at Notre Dame des Anges (I)-Francois Belanger b-1612 to (II)-Marie Madeline Robin Guyon (1618/-1696) others say born March 18, 1624 France, daughter (I)-Jean Francois Huet (Guton) Guyon (Dion) dit du Buisson (1592-1663) Quebec and Mathurine Madeleine Avard Robin (1597-1663) died April 17, 1662, Quebec Is this the (I)-Jean Guyon who arrived Kebec 1619?? and children are possible Metis??

July 12: Kebec marriage Robert Drouin to Anne Cloutier age eleven

August 4: The whole country is enraged against the Black robes, especially the one called Brebeuf (1593-1649) who is considered a sorcerer. The Hurons hold a council to inquire into the cause of a terrible disease ravaging their people. They concluded it was caused by the sorceries of the Jesuits.

August 6: The Hiroquois (Iroquois) had effectively blockaded the Saint Lawrence River above Trois Rivieres (Quebec) preventing the Huron from reaching the French at Fort Kebec.

August 11: The French quickly responded to the Hiroquois (Iroquois) threat by dispatching to Trois Rivieres, 6 well equipped shallops for war. The French drove the Hiroquois from the area and only one canon was fired.

August 16: The Duchesse d’Aiguillon, Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu’s (1585-1642), niece, donated 22,400 Livres to establish Hotel Dieu (a hospital) at Fort Kebec.

September 2: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse however with a French name more likely Metis or adopted): married November 9, 1649, Kebec Jean Pelletier

September 2: Kebec marriage (I)-Pierre Nicolet to Nicolas Bonhomme.

September 21: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Selle dit de L’espine to (I)-Marie Berard dit Lepine b-1619, epouse November 5, 1719 Quebec, Pierre Pivain at (100 yrs).

October 7: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Nicolet, (1598-1642) a noble man and interpreter, who arrived Kebec 1618 married to (II)-Marguerite Couillard, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert; Marguerite married 2nd time April 20. 1705 Kebec. Marguerite epouse November 12, 1646, Kebec, Nicolas Macard. Nicolet 1st married Nipissing woman , b-1610 and had one known daughter (II)-Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet, Metis.

October 7: The marriage of (I)-Jean Nicolet, (1598-1642) to Marguerite Couillard age 11, was attended by (I)-Francois Derre de Gand (chief of police), the late Oliver, Noel Juehereau, Pierre De la Portie, Guillaume Hubout, Guitianume Hebert, Marie Rolet, Claude Racine and Etienne Racine.

October 7: (I)-Pierre Nicolet was present at the contract to marriage of (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) who eventually married September 2, 1640 Catherine Goujet (1616-`1679)

October 21, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Michel Godfroy, died May 18, 1709, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688); married September 2, 1664, Montreal, Perinne Picote

October 22, 1637 it is reported that (I)-Jean Nicolet attended the marriage contracts of Francis Derre, chief of police, Oliver Le Tardif, Noel Juehereau, Pierre De la Porte, Guillaume Hubout, Guiliaume Herbert, Marie Rolet and future epouse Claude Racine and (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607

November 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Oliver Tardif (Letardif), b-1601, died January 28, 1665, Chateau Richer, (some suggest Tardif was an interpreter for Samuel de Champlain about 1620 and likely remained in Kebec during the English occupation) (others suggest he returned to France) he married 1st. November 3, 1737, Kabec (II)-Louise Couillard, b-1625, Kebec, died November 23, 1641, Kebec, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, died March 4, 1663, Kebec and (II)-Guillemette Herbert b-1606, died October 20, 1684, Quebec: married 2nd (I)-Jean Aymart dit Aymard daughter (I)-Jean Aymart dit Aymard and Marie Bineau

November 13: David Kirke, Marquis of Hamilton and the Earls of Pembroke and Holland are appointed co-proprietors of Newfoundland. The prior rights of Lord Baltimore were deserted. (I)-David Kirke, as Governor of Newfoundland, brought out 100 colonists and built Fort Ferryland, Fort St. Johns and Fort Bay de Verde. This is in conflict with the Western Adventurers who want the Island free of settlers so as to maintain control of the Grand Bank’s fisheries.

December 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married November 16, 1649, Kebec, Pierre Soumande

December 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacqueline Sedilot daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoultt, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier.

1638

Three marriages, nine births and two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(II)-Nicolas Belanger son (I)-Francois Belanger b-1612, died October 20, 1682 Beaufort, and Marie Guyon (1618-1696: married January 11, 1660 Quebec, Marie De Rainville

(II)-Marguerite Boule, b-1638, died January 31, 1639, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Francois Boule established Sillery and married, likely a sauvagesse.

Ship list of colonists from Soleil, France to Kebec

Jacques Chauson, wood worker

Jeanne Chesson, a woman of precedent

Raymond Crubellet

Marie Griffon, woman of precedent

Helie (Elie) Grimard, carpenter, and settled Trois Rivieres

Francois Parpailler, labourer

Daniel Parpailler, labourer

Pierre unknown

Jean Vanuel, tailor

Francois Verdon, master baker

Two Christian Savage girls marry Frenchmen this year and are given some land to settle on. See September 3, 1639.

Genevieve Agnas Skanndharon b-1638, died November 3, 1657, Kabec daughter Pierre Ondakion, Huron and Jeanne Asenraquehaon, Genevieve is adopted by Mr. & Mrs. Bodeau common folks from Paris who paid 3,000 livres for the little girl

(I)-David Kirke (1597-1654) seized the property and mansion of Lord Baltimore, then occupied by William Hill, Newfoundland.

Father (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), brother of (I)-Charles Lalemant, Superior (1587-1674) and uncle of (I)-Gabriel Lalemant, is made Superior of Huron Mission of the Society of Jesus of New France. (I)-Jerome Lalemant visited the Wendat mission, bringing a number of Frenchmen of various trades. In 1639 he centralized operations at Ste Marie to establish an ideal fortified village with 13 Jesuit priests..

(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642), journeyed to Lake Superior to establish trade relations for the Company of New France.

The Jesuit are focusing on learning the Montagnais, Algonquian and Huron tongues.

St. Joseph Sillery, four miles above Kebec on the St. Lawrence River is established with two Algonkin families.

The Swedish West India Company established Fort Cristina (Wilmington, Delaware), consisting of some 200 to 300 Swedes and Finns in New Netherlands. Some contend they contributed log cabin construction to New England. The Dutch would annex the colony in 1655. The Jesuit Father Superior, Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), introduced a centralization policy, ordering the Jesuit to live together in Sante Marie. This policy proved impractical, and the policy is reversed in 1643.

The New England colonies passed a law, making it a felony to run off to the Indians.

The parish Silleryr aka Mission de St Joseph de Sillery is established this year.

January 27: Kebec, birth (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis daughter (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis, (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin: married November 20, 1651, Kebec, Guillaume Fournier

February 10: King Louis XIII made Charles de Menou d’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), a cousin (I)-Isaac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635), Lieutenant General of Acadia, with authority over Port Royal and La Heve and the command of Pentagouet (Acadia Maine); a trading post on the Penobscot River (Maine). (II)-Charles de La Tour (1593-1666) was granted the rest of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and the command of Cape de Sable and Fort La Tour on the St. John River. This arrangement caused ill-feelings and hostility between the two.

February 22: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:

April 30: The Island of Hochelaga (Montreal) concession is passed from (I)-Jacques Girard, Sieur de la Chaussee, who acquired it January 15, 1636 to (I)-Jean de Lauzon, being witnessed by (I)-Hardin-Huart and (I)-Haguenier.

May 13: Kebec, marriage (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) to Catherine Gautier, b-1627

May 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 to (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679) daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) and Huron savagesse and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis b-1611?, see 1624: It was on May 22, 1638 that, Father Nicolas Adam fulfilled his parish duties at Quebec. He blessed the union of (I)-Etienne Racine and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis, b-1624, now fourteen years old. Olivier Tardif/LeTardif and Guillaume Couillard were present. Promise of marriage was made November 16, 1637.

June 11: The Jesuit Relations reported an earthquake at Trois Rivieres (Quebec).

June 24: Saint Jean Baptiste Day is first celebrated in Kebec using bonfires which were common in France.

July: Kebec, an unknown number of ships arrived, two known are the Petit Saint Jean, captain J. Coupereau and Marie Marthe captain N. Eccussard.

July 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Blondel, died July 22, 1638, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Pierre Blondel, brewer at Fort Trois Riviers and Marie Gourdin Alyson

July 24: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Selle son (I)- Jacques Selle dit de L’espine to (I)-Marie Berard dit Lepine b-1619

August 27: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Guyon son (I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married to Madeleine Boule

September 3: Kebec Country Marriage (I)Guillaume Bigot b-1614 (contract of marriage December 19, 1639) married Marie Panis, slave of Jack and Marie Pouchet of St. Maclou, Bishopic of Rouen, France. This is likely one of those Indian or Metis girls sent to France for education and returned for marriage.

October 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Adrien Hayot son (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: 1st married November 24, 1661 Quebec, Marie Guyon: 2nd married February 18, 1686, Quebec, Marie Pechine..

November 16; Kebec, (I)-Etienne Racine and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679) were the heros of the celebration held in the house of (I)-Abraham Martin, (1589-1664). This document is the first to reveal to us the origins of the young fiance. He was the son of Rene Racine and Marie Loisel, from the parish Fumichon, in Normandy. For the occasion, he was assisted by his “kind friends” Guillaume Couillard and Adrienne d’Abancourt, the future bride of Jean Joliet.

November 22: (II)-Adrien Martin, Metis, born November 22, 1638, Kebec son (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’ecossais, (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?).

November 24: Kabec, birth (II)-Genevieve Bourdon, Metis, died December 13, 1700, Quebec, daughter ((I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

December 31: A lunar eclipse sighted in the Huron country, caused panic among the People who placed the blame on the Jesuits. It is likely the Jesuits used this natural phenomena to create converts, but it back fired.

1639

Five marriages, fifteen births and nine deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, who died January 12, 1668, in 1639 obtained the seigniories of Donbourg, Neuville, today’s Point aux Tremble, Quebec

(II)-Antoine Brossard, b-1639, died April 12, 1642, Kebec son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.

Francois de Champflour is Governor Trois Rivieres (1639-1645)

Marie Crespin, b-1639 Ville-Marie (Montreal) aka Hochelaga, married 1681 (I)-Jean Fournier, b-1627; she is likely a Metis, a daughter of a free trader in this area

(I)-Francois de Chamflour is commandant Trois Rivieres (Quebec).

(I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606 Governor Trois Rivieres (1645-1648), (1650-1651), (1652-1653) and (1658-1662) married Trois Rivieres (II)-Marguerite Le Gardeur b-1608 daughter (I)-Rene Le Gardeur and Catherine De Corde, died July 7, 1657 Quebec. Some suggest he married France about 1631?

(I)-Andre de Malapart (Malapart) arrived Trois Rivieres 1635 and is made commandant in 1639.

A coal mine is operating at Grand Lake (New Brunswick).

Jeanne Enard, b-1619 wife of (I)-Christophe Crevier, sieur de la Mesle arrives Trois Rivieres (Quebec) (not recorded by Tanguay) and begins a flourishing trade in brandy with the Natives. (I)-Christophe was involved in 27 court cases at Trois Riviers. I suspect Jeanne might be Metis or a savageese??

Smallpox hit this year in Fort Kebec and Trois Rivieres killing hundreds of people. The Huron (Wendat) lost half their population. The Jesuit, following their isolation policy, created the first Indian reservation- St. Joseph de Sillery, seven kilometers north of Fort Kebec, which included three thousand, five hundred hectares. The Jesuits, having failed to educate the Algonquian into Christianity, called on the Ursuline order of nuns to educate the women. They also would fail. This ill-conceived policy, however, would last for the next three hundred and fifty years, causing much suffering to the Native Peoples.

The Ursuline arrived to educate the savage girls. Marie de I’Incarnation said “A Frenchman is more readily become a savage than a savage a Frenchman”. It’s ironic that any analysis of the two cultures suggest the Europeans were the savages.

The Hospitan Nuns say; in France you have to be on guard every day, to prevent disputes among the poor, or to quell them, and in Kebec we have not observed the least discord among our sick Savages, not even a slight quarrel has arisen. How these persons, so different in country, age and sex, can agree so well. The love of the mother towards their children is very great.

In the Huron Country are 13 Jesuit and 27 Frenchmen. (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) served this mission (1639-1643) he is likely living with his Indian girl and they would settle Trois Rivieres. Father Superior, (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), opened a mission among the Petuns and Neutrals, being fearful of the Dutch Calvinists’ influence, as the Jesuits had previously, vigorously opposed to them in India, Japan and the East Indies. The Jesuit Father (I)-Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667) arrived at Fort Kabec this year for a second time. The Algonquin accused the Wa-mit-ig-oshe (Jesuit) and Christian Wendat of plotting to destroy the whole Nation of Peoples.

Smallpox, carried by the Jesuits, destroyed 50% of the Huron Nation, leaving only 10,000 people. Others suggest disease in 1634, 1636 and 1639 destroyed 18,000 Huron. Earlier unknown diseases (likely also smallpox) had already thinned their numbers. Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) in 1645 estimated the Huron numbered some 30,000 people in 20 towns.

The Company of (New) France issued a resolution that Savages should be on the same footing as the French at the Company stores. Savage girls who marry French husbands should be allotted a piece of land prepared for crop.

Fort Ste. Marie#1 The French Jesuits build Fort Ste. Marie #1 (1639-1649) on the River Wye, near Lake Attigouanatan (Huron), Ontario. Fort Ste Marie was burned down by the Jesuits in 1649.

Girls (Filles du Roi) are first mentioned in the Jesuit Relations as being sent to New France this year in their 1641 reports. The Jesuits said that rumors circulating in Paris in 1639, as to the girls virtue, were untrue, as the girls virtue was attested to by a doctor before they departed France. Rumors in Paris say this is not true.

The Wenrohronons, an associate nation of the Neutral Nation, had a falling out, for unknown reasons, and fled to New France. They traveled over 80 leagues, made by over 600 persons, the majority being women and children, many die in transit with most being sick on arrival. They were distributed among the various Huron villages. The best places of the cabins were given to them, the granaries or chests of corn were opened and they were given liberty to dispose of them as if they were their own. The Wenrohronons were grateful and the Jesuit saw this as an opportunity to make converts.

The European Islanders (English) who have settled to the south are barbarians who are hostile to the Roman Church and the Black Robes. They tell the Hiroquois, the Black Robes are associated to destroy and ruin the world. They said there are some Jesuit in England, but concealed, and as soon as caught, they are put to death.

(I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny, d-1651, the Governor of Canada (1635-1648) built Hotel Dieu, Kebec.

January 2: Kebec, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Sevestre, died November 7, 1706, daughter (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec: 1st married October 22, 1653, Quebec, Jacques Loyer: 2nd marriage February 22, 1672, Quebec, Louis DeNiort.

January 29: Kebec, birth (III)-Ignace Le Gardeur, died June 5, 1644 Trois Rivieres son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.

February 13, 1639 birth (II)-Pierre Boucher son (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married April 4, 1663 Chateau Richer, Marie St. Denis

March 20, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Godfroy, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, b-1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf (1612-1688); married March 1663 (II)-Marguerite Seigneuret, b-1650

March 30: Kebec: birth (II)-Louise Giffard, died October 31, 1658, Quebec, 1665, Quebec daughter (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1658/1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659: married August 12, 1652, Quebec, Charles De Lauzon

May 4: The St. Joseph sailed from Dieppe, France with the following passengers: Jesuit (I)-Joseph Antoine Poncet de La Riviere (1610-1675), Jesuit (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (1611-1693) and Jesuit Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667), new Superior of the Jesuits in Canada. Also included are Ursuline (I)-Marie Guyart aka Marie de I’Incarnation (1599-1672), Ursuline (I)-Marie de Savonnieres de La Touche, Ursuline Marie de Saint Joseph (1616-1652, and Mother (I)-Cecile de Sainte Croix. (I)-Marie Madeleine de Chauvigny de La Peltrie (1603-1671) was on board. Three Hospitallers were included: Mother Marie Guenat, Marie de Saint Ignace (1610-1646), Anne le Cointre, Anne de Saint Bernard and Marie Forestier and Marie de Saint Bonaventure (1615-1698).

July/August: Kebec, three ships arrived the Saint Joseph Captain Bontemps, the Saint Jacques captain Ancelot and one classified as a boat.

July 12: Kebec, birth (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married July 25, 1667, Chateau Richer, Suzanne Page

July 18: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Blondel, died August 10, 1639, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Pierre Blondel, brewer at Fort Trois Riviers and Marie Gourdin Alyson

August 1: Marie de La Peltrie and Marie de I’Incarnation founded the Ursuline convent. They were teaching nuns with a primary goal of educating Indian Girls as wives to Frenchmen. It was true that girls who converted to catholicism often desired to marry French Catholic husbands. The early records were lost in a fire the the schooling of Indian girls was said to be substantial. They were given practical household skills and provided with a dowry if they married a Frenchman. The actual convent was not built until 1641 and likely peaked at 60-80 girls. Many girls prior to 1641 were shipped to France for their education and were adopted into French families before being returned to New France. It is assumed many returned to the the convent before marriage but these records were lost in a fire.

August 2: Kebec, birth (III)-Angelique Hebert, Metis daughter (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin

August 8: Kebec, marriage (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) to Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687)

August 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Couillard, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684);

September 3: Kabec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Bigot, b-1614, child of Louis and Bertranne Malescot; married September 3, 1639, Kabec to Marie panis (slave) sauvagesse of Jacques and Marie Pouchet de St Maclou, bishopric de Rouen, France. Contract of marriage December 18, 1639 Greffe de Guitet.

September 3: Kabec, birth, (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis, died September 25, 1697, Beauport, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married October 22, 1653, Kebec Paul Vachon

September 12: Kabec, marriage (I)-Jean Gory, b-1611 married Isabeau Panie, slave sauvagesse or Metis daughter Jacques and Marie Dousset de St. Maclou, eveche de Rouen.

September 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 married Anne Convent epouse 1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne Blanchon

September 9: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) to Marie D’Abancour dite La Caille

November 1: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Giffard, died June 3, 1714, Beauport daughter (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599: married September 22, 1649, Kebec, Nicolas Juchereau

December 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Francoise Guyon daughter (I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married Madeleine Boule

December 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Gareman daughter (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot: married January 29, 1652, Quebec, Mathurin Tru

December 18: Kebec, birth (II)-Adrien Sedilot, died March 1, 1715, son (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married September 22, 1661, Quebec, Jeanne Briere.

1640

Three marriages, twenty one births and two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. The New France colony now totaled some two hundred and forty people. Others suggest Kebec population was 355. An unofficial census of New France recorded 375 people. The first count must only include Fort Kebec and area. Others suggest the total population of New France only numbered 359, this sounds like La Tour head count of Acadia?.

(I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) (1614-1694) see 1619 married Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English

Kebec birth (II)-Jeanne Auber died Batiscan December 8, 1687, daughter (I)-Francois Auber (leader of a boat) and Anne Fauconner; married 1681 Jacques Dubois

(II)-Zacharie Cloutier, died February 3, 1708 Chateau Richer married Madeleine Barbe Aymard, b-1626, died May 28, 1708, Chateau Richer

(I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture), (1617-1701) arrived Kebec.

(I)-Francois Girouard, b-1621 arrived Acadia 1740, married Jeanne Aueoin, b-1631.

(II)-Catherine Le Neuf, b-1640 Trois Revieries daughter (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697: married August 23, 1655, Kebec, Pierre Denis. Possible son (I)-Pierre St. Denis who arrived Kebec 1619 and therefore possibly Metis? Brother (II)-Michel Le Neuf was born October 31, Trois Riviers, died 1721 Quebec who married about 1666 (II)-Francois Denis. Catherine Le Neuf is listed born unknown? Also sister Marie b-1632 possible adoptees?

(II)-Marie Pasquier (1640-1685) born Kebec daughter (I)-Pierre Pasquier de Franclieu and Marie de Porta; married January 10, 1668 (II)-Charles Thomas Couillard, died May 8, 1715 St. Etienne de Beaumont epouse 1688 (II)-Louise Couture

(II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) commanded 359 people in Acadia and (I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) of Acadia could field 200 men, during the Acadian civil war, more than the total of New France.

(I)-Pierre Vachon, d-1640, Kebec

Some believe that many early French traders took Huron (Wendat) women for wife seeking short term personal gratification, trade advantages and did not expect their obligations to be permanent. The Metis children were absorbed into the matriarchal society and adopted the Huron culture. The Huron would not yield orphaned youngsters to French care as they were a cruel people using corporal punishment as discipline and as a teaching aid. The destruction of the Huron confederacy in 1649 drove these unrecorded Metis west and most were permanently separated from their French fathers. Subsequent history does not support this opinion. The French fathers likely did not abandoned their Huron wives but were likely separated due to the Iroquois war.

The Jesuits were approached secretly in Sillery by young Indian girl converts to find them suitable husbands.

At the General Assembly of the Huron Nation, the Council again openly debated the execution of the Jesuits or at least the driving of them back to the St. Lawrence Valley, for bringing disease to the minds and bodies of the People. Many Huron Villages had already closed their gates to the Jesuits. Women would run and hide their children at the approach of the Jesuits.

The Iroquois group of five nations, unlike the Algonquian, are intense farmers. The Huron (Wendat) are a part of the Iroquois family, but has aligned with the Algonquian culture. They are in constant conflict with the Iroquois. The center of the conflict, at this time, is that the Iroquois traded with the Dutch through Hudson River and the Huron ( Wendat) with the French by the St. Lawrence river, and both acted as merchants in the fur trade. The French believed the Dutch and English were behind the Iroquois’ stirring up of trouble and selling them guns. The Iroquois source of supply, however, is dwindling, whereas the Huron ( Wendat) trade is flourishing. Unknown to the French, the Huron ( Wendat) are the middlemen to the Ojibwa and Cree to the West. The Iroquois began attacking the French settlements, striking down the farmers in the field, burning their homes, barns and wheat fields.

The French noted that Natives show in sickness, astonishing patience and gentleness and most pious devotion. Accustomed to divide with one another their food, they also think it necessary to share their medicine. The Huron ( Wendat), however, noted that the black robes caused death wherever they went. In some villages they visit, everyone except three or four died. The black robes moved and the same thing happened again. They visited the cabins of other cities, and only those into which they did not enter have been exempted from illness or death.

The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (1611-1693) traveled from the Huron Mission in the present Township of Medonte, near Penetanguishene, (Ontario) to the Indian Village Onguiara near Queenston (Ontario). This highly annoyed the Huron ( Wendat) who accused the Blackrobes of attempting to bypass them in trade. The Jesuit Order attempted to exclude the Recollets and Huguenots from New France. They firmly believed that the real enemies were the Dutch, English and the Huguenots.

By 1640, the Iroquois have swept away the Jesuits, Huron ( Wendat), and nearly destroyed the French trading colony. The first official census listed 375 people in New France.

The French Company of One Hundred Associates, that was effectively created by Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642) is on the verge of bankruptcy. It had been founded to control the fur trade and to keep protestants out of New France, founded on a church principle of absolutism.

The Jesuits, before the purge, could only count about 100 converts from the 16,000 Wendat (Huron), and these were mostly sick infants or aged persons who died soon after baptism. Where ever the Jesuit went death soon followed. Sillery, Kabec the major mission of the Jesuit only contained 35-40 families.

Many Huron believe the Jesuit have a secret league with the Hiroquois (Iroquois) likely because they baptized a few Hiroquois.

Father (I)-Jean Brebeuf (1593-1649) visited the Neutral Nation (Iroquois) and entered into secret treaty. He was denounced as a traitor full of treachery, on all sides. He denied that he did but others presented evidence that he was lying. The Jesuit Order fearing for his life recalled him to Kebec until things cooled down.

The Church of Kebec is burned and destroyed by fire, together with the house of the Jesuit Fathers.

The death of (I)-Issac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635/36) threw Acadia into turmoil, as (I)-Charles de Menou d’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), Nicolas Denys and (II)-Charles de Saint Etienne de La Tour (1595-1665) divided the governing of Acadia and all claimed exclusive rights to trade. A civil war broke out and didn’t end until (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) killed? Charles d’Aulnay de Charinsay (1605-1650) and married his widow Madame Motin.

The Micmac scoffed at the notion of French superiority. They reasoned that if Christian civilization was so wonderful, why were its inhabitants leaving? In France, governments were harsh and the rule of law arbitrary. Famines, disease and death rampaged. The French were just plain dirty, physically weak, and sexually untrustworthy.

The Association for the Colony of Ville-Marie (Montreal. Quebec) is formed, headed by the founders Jerome le Royer de la Dauversiere, Receiver of Taxes at la Fleche, in Anjou; and Father Jean Jacques Olier de Vemeuil, a young Sulpican priest of Paris.

The Jesuit say; nearly all the barbarians (Huron, Algonquian and Iroquois) desire the Jesuit death, as passionately as they crave the preservation of their own lives; in their speech they talk of nothing but slaughtering us, that was an ordinary theme of their Councils, so reported the Jesuits.

A ship arrived Acadia with 25 men and 5 women.

(I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture), (1617-1701) departed Trois Riviers with Jésuit priests (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1642), and 19 Huron Indians. In the vicinity of lake Saint-Pierre, the small convoy was attacked by a group of about 80 Iroquois and are taken prisoner by the Iroquois

January 9: Kebec, marriage (I)-Noel Morin, (1616-1680) to Helene Desportes, epouse October 1, 1634, (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis, b-1606 d-1639.

February 14: Kebec, birth (II)-Paul Selle son (I)- Jacques Selle dit de L’espine to (I)-Marie Berard dit Lepine b-1619

April 11: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 testified in court as a witness.

April 30: Sillery, birth (II)-Nicolas Peltier dit Marolles Metis, died December 2, 1729, Tadoussac, son (I)-Nicolas Pelletier and Jeanne Roussy Metis/Indian (1622-1689); 1st married June 22, 1673 Quebec Madeleine Tegoussi (Montagnaise) sauvagess, veuve d’Augustie sauvage; 2nd marriage June 3, 1677, Tadoussac, Francoise Ouechipichinokoue, Algonguin; 3th marriage (II)-Francoise Lamy, daughter (I)-Isaac Lamy; 4rd marriage August 5, 1715, Quebec, Marie Anne Outchiouanich Nanabesa; Sillery is an Indian reservation so it is highly likely he is a Metis

Marriage #2 produced two Metis children Nicolas & Francois and they produced 10 Metis children.

May 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Peltier, Metis died November 9, 1713, Quebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married November 17, 1653, Quebec, Jean Hayot

May 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francois Crevier Metis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619

May 17: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Marsolet, Metis, died April 19, 1712, Kebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688) epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married October 20, 1653, Kebec, Jean Lemire

May 24: Father (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693) wrote; The Missionaries have been frequently persecuted, but non have yet perished. Pierre is fully aware that the Algonquin, Huron and Iroquois all have the Jesuit under Assembly, Council or Grand Council orders to be executed for their evil deeds.

June 24: An Englishman arrived Sault Saint Louis and River des Prairies. The first rapid found in the great river St. Lawrence, which we call “sault saint Louis,”: we come to another stream crossed the “River des Prairies. This river is thus named after a Frenchman called des Prairies. This Englishman had one servant and 20 Abnaquiois, who reside between the Acadian Sea and the St. Lawrence River, in canoes to search for the Northern Sea. He had spent two years following the coast from Virginia to New Mexico attempting to find the route to the North Sea (likely looking for the Mississippi River) but had failed to do so. The French at this time believed the route to the North Sea is via Lake Superior based upon (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) account. The Frenchman was refused permission to venture to Fort Kebec and told to return from whence he came. He said he was unable to do so as the streams were dried up. He requested and received permission to go to Tadoussac (Quebec) to find voyage back to England.

June 27: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Jacques Boissel son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697)

June 30: Tadoussac, (Quebec) three ships arrived, the Esperance 90 tonnage captain Savinien Courpon de la Tour, the Saint Jacques, captain Ancflot and an unnamed ship captain Cabot. Other ships arrived July/August but the numbers and names are unknown.

July 1: Kebec, (I)-Noel Desnoyers, a carpenter of the Ursulines arrived and died July 3, 1640, Kebec.

July 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Hayot daughter (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: 1st married October 28, 1652, Quebec, Etienne Tenevert: 2nd marriage Leonard Dubord.

July 29: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620.

July/August: An unknown number of ships landed Kebec.

August 7: In Paris, the Island of Montreal, (Quebec) passed into the hands of Jerome Le Rouer (Royer), sieur de la Dauversiere, Sieur de La Dauversiere and Pierre Chevrier, Baron de Fancamp to set the stage for the Montreal Company or Society of Notre Dame de Montreal. Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) is to be the new Governor of the Ville Marie de Montreal. The Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement, formed in 1639; a secret society of Counter-Reformation zealots in France, is the prime mover. Father Jean Jacques Olier is also a founding member.

August 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Belanger, died December 15, 1692 Chateau Richer, son (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): married November 21, 1663 Chateau Richer, Barbe Clouter

September 2: Kebec marriage (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) married Catherine Goujet (1616-1679)

September 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Etienne Sedilot, died November 10, 1688, Quebec, son (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married August 11`, 1664, Quebec, Madeleine Carbonnet.

September 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Martin, Metis, daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage; married 1st February 6, 1653, Quebec, Nicolas Froget, 2nd marriage February 1, 1681, Repentigny, Jean Baptiste Fonteneau

September 14: Kebec, death Marguerite Petitpas who married (I)-Etienne Sevestre

THREE CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

(II)-Etienne Sevestre died May 2, 1640, Kebec, drowned with Adrien D’Abancour.

(II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Quebec, married 1627, Marie Pichon

(II)-Jacques Sevestre, died June 12, 1685, Quebec

September 30: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Racine, Metis, child of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679)

October 19: Kabec, birth (II)-Marie Bourdon, Metis, died 1660 Quebec, son (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

October 22: Kabec, marriage (I)-Claude Etienne, b-1610 married (II)- Helene Martin, born June 21, 1627, Metis, daughter (I)- Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611; 2nd marriage Helene September 3, 1647 to (I)-Medard Chouart.

October 31: Trois Rivieres, birth, (II)-Michel Le Neuf, son (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697: married Marie Francoise Denis

November: (I)-Pierre Pijart, Jesuit is in the Tabacco Nation.

December 4: Trois Rivieres, birth/death (II)-Ignace Nicolet son (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and (II)-Marguerite Couillard

December 17: The Hundred Associates agreed to grant Montreal Island to the Society of Notre Dame de Montreal, except for the mountain and an area to the southeast, and added the seignior of St. Sulpice.

1641

Three marriages, sixteen births and eight deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Brossard b-1641, died December 21, 1709 Quebec daughter (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.: married February 7, 1656 Kebec Jacques Hedouin

Guillaume Des Chesnes, Voyage Couillard dit Des Chesnes, en 1641.

(I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers, (1618/21-1696), pilote, arrived Kebec, 1641, explorer, fur trader, married 1st. September 3, 1647, Kebec (II)-Helene Martin, 2n marriage August 24, 1653, Quebec, (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, was involved in 31 court cases at Trois Rivieres and was resentful on the injustices at the hands of French officials. He and his brother-in-law (II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson, Metis, (1632-1710) helped found the Hudson Bay Company. (II)-Pierre is listed as (II)-Marguerite’s half sister. (see Radisson 1631)

Monsieur de Courpon is admiral of the fleet of New France (Canada). Sieur Maisonneuve his surgeon is given to the New Colony of Montreal.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Nicolas Crevier dit Bellerive Metis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married 1664 Trois Rivieres, Louise Leloutre, b-1648

(I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is at Trois Rivieres this year

Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Hayot born likely 1641 or earlier, Kebec son (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: married November 17, 1653 Quebec, Louise Pelletier..

(I)-Charles Lemoyne de Longueuil, et de Chateauguay b-1624 arrived Kebec this year. He would marry 1654 Montreal, a 13 year old orphan named Catherine Primot, b-1641 whose real name is Catherine Tierry daughter Guillaume Tierry and Elizabeth Messier.

(II)-Marie Anne Le Neuf, b-1641/42 likely Trois Revieries daughter (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697

(I)-Paul De Maisonneuve a noble of Chomeday, arrived New France 1641.

(I)-Jeanne Mance, b-1607, died June 19, 1673, Montreal, arrived Kebec this year.

The Pelletier brothers arrived Quebec; (I)-Guillaume Pelletier (1598-1657) and wife Michelle Mable (1592-1665) and brother (I)-Antoine Pelletier d-1647 drowned when his canoe capsized at Montmorency Falls

Some historians consider a colony of 240 people in 106 years since discovery as hardly representing a commitment by France towards New France.

(I)-Andre Bernard, b-1620, France arrived Acadia to work at Jemseg, Saint John River, (New Brunswick). Fort Jemseg fell in 1645 and Andre was expelled to France but he returned later. He married 1st about 1642 Kebec? an Indian; married 2nd Marie Andree Guyon (1618-1696)? daughter Francois Guyon. The Guyon clan arrived 1619. Marie Andree Guyon (1618-1696)? is recorded married 1637 Kebec, (I)-Charles Belanger b-1612 who arrived Kebec 1619.

TWO CHILDREN ARE RECORD as children (I)-Andre Bernard and Indian Woman

(II)-Michel Nicolas Bernard, Metis b-1662 and married Margurite Indian (1649-1671)

(II)-Rene Bernard, Metis b-1663

If this is correct this marriage likely occurred 1661? It’s also possible he had two Indian wives?

Nicolas Giffar is working among the Huron for the Jesuit.

Mathurin Parisien, Metis b-1641, baptized 1644 Trois Rivieres (Quebec) son Jean Parisien and Francoise Sauvagesse.

(II)-Jean Poirier arrived Acadia son (I)-Jean Poirier

The resident population of New France is two hundred and forty French, increased by 70 with the arrival of (I)-Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) and (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673)- all committed to sacrificing their lives in the service of God and their fellow man. These religious zealots would go on to establish Ville-Marie (Mountain of Montreal). Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), based on others advice, considered the project insane. They dubbed the project ‘The Foolish (Absurd) Enterprise’.

(I)-Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil (1626-1685) arrived New France to work for the Jesuit in Huron Country. It is believed that (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618/21-1696) also arrived in New France as a servant of the Jesuit whom he remained indentured to until 1646.

The Puritans of Massachusetts established the Body of Liberties and the General Fundamentals of the Plymouth Colony. Liberty included jury trial, no taxation without representation, free elections, no one deprived of life, liberty or property- save by due process of law or those compelled to incriminate themselves. Torture and cruel and barbarous punishment are prohibited. Foreigners are assured equal protection of the law, and cruelty to animals is forbidden. As to cruelty to wives, a husband is forbidden to beat his wife unless in his own defense upon her assault. It is small wonder that the Jesuits would consider these English as more evil than the savage barbarians.

The Iroquois formally declared war against the French.

There are only an estimated 120 French settlers in all of Nova Scotia (Acadia). I am not sure if the same rules apply here as in New France a settler is one who is married and has children, not those married to indigenous women.

Fort Richelieu (Sorel, Quebec) is built this year.

St. Joseph de Sillery, Kabec is established with some 30 families, but is soon abandoned due to its vulnerability to Iroquois attacks. Some held out until 1655/56 when the Iroquois raids and fire finally destroyed the village.

(I)-Thomas Godfroy, Sieur de Normnville (d-1652) of Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) is captured by the Iroquois, but released later this year during peace negotiations. The Iroquois would later kill him in 1652.

(I)-Paul de Chromedey, sieur de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) with 40 Frenchmen began the construction of the Ville-Marie (Montreal) settlement.

It is reported in Paris that a vessel laden with girls (bound for New France) whose virtue had not the approval of any doctor; the Jesuit claim this is a false report. It is not stated if their virtue in question is not correct or if the vessel laden with girls is not correct. It is possible the exporting of the Kings Daughters started earlier than is commonly believed.

The Ursuline nuns wrote that the savages who were not christans were considered by them to be very stupid. The Augustinian nuns marveled that in the hospitals not even a slight quarrel has arisen, although the savages were in great pain. Those savages not once complained.

January 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Agnes Drouin, died November 8, 1641, Kebec son (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) and (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec

February: Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumont (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693) returned to Ste Marie among the Huron from a visit to the Neutral Indians at Lake Erie.

February 10: I’Ange Gardien, marriage (II)-Antoine Trudel, died Nay 22, 1701, Montreal to (II)-Madeleine Gariepy, died November 17, 1695, Montreal.

February 12: Francois Marguerie and Thomas Godefroy is captured by the Hiroquois, (Iroquois) they are taken 17-18 days journey south, they are treated like the Savages own children. The Dutch provided clothing and other necessities to the prisoners. They were released later at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) during peace discussions.

February 13: (I)-Menou d’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) requested the return to France and the revoking of the commission of (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665). La Tour disobeyed and remained in Acadia. Thus started the Acadian civil war.

February 24: Kabec, birth, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, died August 26, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married October 19, 1665, Chateau Richer, Francoise Belanger

March 6, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jacques Godfroy, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688);

April 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Nicolas Couillard, Metis died June 24, 1661, Quebec, son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684);

May 9: Two ships with settlers for Ville-Marie (Montreal) departed France. Among the passengers are (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) and Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676)- the new Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal).

May 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Boisse, died May 20, 1721 Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697): Married July 23, 1669, Quebec, Marie Morin

May 21: Kebec (I)-Francois De Re de Gand is chief of police in Kebec, died May 21, 1641.

May 27: A Great Fur Market is conducted at Trois Rivieres (Quebec).

June: Four ships arrive Kebec, the Gaston 100t captain G. Joubert, the Rene captain N. Pernet and unknowns.

June: Kabec, four ships arrived, the Gaston of 100 tonnage captain G. Joubert, the Rene 100 tonnage captain N. Pernet, two unnamed ships and a 5th ship arrived August with the first settlers for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

August 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Boucher daughter (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Quebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married January 12, 1655 Chateau Richer Louis Houde

August 8: (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673) arrived in New France.

August 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Gagnon, died May 24, 1699, Quebec daughter (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. Married April 26, 1654, Quebec, Jean Chapeleau.

August 23: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) and Marie Marguerie d-1700, epouse Moral de St. Quentin. Tanguay attributes three children to this marriage but the inventory dated August 21, 1651 lists no children.

August 20: So as not to lose perspective, the Huron Christian Church only contained 60 zealots.

September 2: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Racine, Metis, died January 5, 1675 Chateau Richer, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married November 10, 1653, Quebec, Simon Guyon

September 3: Kebec, marriage (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1626 son (I)-Martin Boucher 1589-1671) and Julienne Barry; married Florence Gareman, b-1629

September 20: Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), the new Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal), arrived in New France.

September 25: Kebec, marriage (I)-Rene Mezeray aka Mezler, (1611-1695) to Helene Chastel; 2nd marriage Francoise Milot, died April 5, 1703, Pointe aux Trembles, espouse September 30, 1697, Quebec, Leonard Durord dit Lajeunesse; 3rd marriage October, 1645 Kebec, (II)-Nicole Gareman..

September 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Maheu, died October 19, 1641 Kebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 and Anne Convent, epouse 1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne Blanchon

October 6: Kebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Damien, b-1611 to Marie Joly, b-1623

October 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine De Chavigny daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: married July 24, 1662, Kebec, Jean Lemoyne, epouse August 13, 1652, Kebec Jacques Gourdeau: et October 15, 1663, Kebec, Jacques Descailhant..

October 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis , died August 26, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse): married October 19, 1665, Chateau Richer, Francoise Belanger

October 14: Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), the new Governor of Montreal, arrived in Ville-Marie (Montreal) and assumed his duties.

November: (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) sent (I)-Nicolas Garcot de la Rochette to Boston to enter into treaty with the English which was only partially agreed to.

November 12: Kebec, death (I)-Andre Samson.

November 24: Kebec birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Bonhomme, died March 23, 1642 Kebec daughter (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679)

December 29: Kebec, birth (III)-Jeanne Sevestre, died January 5, 1648, Quebec son (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec.

1642

Three marriages, nine births and six deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

The mission Ville-Marie (Montreal) de la Province de Quebec is established this year. There are an estimated 200 residents of New France.

In the autumn of this year (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1648 and his future son-in-law (I)-Jean Paul Godefroy, who married 1646, (III)-Marie Madeline Le Gardeur, sailed for France. Their objective was two fold:

1. A petition for trading rights for Ville-Marie (Montreal)

2. A petition for the return of the Recollets, claiming the Jesuits are attending to the savages but not the French

They achieved the first with conditions, but lost the second.

(II)-Laurent Archambault, (Metis?) b-1642, son (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married January 7, 1660, Ville-Marie (Montreal) Catherine Marchand. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

(II)-Felix Aubert (Auber) b-1642, died February 20, 1690, son (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married April 15, 1670 Chateau Richer, Claire Francoise Thibault

Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Auber, died December 8, 1687, Batiscan, daughter (I)-Francois Auber and Anne Fauconner, died November 30, 1676, L’Ange Gardien, eglise: married 1681 Jacques Dubois

Port Royal; (I)-Jean Blanchard b-1611 married about 1642, Port Royal (II)-Radegonde Joy Lambert b-1621/1629 (Metis). d-1686, daughter (I)-Jean Antoine Lambert and Marie Radegonde Kagijonais a MicMac;

(I)-Francois L’Esguillon dit Lachapelle is at Sillery this year.

(I)or(II)-Pierre Martin married 1642 Madeleine Panis or Pavis: Panis evolved from Pawnee meaning Indian slave and later any slave in New France, Tanguay appears to be confused on these two entries, he says they were both born LaRochelle, France however he also records Panis to mean Savage. I highly suspect this family line is Metis, likely a Savage slave shipped to France, educated, baptized and returned to Kebec. Someone else will have to track this one down! (III)-Madeleine Martin, Metis married Nicolas Frangey, daughter of Pierre (See 1624, very interesting?)

THREE CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

(III)-Charles Martin, Metis b-1648, married Catherine Dupuy; 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Marie Batanville a Boucherville

(III)-Pierre Martin, Metis b-1643, died October 9, 1713 Ste Foye

(III)-Madeleine Martin, Metis, married Nicolas Frangey

One birth is (II)-Germain Morin (1642-1702) who will become the first Canadian born priest.

Most habitants of Kebec now produce wheat, rye, peas, barley and other grains to last 6 months, some only 5 months. Others suggest wheat was not introduced until 1644.

This past winter the French colony had enjoyed good health. The first ship to arrive Kebec informed that the supply ship from France had been sunk or captured by the Dunkirkers.

Jules Cardinal Mazarin became Chief Minister of France following the death of Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642). Fort Richelieu is established at the mouth of the Richelieu River, Quebec. The death of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), a Jesuit, who had absolute control over New France, saw the Jesuits attempt to regain this political power by any means possible for the next 60 years plus.

Queen Mother Anne of Austria responded to the appeals of the Society of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and sent forty soldiers to Ville-Marie (Montreal) to deal with the Iroquois problem that was created by the French to isolate the Iroquois and therefore the Dutch from the Indian Fur Trade.

The Jesuit Father (I)-Charles Raymbault or Raimbault (1602-1642) died at Fort Kebec of an illness.

(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642), the wonder man, Commissary General at Kabec, after spending 35 years in New France, drown near Sillery, (Quebec) as he didn’t know how to swim.

The Sillery Indian Reserve, at this time, contained thirty families; making up one hundred and fifty people. (I)-Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), a soldier, on authority of the Jesuit, established a mission, Ville Marie, replacing the Algonquian historic settlement site of Hochelaga and the free trader haven that is later to become the Mountain of Montreal. The Jesuit Father (I)-Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667) hoped this move would strangle the Coureurs des Bois main trading route with the savages and limit their expansion and exploration. No trade, however, exists for the next two season between the Georgian Bay Jesuit and the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, Jesuit traders.

Fort Maisonneuve (Montreal) is established by (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (1612-1676) at Point Calliere near the ancient site of Hochelaga.

The Jesuit attempt to humiliate the Nipissing Algonkins religious beliefs, calling them superstitious and licentious in their beliefs arousing much opposition and even threatened him with physical harm. This is significant as these People are known to be slow to anger and very tolerant of other opinions.

The harquebus are traded to the Christian Savages but refused in trade to the infidel Savages. The trade decision is hereby given to the Jesuit at the peril of the colony.

The Agneronons live between Trois Rivieres and the Upper Hiroquois (Iroquois) who comprise 700 to 800 men of arms. They trade with the Dutch and have acquired 300 arquebuses (harquebus). They prey on the Huron who have not a single aquebuses (harquebus) because the Jesuit will not allow their trade to the Huron infidels. The beaver obtained from raids on the Huron is used to buy more powder, shot and guns. The Dutch have been encouraging the Hiroquois to drive the French from the New World.

Since the neophytes proclaimed their faith they have been visited by extraordinary misfortunes, pestilence, famine and war. The Christian neophytes say “you tell us that God is full of goodness; and then we give, ourselves up to him, he massacres us. The Iroquois do not believe in God, they are more wicked than demons; and yet they prosper.” The Jesuit say: God uses the Iroquois as a whip, in order to correct you. The Savages say then why did he not begin with the Iroquois? Why did he not try to give them sense first? The Jesuit say few persons go to paradise without passing through the fire of purgatory.

Self flagellation is being encouraged by the Jesuit at Sillery, Kabec for the Savages.

The drum is banned among the Christian Savages at Sillery, Kabec as they represent forbidden superstitions. The Jesuit say by giving up the drum they renounce the Devil.

Among the prisoners is little Therese, the seminarist of the Ursulines, is much sought after in marriage, her uncle named Joseph escaped to tell the tail. The Ursuline convent is completed this year. Marie de I’Iincarnation reported they had 48 pupils. It was not uncommon for Frenchmen to convince girls into country marriages and escape into the bush. After all the girls were being educated for marriage to Frenchmen.

The parish Montreal aka Notre Dame de Montreau is established this year.

January 2: A young Savage woman wishes to leave her husband and return to her people. Father de Quen (Dequen) (1603-1659), the masochist, had her seized and thrown into jail, to bring her to her duty. She was without food, fire, or covering, in the mid of winter, this being according to the Father enough to terrorize this poor creature and others.

February: Menou d’Aulnay ordered the arrest of (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) of Acadia for insubordination and perfidious conduct.

February 14: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) to Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

April 1: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Nicolet daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) and Marguerite Couillard: married July 11, 1656, Quebec, Jean Baptist Le Gardeur

April 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Crevier Metis son (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; married November 26, 1663 Trois Rivieres Marguerite Hertel

April 12: Kebec, death (II)-Antoine Brossard b-1639 son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.

April 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Francoise Peltier, Metis died July 17, 1707, Ste. Foye, daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. August 17, 1654, Quebec, Jean Beriau; 2nd marriage October 11, 1655, Quebec, Sebastien Lienard

April 14: An eclipse on the moon occurred this evening in Kebec.

May 17: (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (1612-1676), a soldier, (I)-Jeanne Mance (1606-1673), (I)-Mme de La Peltrie and other colonists arrived Montreal Island. One group of mystics called the Society of Notre Dame du Montreal (conceived in 1636) desires to establish a holy city in the wilderness. The Jesuits are against the venture, as is the Governor of Kebec. They label the enterprise as foolish. It would appear that (I)-Paul de Maisonneuve (born February 15, 1612 died 1676) is their leader. (Others suggest (I)-Paul Shamaul de Duneneff, a 32 year old soldier is their leader, but I was unable to find any verification of this man being in New France.) They purchase the Island of Montreal (in 1640 by Girard de la Chaussee) for their colony. They have 50 settlers to establish the first Ville-Marie (Montreal) Colony. They would labor for 20 years, but are not successful in maintaining a permanent religious settlement. They slowly drift from this settlement. Source is Jesuit Relations 1642 notes. (some value-adds were provided by Francine Bernier).

May 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Joseph Marsolet, Metis, son (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre

June 1: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Brossard, died September 22, 1712, Quebec daughter (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?: 1st married October 29, 1656 Kebec, Louis Fontaine: 2nd marriage May 2, 1703, Quebec, Jean LeNormand

June 9: Five Frenchmen, only 200 paces from Mont-Real are attacked. Three are beat to death on the spot and two are taken prisoner. They camped near Mont-Real with no fear of being attacked. The next day they crossed the river and 13 Huron are beaten to death. Eight or ten days later one Frenchman escaped to report that a number of French captives are tilling the soil for the Hiroquois (Iroquois).

June/July: Kebec, four ships landed, the Esperance 90 tonnage captain H. Langevin, the Saint Francois 130 tonnage captain J. Barraud, the Saint Nicolas 80 tonnage captain J. Richard and the Saint Pierre 80 tonnage captain G. Fincard.

July 3: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Francois Hertel, died May 31, 1722, Boucherville son (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) (who was captured by the Iroquois) and Marie Marguerie epouse Moral de St. Quentin: married July 3, 1664, Montreal, Marguerite De Thauvenet.

July 16: Kebec, birth (II)-Mathieu Cote, Metis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married 1669 Elizabeth Gravelle

June 22: Kabec, marriage Jean Brossier to Marguerite Banse.

August 2: The Jesuits (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), Brother (I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture) (1617-1702) and (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1642), traveling Ste Marie among the Huron to Kabec, are captured by the Iroquois near Trois Rivieres (Quebec) along with twenty-two Wendat. (I)-Rene Goupil, (1608-1642) a young surgeon and companion of (I)-P. Jogues is beaten to death.

August 13: (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653), with 100 men, built Fort Richelieu at the mouth of the Richelieu River to protect against the Iroquois.

September 10: Monsieur d’Alibour (D’Ailleboust), his wife and sister are at Ville-Marie (Montreal). Fort Richelieu is almost abandoned except for 8 or 10 soldiers.

September 29: (I)-Rene Goupil (1608-1742), a prisoner of war, is killed by the Iroquois after being observed making the sign of the cross over a Mohawk (Iroquois) child. Brother (I)-Guillaume Couture (d-1702) and Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1636) are spared and made prisoner, but later escape and flee to France in December 1643.

October: The English at Boston refused to get involved in the civil war in Acadia that was escalating.

October 9: Kebec, death (I)-Jean Nicolet, b-1598 drown near Kebec.

October 12: Kabec, birth (II)-Marguerite Bourdon, Metis, d-1693 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

October 22: Father (I)-Charles Raymbault (Raimbault, Raymbault) (1602-1642) died this year.

October 29: Sillery, (I)-Jean Nicolet is at Sillery with (I)-Jean Ferre, died October 29, 1642, Kebec and (I)-Noel Girardeau, died October 29, 1642, Kebec.

November: The Atticameges who live 3-4 days to the North of the Saint Lawrence River arrived Sillery, Kabec in 13 canoes with 60 people to trade. They included their entire family, contrary to normal practice.

November 1: (I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) interpreter and agent of the Company of Gentlemen of New France, being unable to swim, drown on his way to Trois Rivieres. He asked Monsieur de Savigny, who could swim, to look after his wife and daughter. He had been in New France for the past 25 years.

November 19: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Millouer dit Du Maine, b-1616 to 1st. Barbe Hubou child of Jean Hubou and Jeanne Goupil, de Du Mesnill Durant; married 2nd November 28, 1651, Quebec, Jeanne Le Roy, b-1626

1643

One marriages, fifteen births and five deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;

Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Venant Baubrian, Metis b-1643 son Pierre Baubrian b-1620, arrived Kebec 1643 and unknown, most likely a sauvagesse.

Kebec birth (II)-Guillaume Bonhomme, died March 14, 1710 Ste Foye son (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); 1st married October 30, 1664 Quebec Francoise Hachee; 2nd marriage 1704 Marie Therese Piron.

(I)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) served as a soldier at Fort Kebec (1643-1645), it would appear his Indian wife and family are living Trois Riveries.

(I)-Jean Chevalier, b-1629, died August 5, 1699 LaPrairie married 1643 Marguerite Le Normand: one child is recorded (II)-Jeanne Marguerite, b-1644, died November 25, 1716 Riviere Ouelle: married April 5, 1701 la Riviere Ouelle Jean Baptiste Deschamps.

(I)-Jacques De Cheurainville married Marguerite Baudon

(I)-Andre Crevier, a doctor is in Trois Rivieres this year.

(I)-Joseph Debeaune is living Trois Rivieres

Simeon Heron a servant of the Jesuits is at Kabec this year.

Marie Hirouin (Kirwin) a refuge from Scotland arrived Kebec from France in 1643, she returned to Dieppe but returned to Quebec in 1657.

Monsieur (I)-Nicolet, interpreter and agent of the gentlemen of the Company of New France, died in a shipwreck. He spent 25 years (1618-1643) in New France.

(III)-Pierre Martin, Metis b-1643, died October 9, 1713 Ste. Foye son (II)-Pierre Martin de St. Pierre Il d’Oleron and Madeleine Panis (Slave) de La Rochelle.

(I)-Pierre Mignot arrive Kebec this year and resided with the Ursulins seminars for savages until 1647 where he learned French and the gave him the name od dit Chatillon. He later gave them 300 livres.

(I)-Guillaume Tronquet is at Kebec 1643-1646

Ship list of colonists to Kebec in 1643

Guillaume Amette dit Bontemps, b-1608 de Rouen

Urbain Aubin dit Saint Aubin, b-1619 de Rouen

Jean Baudon dit Beloeillet, b-1623 de Lignieres in Berry

Jacques Bauricus, b-1623 de Montauban

Louis Bayard dit Larose, b-1623 de Normandy

Pierre Bonnet, b-1613, de Brouage

Jean Bucheton, b-1622 de Baignon close to Nates

Pierre Campion dit Lamote, b-1613 de Poitiers

Lazare Cauberch dit Champmartin, b-1618 de Saumur

Isaac Cousseau dit Laroche, b-1619 de LaRochelle

Charles Crestien dit Desmarais, b-1605 de Angers

Marc Antoine Galibart dit Colombier, b-1624 de Bordeaux

Jacques Gaynes dit Beauregard de Mortagne in Pole

Rene Gergault, b-1621 de Scaubon

Antoine Geroult dit Laviolette, b-1618 de Freiburg

Pierre Giraud dit Laplante, b-1605 de LaRochelle

Jacques Guesdon b-161617 de Brouage

Jean Hennequin dit Lapointe, b-1593 de Metz

Nicolas Herier, b-1607 de Brouage

Louis of Jard dit Sainte Catherine, b-1603 de LaRochelle

Francois Latour dit Sainte Marie, b-1615 de Nancy

Jean Laurent dit St. Lawrence, b-1621 de LaRochelle

Martin Leroux, b-1591 de Castle de Dormouse

Pierre Lostellier dit Lapree, b-1610 de Cormecluze close to Coze in Saintonage

Isaac Mainvielle b-1613 de Freiburg

Pierre Papinet dit Perodiere, b-1588 de Parthenay in Poitou

David Pariset dit Francoeur, b- 1623 de Lausanna in Switzerland

Forier Peredeau dit Laviolette, b-1618 de Chair the Viscount

Jean Potet dit LaFortune, b-1624 de Lucerne

Nicolas Rouillon dit Pensee, b-1615 de Serras in Lyonnais country

Jacques Roy, b-1611, de Echillais in Saintonge

Andre Savrignac, b-1611 de LaRochelle

Map of New France

New FranceCardinal Mazarin (1643-1661), age 41, assumed Cardinal Richelieu’s position and policies in the governing of France and New France. The Jesuit Father (I)-Leonard Garreau (1609-1656), Father (I)-Gabriel Druilletes (1610-1681), Father (I)-Martin de Lyonne and Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) arrived at Fort Kebec.

The Dutch Governor, Kieft, disliked the Algonquian tribes along the Hudson River. This year, unprovoked, he massacred the peaceful Wecquaesgeek tribe at Pavonia, sparking off a war. The Royal Dutch Company replaced him with Peter Stuyvesant who had a bad temper and autocratic methods.

Eight years ago one could see 80-100 cabins, now we see barely 5-6, a captain had 800 warriors, now 30 or 40, a fleet of 300 to 400 canoes, now we see 20 or 30, the remnants of the Huron Nation now consists almost entirely of women, widows and girls, who cannot find lawful husbands.

At this time, most French households in the French colony of Kebec maintained a six month supply of wheat, rye, peas, barley and other grains necessary to life of man.

(I)- Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson (1612-1660) played a leading role in the newly established Ville-Marie (Montreal, Quebec).

Ville-Marie (Montreal) had grown from 50 people to 70 people by this year.

Fort Amsterdam, New Holland contained 60 soldiers on the Island of Manhttes and their resides about 400 to 500 men of various sects and nations. Forty Hollanders were killed this year and their houses were burned by the savages. New colonists are furnished with horses, cows etc. which they must pay back when they are established, and 10% of their produce to The Company of the West Indies.

New Holland is limited on the north, New England, side by a river called the Fresh River aka. Quinnehtukgut (land of the long tidal river) discovered 1614 by Allen Block, a Dutchman. The English prefer to settle on the Dutch side because the English Milords, extract rents and like to put on airs of being absolute. On the other side to the south has a river called South River aka. Delaware, discovered 1609 by Hendrik Hudson, 1st settled 1623 Fort Nassau (Gloucester, New Jersey). In 1638 a Swedish settlement is established across the Delaware called Fort Christiana (Wilmington, Delaware). The Swedish settlement is being supplied by Amsterdam Merchants much to the consternation of the habitants.

The Savages killed a few Dutch settlers and the Dutch retaliated by savagely killing 50 men, women and even little children. The Savages then retaliated by killing 40 Dutch farmers and burning their houses. The Dutch fielded 600 soldiers who worked in shifts killing 1,600 men, women and children. The Savages were appalled at such barbarianism and were forced to to make peace or be annulated. It is noteworthy that early encounters with the natives suggested that women and children were immune from harm even during times of war.

Louis d’Ailleboust commanded additional colonists to the Island of Montreal settlement and named the settlement Ville-Marie

Roger Williams governor Rhode Island wrote: nasaump is a kind of meale pottage. The English samp is corn, beaten and boiled and eaten hot or cold with milk or butter. The Acadians sweetened it with maple sugar or molasses. The Algonquian called it Narraganset and the Massachusetts called it saupaum both meaning ‘water softened’.

January 1: Kabec, birth, (II)-Jeanne Langlois, Metis, daughter, (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married January 9, 1656, Quebec, Rene Chevalier: married January 9, 1656, Quebec, Rebne Chevalier

January 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Barbe Martin, Metis, died October 5, 1660 Chateau Richer, daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611? see 1624 1609 & 1610; married January 12, 1655, Kebec, Pierre Biron

January 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Duquet, died October 13, 1687, Quebec son (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier, b-1627: Married August 25, 1666, Quebec, Anne LaMarre.

February 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Belanger daughter (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): married August 7, 1656 Kebec, Bertrand Chesne dit Lagarenne Sieur de Lothainville

March 27: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Charles Gareman son (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot: married 1676, Marie Gonnentenne, Quebec Rene Mezeray.

April 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Sedilot daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married 1st April 12, 1655, Montreal, Jean Aubuchon; married 2nd February 10, 1687Montreal Pierre Lusseau..

April 8: Kebec, birth (II)-Renee Gagnon, son (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. married Quebec, Jean Ouimet

April 25, Trois Rivieres, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Godfroy, child of (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688);

May 1: Kebec, birth (III)-Jean Boucher son (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1626 and Florence Gareman, b-1629

May 3: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Gagnon, died October 27, 1699 Chateau Richer, son (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695). Marriage Quebec, Marguerite Racine.

May 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Madeleine De Chavigny daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: 1st married July 26, 1656, Quebec, Thomas Douaire Bondy: 2nd marriage November 19, 1671, Quebec, Jacques Alexis De Fleury.

May 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Maheu, died 1674 son (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 and Anne Convent, epouse 1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne Blanchon: 1st married July 16, 1663, Quebec Marguerite Corriveau: 2nd marriage September 18, 1673 Chateau Richer, Mathurine Belanger.

June: (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) blockaded La Tour’s fort on the mouth of the St. John River. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) received help from Boston and drove (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) ship back to Port Royal where it was beached in panic. A pinnace with 400 moose hides and a like number of beaver is captured from (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) and used to pay for the Boston help.

June 9: Montreal, death Bernard Berte de Lyon, killed by the Iroquois along with (I)-Guillaume Boissier and Laforest

June 22: Kebec, marriage Jean Brossier to Marguerite Banse

June 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Gagnon, daughter (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

July 21: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Jean Rousseau de Paris is killed by a discharge of a gun, he arrived Kebec 1636.

August: Kabec, Admiral Courpon led a fleet of 4 ships having lost a 5th on at sea. The Esperance at 90 tonnage Admiral S. Courpon of the Tour, the Saint Francois at 130 tonnage captain J. Barraud, the Madeleine at 80 tonnage captain J. Jouet, the Marie at 86 tonnage captain P. Metifeu, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage that arrived with supplies for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

September 20: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Boissel daughter (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697): 1st married October 6, 1657 Etienne Bouchard: 2nd marriage January 7, 1687, Quebec, Julien Joyan.

October 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Drouin, died October 4, 1710, Chateau Richer daughter (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) to (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec: married April 24, 1656, Quebec, Romain De Trepagny

November 21: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Leblanc, b-1620 to Euphrasie Madeleine Nicolet, b-1636: epouse February 22, 1663, Quebec, Elie Dusceau

November 29: Kebec, death Marguerite Lesage wife of (I)-Nicolas Pivert long time residents Kebec from before 1624.

December 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Racine, Metis, son of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married September 12, 1667, Chateau Richer, Marguerite Gravelle.

1644

Four marriages, ten births and nine deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) b-1644, daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married November 27, 1656, Ville-Marie (Montreal), Gilles Lauzon. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646.

Kebec, birth (II)-Alexander Brossard, died January 14, 1688 Ste Famille son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.

(I)-Martin Duclos a soldat is at Kebec.

Jean Juchereau de la Ferte son Jean Junchereau seignereau du Maure married Marie Francoise, age 11 years, 5 months daughter sieur Giffard.

(I)-Jean Poisson married likely Kebec Jacqueline Chamboy b-1628, epouse Michel Pelletier de le Prade

Rhode Islanders proposed that unity can be achieved by adopting a common principle of religious liberty. Roger Williams of Rhode Island pushed this principle to the point of heresy among the Puritans when he proclaimed that maybe the Indian religion is equally acceptable to God as with Christianity.

Father d’Endemare wrote: It is almost impossible to make either peace or war with these barbarians (Iroquois). Not peace because war is their life, their amusement, and their source of profit all in one. Not in war because they make themselves invisible to those who seek them and only show themselves when they have heavy odds in their favor. Go to hunt them in their villages and they fade into the forest.

The Jesuits believed the Huron (Wendat) represented the door to the west, as far as China, that is full of Nations more populous than the Huron. Towards the south, we see other Peoples beyond number, to whom we can access only by means of this door at which we now stand.

Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) noted that the Captains of the Savages are very poorly obeyed by their People, because they use no violence. He encouraged them to use sticks on their backs.

Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) ordered the public beating of a Savage for beating his wife for an act of disobedience. The Jesuit appear unaware that violence begets violence.

An overly zealous neophyte, at Tadoussac, who shaves his head like the Jesuit, uses a whip of rope to beat the people to prayer, if they do not respond fast enough.

Madame de la Peltrie journied to Tadoussac to wintess the brutalities.

Father Ignace, a Jesuit responsible for the Mission at Tadoussac, represents the most infamous of the Black Robes. He believed that guided by the Holy Ghost, flagellation and whipping, as a penance, is to be inflected upon the Savages. The good Father provided the whip and the little children are stripped naked, before the alter of God, to receive up to twenty five blows for their transgressions. Some children were still at the breast. Some mothers used their rosaries to beat the children. The Jesuit considered this perverted practice as a Holy Ceremony. It is noteworthy that before the Jesuit arrived an Indian never raised a hand to any child, for any reason and the men offered themselves, for punishment, threatened against a French boy. This perverted European practice is surely the work of the Devil and a clear indication that the Jesuit walk in the Darkness. It is noteworth that a religious Nun in 2002 in Canada received 8 months in prison for doing the same things as Father Ignace. Father (I)-Jean De Quen (Dequen) (1603-1659) preceded Father Ignace and condoned the practice, Father (I)-Jacques Buteus (1600-1652) preceded Father (I)-Jean De Quen and also approved of this type of brutality. The fact that it was published suggests this was a common practice.

Queen Mother Anne of Austria responded to the appeals of the Society of Montreal and sent 60 soldiers to deal with the Iroquois problem.

January: marriage, Kebec, (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died January 26, 1691 to Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620 daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Outchibaha Manikoue, 2nd marriage November 8, 1665 (II)-Marie D’Abancour, b-1618, veuve de Godfroy Guillot.

February 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Cote, Metis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: 1st married November 11, 1669, Kebec, Anne Couture: 2nd marriage February 25, 1686, Kebec, Genevieve Verdon.

March 19: Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Peltier daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married January 29, 1659, Quebec Noel Jeremie.

March 30: (I)-Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and 30 settlers repelled a large war party of Iroquois intent on taking Ville-Marie (Montreal). (I)-Guillaume Lebeau died this day killed by the Iroquois, as was Pierre Bigot and Jean Mattemasse

April 11, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jeanne Godfroy, died June 28, 1713, Quebec daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, b-1608-1681) and Marie LeNeuf b-1612-1688);

April 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Boucher daughter (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married November 6, 1656 Kebec, Charles Godin

April 29: Father (I)-Francesco Gioseppi Bressani (1612-1672) is captured by the Iroquois near Fort Richelieu, at the mouth of the Richelieu River, but escaped and returned to France in November 15.

May 1: Kebec, marriage (I)-Masse Joseph Gravelle (1616-1686) to Marguerite Tavernier (1627-1697)

May 5: Kabec, birth Charles Brossier son Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse.

May 15: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Masse to (II)-Marie Pinel De La Chenaire

May 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Cesar Leger and 1st marriage Roberte Gadois; 2nd marriage August 26, 1647, Kebec Marguerite Berard.

June: Kabec, five ships arrived, the Dauphin at 200 tonnage captain Baudouin, the Saint Clement at 120 tonnage captain J. Guyonneau, the Vierge at 120 tonnage captain H. Bourget, an unnamed ship admiral Courdon and the Nortre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie (Montreal).

June 4: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Jolliet child (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) and Marie D’Abancour dite La Caille

July 25: Kebec, birth (III)-Catherine Sevestre, died January 24, 1670, Quebec daughter (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec.

July 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Martin Etienne, Metis, died September 10, 1644, Kebec son (I)-Claude Etienne b-1610 and (II)-Helena Martin, Metis b-1627, epouse September 3, 1647, Kebec, Jean Chouard

August 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Marsolet, Metis, daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1601-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married September 4, 1662, Quebec, Michel Guyon

August 29: Kabec, birth (II)-Anne Bourdon, Metis, died November 4, 1711 Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

September 7: Twenty two soldiers are dispatched to the Huron Country for one season.

October 8: Hotel Dieu is opened at Ville-Marie (Montreal) by Jeanne Mance.

October 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Sedilot daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married 1st, August 16, 1660, Quebec, Julien Trotier; married 2nd, Rene Blanchet

November 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Martin Prevost, b-1611, died January 26, 1691 Beauport to Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665), daughter Roch Manitouabewich and Huron wife and was the adopted child of (I)-Oliver Tardif (Letardif) (1601-1665) and was living with (I)-Guillaume Hubou and Marie Rollet, veuve (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627). Others suggest the marriage was January 3, 1644 and the witness were (I)-Oliver Letardiff (1601-1665) and (I)-Quillaume Couillard, d-1663. Prevost second marriage November 8, 1665, Quebec (II)-Marie D’Arancour, b-1618, Veuve October 9, 1639, Kebec, Jean Jolet and veuve October 19, 1651, Kebec, de Godfroy Guillot dit Lavalet. (II)-Marie was daughter (I)-Adrien D’Abancour, dit Lacaille and Simone D’Orgeville, b-1589, died January 14, 1649. Some suggest this was the first ‘recorded’ marriage between a Frenchman and a savage.

1645

Four marriages, ten births and one death are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Antoine Belliveau, b-1621 arrived Acadia, 1645, married 1643 (I)-Marie Andree Guyon.

(I)-Eloi Boileux is at Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Ambroise Cauvert, A Jesuit lay brother is at Kebec this year.

(I)-Charles Chevalier a surgeon, is resident in 1645 at Trois Rivieres, married a sauvagesse?, but not named. One child is recorded (II)-Anne Chevalier, Metis, married Quebec, November 4, 1659, Quebec, (II)-Pierre Pinguet, b-1630, died April 22, 1704 Ste. Foye, Quebec.

(I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers, (1618/21-1696), worked for the Jesuits (1645-1646) at Ste Marie in Huronia.

Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Crevier Metis daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard, Metis or sauvagesse b-1619; 1st married May 14, 1757 Trois Rivieres Jacques Fournier; 2nd marriage 1663 Michel Gamelin; 3rd marriage August 21, 1683 Boucherville Francois Renou

(I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 married about 1645, likely Trois Rivieres, marriage is to Jeanne Aunois aka (Nounau?), of the Indian Nation, (Algonquaine?) b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres.

(I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606 Governor Trois Rivieres (1645-1648) and (1650-1651)

(I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) married likely 1645 Trois Rivieres to (II)-Jeanne Mechin, Metis b-1630 likely daughter (I)-Jean Mechin drown November 6, 1626 on his way to Trois Rivieres and unknown mother likely Indian or Metis..

New France only contained 600 residents and a few hundred engages (indentured slaves). In comparison, this is smaller than a single large Iroquois village. The New France culture, the grand utopian plan of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), just did not appeal to the French citizens. Freedom was not an option that the Roman Catholic Church was willing to offer.

Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) forbade the Algonquin and Wendat to torture their Iroquois prisoners because they would be disgraced to be outdone in clemency. Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1636-48) is recalled to France as the colonists and Maisonneuve of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) are not pleased with his governorship. (I)-Louis d’Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge et d’Argenteny (born about 1612 Ancy-le-Franc, France died 1660 Ville-Marie (Montreal) became temporary Governor of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal) (1645-1646).

(I)-Francois Marguerie, an interpreter, married and settled down at Trois Rivieres. Later, (I)-Jean Amyot and (I)-Francois Marguerie are crossing the St. Lawrence River near their homes and are caught in a storm. Marquerie drown. (I)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) also settled at Trois Rivieres with his Indian girl and likely his Metis children..

The Hiroquois were on the Saint Lawrence River on a foray when Simon Pieskaret, a Captain of the Algonquin perceived them, he prepared an ambuscade and captured them, turning them as prisoners to the French.

January 23: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Brossard daughter (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?: married March 4, 1658, Quebec, Jean Lemelin.

January 30: Kebec, marriage (I)-Etienne Lafond, (1615-1665) to (II)-Marie Boucher, d-1706.

January 30: Kebec, marriage (I)-Etienne Pepin, Sieur De Lafond b-1615, died September 15, 1665 Trois Riviers; married (II)-Marie Boucher (1630-1706) daughter (I)-Gaspard Boucher

February: (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) received word from two Friars that La Tour’s fort was only defended by 50 men. He lost no time in attacking the fort but on first encounter lost 20 men with 13 wounded before he withdrew.

February 6: Kebec, marriage (I)-Claude L’Archeveque to Marie Simon

February 12: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Gagnon, daughter (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. married November 16, 1661, Chateau Richer, Jean Caron

March 6: The Company of New France agreed to assign its fur trade monopoly to the Kabec based Compagnie des Habirants or Habitants Company. Fifteen businessmen, frustrated with the Jesuit control of trading, created the Compagne des Habitants, (Habitants Company) reserving its rights of ownership over all fur trade of New France. The Jesuits suggest the onerous cost of settlement caused the transfer of the Company of New France to the Habitants of New France, but that they retained their seigniorial rights. It is noteworthy that the peasants, servants and slaves were not called inhabitants until the late 17th century. The French colony established a Canadian Company (Community of the Habitants of New France) to restore the fur trade and finally received the blessing of the Jesuit. An overriding royalty of 1,000 pounds of fur is to be paid annually to the old company. Over sixty Wendat (Huron) boat loads of furs arrived at the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, and, in 1646, this increased to eighty boats with thirty two thousand pounds of beaver pelts. At this time, the whole St. Lawrence valley contained only six hundred registered French and a few hundred engages. This is smaller than one large Native village. France, at this time, is still not encouraging immigration to New France. The Crown, however, sent engages or indentured workmen, bound for thirty-six months before they could became free. More than half of the several hundred engages who arrived each year over the next ten years would stay on in the colony. Many would escape their indenture by becoming Coureurs des Bois.

March 7: Quebec, birth, (II)-Elizabeth Langlois, Metis, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: 1st married November 6, 1662, Quebec, Louis Cote; 2nd marriage December 15, 1669, Quebec, Guillaume Lemieux.

March 23: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?, see 1624, 1609-1610; married November 12, 1658, Quebec, Jacques Rate

April: After years of blockades and sporadic fighting, (I)-Menou d’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) of France attacked (II)-Charles de LaTour’s (1595-1665) French stronghold of Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick. LaTour was in Boston seeking help, so his wife since 1640 (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) with 45 men held the Fort for three days against the attacking army of 200 men. A Swiss guard was bribed and (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) army gained access to the fort. The advancing army however lost 12 killed and numerous wounded. Francoise agreed to surrender the fort under condition the garrison would be spared. Sieur Charnisay (1604-1650) agreed to the terms but upon possession he executed all the men except one who agreed to be the executioner. (I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), went down in the annals of Acadia as a villain. Francoise being deceived and heart broken at the slaughter of her people died in a few short weeks. It is noteworthy that Charnisay was a cousin of (I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636). This civil war effectively ruined both men and Charnisay was labeled as being hard, cruel and incapable of pity. He lost all his friends in France. He admitted taking 55,000 $ of worth of furs and probably got her personal 2,000 pounds. (I)-Charles D’Aulnay (1604-1650) also had the decency of sending her baby back to France after her death. Ironically (II)-Charles de LaTour’s (1595-1665) would marry his widow after (I)-Charles D’Aulnay (1604-1650) death.

April 13: (I)-Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) surrendered Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick, and Menou d’Aulnay, an arrogant man, of France hanged most of the surviving Frenchmen. Mme La Tour died soon afterwards. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) of Acadia, by 1646, became a fur trader in Kabec; likely a Coureurs des Boise.

May 2: Sillery, birth (II)-Denis Masse son (I)-Pierre Masse & (II)-Marie Pinel De La Chenaire; married 1672 Catherine Pinel

June 5: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Michel Dodier son (I)-Sebastin Dodier and Marie Bonhomme

July 14: Peace is arranged by the arrogant Kiotsaton of the Iroquois, and the French and her allies by (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653).

July 20, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Joseph Godfroy, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, b-1608-1681) and Marie LeNeuf b-1612-1688); married October 21, Trois Rivieres Catherine Poulain

August 5: Kabec, five ships arrived the Cardinal at 300 tonnage, the Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage captain Jean Paul Godefroy, two unnamed ships and the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage for Ville-Marie (Montreal) captain Charles Le Gardeur def Tilly.

August 7: Kebec, death (I)-Jacques Boisseau, b-1630

August 9: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Joseph Fafard son (I)-Bertrand Fafard dit Laframboise, b-1620, died November 3, 1660, Trois Rivieres and Marie Sedilot, b-1627, epouse February 16, 1681, Trois Rivieres, Rene Benard

August 29: Kebec, birth (II)-Joseph Giffard d-1706 son (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668) and Marie Renocard b-1659; married October 22, 1663 Quebec Michelle Therese Nau

August 29, the Journal of the Jesuits noted:

“Those who returned this year from the Hurons were Pierrot Cochon, Gilles Bacon, Daniel Carteron, Jean Le Mercier des Groseillers, Racine & Eustache Lambert who was a donne and had to go back & in fact he went back with the above said named; & in addition he was in charge of two calves”.

September: (I)-Pierre Pijart, Jesuit is at Trois Rivieres

September 2: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Hertel daughter (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) (who was captured by the Iroquois) and Marie Marguerie epouse Moral de St. Quentin: married October 29, 1658, Trois Rivieres, Louis Pinar

September 7: The 22 soldiers from the Huron Country returned with 60 Huron Canoes, laden with beaver. Most if not all soldiers are involved in the fur trade.

September 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Louis Jolliet son (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) and Marie D’Abancour dite La Caille: married October 7, 1675, Quebec, Claire Francoise Bissot.

October: Nicolas Giffar is working among the Huron for the Jesuit since 1641. He agreed this year to work with Master Zacharie, a carpenter, for the next 5 years and both profit in beaver.

October: Kebec, marriage (I)-Rene Mezeray aka Mezler, (1611-1695) to 1st September 25, 1641, Kebec, Helene Chastel; 2nd marriage 1645 Francoise Milot, died April 5, 1703, Pointe aux Trembles, espouse September 30, 1697, Quebec, Leonard Durord dit Lajeunesse; 3rd marriage October, 1645 Kebec, (II)-Nicole Gareman..

October 10: Kebec, marrage (II)-Nicole Madeleine Gareman son of (I)-Pierre Gareman aka Garnier and Madeleine Charlot: married Rene Mezeray

October 10: Kebec, marriage Rene Mezeray to (II)-Nicole Madeleine Gareman b-1631 Kebec? daughter (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot:

October 17: Chrestiennaut was sent to Trois Rivieres in the employ of the Jesuits. He had come to New France in the employ of Monsieur de Repentigny and was discontented, so he had resolved to retreat to the woods rather than go back to France. He was not under written contract.

October 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Francois Marguerie d-1648 married (II)Louise Clotier (Cloutier) the daughter of Master (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, b-1631 and Xainte Dupont(1596-1677): epouse November 10, 1648, Kebec Jean Mignot.

October 26: Chateau Richer, marriage (II)-Louise Cloutier, b-1621, died June 22, 1699, Chateau Richer, daughter (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, (1590-1677) and Xainte Dupont (1596-1680): 1st married October 26, 1645 Chateau Richer, Francois Marguerie: 2nd marriage November 10, 1648, Kebec, Jean Migot: 3rd marriage February 3, 1684, Chateau Richer, Jean Mataut

October 29: Five vessels departed New France with 20,000 pounds weight beaver skins for the habitants and 10,000 for the General Company.

November: Wood is being sold for the first time in Kebec.

November 7, Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Delaunay, b-1616 died November 28. 1654 killed by the Iroquois, and (II)-Francoise Pinguet, d-1661, daughter (I)-Louis Henri Pinguet (1588-1671) and Louise Bouche, d-1649; epouse February 8, 1655 Vincent Poirier, .

November 7: Monsieur (I)-Pierre Delaunay, b-1616, who arrived Kebec 1636 married (II)-Francoise Piguet (Pinguent) daughter (I)-Louis Henri Pinguet (1588-1671) and Louise Bouche, d-1649; 2nd marriage of (II)-Francoise Piguet (Pinguent) February 8, 1655, Quebec, Vincent Pierre.

November 7: Kebec, marriage Pierre Launay (1645-1654) to (II)-Francoise Bouchier (1625-1661) daughter (I)-Louis Henry Pinguet (1590-1671) and (I)-Louise Lousche Boucher b-1589; 2nd marriage of Francoise 1655 Vincent Poirier

November 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Fransoise Duquet, died September 15, 1719, Quebec daughter (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier, b-1627: 1st married January 19, 1660, Quebec, Jean Madry: 2nd marriage September 14, 1670, Quebec, Oliver Morel De La Durantaye

November 12: Kebec, marriage Nicolas Macard married Marguerite espouse Jean Nicolet the explorer.

November 15: A notice is posed at Trois Rivieres that no one is to trade with the savages. The Jesuit at Kebec are concerned it might apply to them also.

November 15: Vimont obtains des Chastelets’s consent that the prohibition of trade with the Indians does not apply to the Jesuit fur trade, but they are told they must carry it out quietly.

November 21: The vessel that operates between Kebec and Trois Rivieres was wrecked this year with a loss of 9 men. Much of the cargo was saved.

November 21: Kebec: marriage (II)-Jean Juchereau De La Ferte, d-1685 to (II)-Marie Francoise Giffard, died August 11, 1665, Quebec daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599:

November 23: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Belanger, died January 22, 1703 Quebec, daughter (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): 1st married November 19, 1663 Chateau Richer, Antoine Berton dit Chatillon: 2nd marriage December 13, 1666 Chateau Richer, Louis Levasseur

November 27: Kebec, marriage (II)-Jean Guyon DuBuisson, b-1620, died January 14, 1692/94, Chateau Richer son of (I)-Jean Gui (Guyon), d-1663 and Mathureine Robin, d-1662: married (II)-Elizabeth Couillard, born February 9, 1631, Kebec, died April 5, 1704 Chateau Richer, daughter (II)-Guillaume Couillard, and (II)-Guillemette Herbert;

1646

Four marriages, sixteen births and 15 deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

(I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture) (1617-1702) is believed to have country married an Iroquois woman during his captivity but proof is lacking.

Michel Blanot dit Lafontaine married (I)-Elizabeth De Lugny, b-1627

(II)-Marie Lefebvre, Metis, likely born 1646, Trois Riviers or in the wild, daughter (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married Andre Martel.

Kebec, birth (II)-Jacquess Boissel, died June 2, 1674, Quebec, son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697)

(I)-Charles Drouillar, a farmer arrived Kebec

Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Gagnon, died August 10, 1687 Ste. Anne, son (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695). married 1669 Chateau Richer, Barbe Fortin

Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Poulain, daughter (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married Pierre Mauffis.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson, Metis (1640-1710) was often in Trois-Rivieres and is considered a true Coureur des Bois. He married at least three times, one being Elizabeth Hainault, 1656, Trois Rivieres, daughter Madeleine Hainault; another one being the daughter of one of the Kirke Brothers, John Kirke, in England. He likely had many country wives during his long life in the country. He had at least 9 known children and became a citizen of England in 1687. (See Radisson 1631)

Peace, Union, and concord have flourished this year in the Island of Montreal.

During a religious procession, one’s profession represented their social standing in the following order: carpenters, masons, sailors, toolmakers, brewers and bakers, naturally the clergy are first.

The Superstitions and the Sorcerers (medicine men or sometimes those not Christian) are banished from Saint Joseph at Sillery, Kabec.

Jesuit (I)-Father Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) arrived in Fort Kabec. (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier (1618-1696?) had become a disciple of the Jesuit fathers and is serving as a lay assistant at their Wendat (Huron) mission near Georgian Bay.

Free-traders are again threatening the viability of the General Company of New France. The King of France decreed that all trade goods shall be placed in the public stores and consigned by the Company merchants. Public stores shall be located at Fort Kabec, Trois Rivieres and Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). Any goods imported and used as trade goods are subject to confiscation and the revoking and annulling of all passports. Trading of wine and brandy with the Indians is under penalty of corporal punishment.

(II)-Charles La Tour, (1595-1665) visited Kebec to a hero’s welcome, he had lost but won the hearts of the people and this was not lost on France.

(I)-Guillaume Couture (1617-1702) , judge of the Cote Lauzon, and faithful companion of P. Jogues. In 1646 at Trois Riveres made a feast for the sauvage P. Jhandich an Iroquois. He was given the name Acrika by Mr Nicolet to the joy of the Huron, Algonquins and Aunieonous.

Those who returned from the interior, Huronia, to Trois Rivieres this year are:

Pierrot Cochon (Cauchon)

(I)-Gilles Bacon, d-1654, married 1647 Kebec, Marie Tavernier, b-1632

Daniel Carteron

Jean Le Mercier

(I)-Desgrosillers – (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696)

(I)-Racine – likely (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607, married May 22, 1638 Kebec, (II)-Marguerite Martin, born January 4, 1624, Kebec, d-1679.

(I)-Eustache Lambert (1618-1673), married about 1656 Marie Laurence (1632-1686)

January 14: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean L’Archeveque, died April 6, 1699, Quebec son (I)-Claude L’Archeveque and Marie Simon

January 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve De Chavigny, died April 21, 1724, Quebec, daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: 1st married May 2, 1660, Quebec, Charles Amiot: 2nd marriage October 23, 1680, Quebec, Jean Baptiste Couillard

February 1: Father (I)-Anne de Noue (1587-1646), a Jesuit of noble birth, left Trois Rivieres for Fort Richelieu, about 40 miles away, but lost his way, just outside the Fort and perished in the snow. He was not properly dressed, had no blanket or matches and ventured out in the middle of the night without a Savage guide. The balance of his party arrived next day at Fort Richelieu and went in search of the good Father.

March 17: Kebec, birth (III)-Elizabeth Boucher, died September 24, 1685, Quebec, daughter (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1626 and Florence Gareman, b-1629: married October 21, 1659, Quebec, Denis Guyon

April 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Peltier, died December 17, 1717, Quebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. November 5, 1663, Quebec, Vincent Verdon; 2nd marriage Thomas Lefebvre.

May 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Cote, Metis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married Helene Graton

April 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jacques Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin, Metis b-1630; married November 16, 1671 Trois Rivieres, Jeanne Caiet

May 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean LaFond son (I)-Etienne LaFond, (1615-1665) and (II)-Marie Boucher, d-1706: 1st marriage Catherine Senecal: 2nd marriage August 28, 1697, Batiscan, Catherine Ananontha.

June 11: Beauport, was made the separation of two sharecropper farmers of the Jesuit lands at Beauport but (I)-Thomas Hayot stayed by agreement.

June 18: Kebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Martin dit Montpellier, d-1659 to (III)-Denise Sevestre, b-1628, died December 14, 1700 Quebec, daughter (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec: (III)-Denise 2nd marriage August 4, 1659, Quebec, Phillippe Hepveu.

July: Quebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptist Trotter, died May 24, 1703, Batiscan, son (I)-Jules Gilles Trotter, b-1691, died May 10, 1655, Trois Rivieres and Catherine Loiseau, b-1596, died January 25, 1656, Trois Rivieres.

July 8: Charite (1641-1646), a Savage, is buried at the French cemetery, where her father is buried, implying she is a Metis.

July 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Racine Metis, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married November 22, 1661, Chateau Richer, Noel Symar.

September/October: Four ships arrived Kebec, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage captain Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the Saint Sauveur or Neuf at 150 tonnage captain Paul Godefroy, the Petit Saint Christrophe at 50 tonnage captain I. Richard and the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage for Montreal captain Charles Legardear de Tilly.

September: Kebec (I)-Pierre Deschamps, b-1615, died October 2, 1695 Baliscan arrived Kebec.

September 24: Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) and (I)-Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit woodsman, set out on another peace mission. They are abandoned by their Huron guard at Fort Richelieu. Not taking the hint, they press on and are taken prisoner by the Iroquois.

September 27: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married 1st. April 30, 1652 Mathieu D’Amours? married Francois Guyon..

September 27: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Baptiste Trottier, died May 25, 1703, Batiscan son (I)-Jules Trotier (1590-1655) and Catherine Loyseau, d-1663.

October 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Paul Godfroy to (II)-Marie Madeleine Le Gardeur daughter (I)-Pierre Le Gardeur De Repentigny, lieut. goverueur, d-1675 and Marie Favery, died September 20, 1675 Kebec

October 18: Quebec, birth, (II)-Marie Langlois, Metis, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec:

October 18: Father (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) is put to death, and on October 19, (I)- Jean De La Lande d-1646, a Jesuit woodsman, is put to death by the Mohawk, claiming the Jesuit sorcery tainted their corn crops and the spread of smallpox. The Wendat prisoners in the camp confirm their sorcery. The Iroquois believed that the French intended to destroy the Iroquois as well as the Wendat. It is noteworthy that the Roman Church considered sorcery justifiable grounds for execution during this period.

October 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Goulet, died December 14, 1646, Kebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Goulet (1615-1688) (who worked at the mill of Mr. Deschatelets) and Marguerite Maillier b-1631

November 4: Kebec, birth Marguerite Brossier died November 18, 1646 Kebec daughter Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse

November 6: (I)-Jean Mechin drown on his way to Trois Rivieres and is likely the father of Jeanne Mechin b-1630 who married 1645 Trois Riviers (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne b-1607 who arrived Trois Riviers 1633-1634?

November 6: Trois Rivieres, boat hit a tree and sunk. Ten men died:

(I)-Jean Basque – (I)-Jean Fleury – (I)-Jean Fougereau – (I)-Jean Mechin – (I)-Jacques Arenaine de Tours – (I)-Guillaume La Sue – (I)-Jacques Cleque – (I)-Lafontaine – (I)-Goualt – (I)-Gaspard.

November 6: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Francois Gaspard Gouault arrived Kebec for Trois Rivieres.

November 12: Kebec, marriage (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne, d-1659 to (II)-Marguerite Couillard, died April 20, 1705 Quebec, veuve Jean Nicolet

November 13: Two Frenchmen from Ville-Marie (Montreal) are carried away by the barbarian Iroquois.

November 18: Kabec, birth Marguerite Brossier, died November 18, 1646, Kebec, daughter Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse.

November 20: Kebec, birth (III)-Charles Sevestre, died April 9, 1661, drowned, Montreal, son (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec.

November 25: Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Jean Veron de Grandmenil du Bourg de Livaro, en Normandie to (II)-Marguerite Hayet dit Radisson, b-1632 daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Radisson de St. Malo and Madeleine Heraut: Marguerite epouse August 24, 1653, Quebec, (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618/21-1696) and (II)-Helene Martin. (II)-Marguerite Radisson was living with (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681) prior to this date. She is said to have two half sisters (II)-Francoise Radisson, b-1636, Elizabeth Radisson, b-1638 and one half brother, (II)-Pierre Radisson, b-1636, living in New France at this time.

1647

Fifteen marriages, nineteen births and eleven deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.

LISTED AMONG THE FILLE DU ROI IN 1667 ?

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1643), married Pierre Pouillard, October 12, 1667

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1647), married Michel Verret, Michel, dit Laverdure, October 13, 1669 Michel Verret,

Marie Deschamps, (around in 1656), married 1672, Martin Marais dit Labarre, said his name was Labarre, 1672;

Possibility Marie Deschamps is a savague?

Port Royal, birth (II)-Martin Blanchard b-1647 Metis son (I)-Jean Blanchard b-1611and (II)-Radegonde Joy Lambert b-1621/1629 (Metis). d-1686, daughter (I)-Jean Antoine Lambert and Marie Radegonde Kagijonais a MicMac; married 1671 Marie Francoise Leblanc b-1653

Kebec birth (II)-Ignace Bonhomme, died April 22, 1711 Quebec son (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); married 1st January 12, 1671 Quebec Agnas Morin; 2nd marriage 1690 Anne Poirier

(I)-Mathieu Choret, died March 28, 1664, Quebec, married Sebastienne Veillon, b-1626, spouse August 25, 1664, Quebec, Pierre Aufroy

Nicolas Garnier, d-1646, Kebec is at Trois Rivieres this year.

Kebec, birth (II)-Francois Peltier son (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. about 1660 Quebec Dorothee La Sauvagesse, died April 13, 1661, Quebec; 2nd marriage September 26, 1661 Marguerite Mousseau

Kebec, marriage Julien Perrault to (II)-Marie Pelletier, daughter (I)-Guillaume Pelletier, b-1598 died November 28, 1657, Kebec and Michelle Morille (Mabile) (1592-1665)

(I)-Louis Prud’Homme, a bigamous, married 1647, Quebec to Anne Archambault, annulled 1651 as had wife in France. Not listed Tanguay.

La Prairie a seigniorial near Montreal was conceded to the Jesuits.

Father Ragueneau, a Jesuit, believes they have been too severe towards the Wendat: One must be very careful before condemning a thousand things among their customs, which greatly offend minds brought up and nourished in another world. It is easy to call irreligion what is merely stupidity and to take for diabolical working something that is nothing more than human, and then one thinks he is obliged to forbid as impious certain things that are done in all innocence or, at most, are silly but not criminal customs. This was certainly not the attitude of the other Jesuits. It is noteworthy that the Wendat found little in the Christian way of life that appealed to them over their own religion. The Jesuits attacked their most fundamental belief of freedom. They attempted to undermine the centuries old religious beliefs of the Indians, thereby destroying their culture. The French hold their religious beliefs and cultural beliefs as two separate things; the Wendat held them as one.

Only six Huron (Wendat) arrived Ville-Marie (Montreal) to trade due to fear of the Iroquois who are roaming the country.

A Frenchman, named Chastillon, urgently desires to marry an Indian girl educated by the Ursulines but she rejects him as she prefers a husband of her own people, following the wishes of her parents.

(I)-Menou D’Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650) died and not a friend could be found to speak well of him. The words used to describe him were rapacity, cruelty and tyranny. (II)-Charles La Tour ventured to France and cleared his name and became absolute monarch of Acadia. Upon his return he married the widow of (I)-Menou D’Aulway de Chranisay (1604-1650) to secure his position.

The assassination of Piescaret an Algonquin chief, marked the decline of the Algonquin and Huron territory. The Iroquois reigned supreme in the greater part of known Canada until 1665.

January 7: Kebec birth Nicolas Hebert Aubert died May 14, 1657 Quebec

January 12: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jacques Lefebvre, Metis, died February 19, 1720, La Baie du Febvre son (I)-Pierre Michel Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, of the Indian Nation, b-1621, died February 11, 1697, Trois Rivieres: married November 11, 1670 Trois Rivieres

January 27: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Sedilot son (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married November 27, 1669, Quebec, Marie De La Hogue.

February 2: Kabec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Bourdon, Metis, son (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.

February 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Jeanne Drouin, daughter (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) to (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec: married November 10, 1659, Quebec, Pierre Maheu

February 7: Kebec, birth Antoine Brossier died February 26, 1649 Kebec son Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse

February 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Gravelle, died September 29, 1677, Chateau Richer, son (I)-Masse Joseph Gravelle (1616-1686) and Marguerite Tavernier (1627-1697): married Madeleine Cloutier.

February 17: Kebec, birth (II)-Charlotte De Chavigny daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: 1st married November 6, 1668, Quebec, Renee Breton: 2nd marriage September 2, 1709. Quebec, Jean Girou

March: Beer is brewed for the first time at Sillery, Kabec.

March 4: Kebec, marriage, (I)-Julien Petau to Marie Peltier.

March 11: The Saint Lawrence River ice begins to melt at the end of a ‘winterless winter’.

March 27: By Royal decree, the Council of Quebec was created, comprised of the Governor of New France, Governor of Ville-Marie (Montreal) and the Jesuit Superior.

May 2: Kebec, marriage (I)-Gilles Bacon d-1654 Kebec to Marie Tavernier b-1632

May 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Boucher son (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married November 21, 1672 Chateau Richer Marguerite Thibaut.

May 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Couillard, Metis, died May 8, 1715, St. Etienne de Beaumont, son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); 1st married January 10, 1668 Kebec, Marie Pasquier (1640-1685): 2nd marriage Louise Couture,

June 25: The first horse arrived in Quebec from France and the Natives called it the French moose. The horse imported as a gift to Governor de Montmagny by the Compangnie des Habitants, later disappeared.

June 25: five ships arrived Kebec, one ship with captain Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny, the ship Ange Gabriel, the Saint Francois or Bon at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage and the Marguerite at 70 tonnage, other ships arrived in August.

June 25: The first horse is brought into Quebec.

June 25: Fort Richelieu is abandoned.

June 25: The priest of the Ursulines attempts to set his own price on some beaver skins; but these are confiscated, some 200 lbs., and taken from his room.

July 3: Kebec, birth (III)-Noel Juchereau son (II)-Jean Juchereau De La Ferte d-1685 and (II)-Marie Francoise Gillard d-1665.

July 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Joseph Le Petit son (I)-Pierre Le Petit and Catherine Desnoyers

July 16: Father (I)-Jean de Quen (1603-1659) discovered Lac Saint Jean and the route leading into the interior of Saguenay.

July 27: Kebec, marriage (I)-Michel Chauvin, b-1617 married (I)-Anne Archambault (1631-1699) They had two children before it was discovered that (I)-Michel Chauvin was already married. As a result on October 8, 1650 the marriage was annulled and he was banished from Montreal. Epouse February 3, 1653 Montreal, (I)-Jean Gervais

(II)-Paul Archambault Chauvin born March 27, 1650, died April 09, 17650 Montreal

(II)-Marie Charlotte Chauvin born April 05, 1651 Montreal and died October 31, 1718 Pointe Aux Trembles..

August: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Pepin Metis son (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married November 23, 1683 Boucherville, Madeleine Louiseau

August 2: Kebec, death (I)-Jean St. Leger, drowned

August 17: Quebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Pelletier to Francoise Morin, epouse January 28, 1648, Kebec Etienne Dumay.

August 23: Kebec, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Guyon DuBuisson, daughter (II)-Jean Guyon DuBuisson, d-1694 and (II)-Elizabeth Couillard, d-1704: married November 24, 1661, Kebec, Adrien Hayot

September 3: Kabec, marriage (I)-Medard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers (1618/21-1696) married (II)- Helene Martin, Metis born June 21, 1627, Kebec, d-1651, daughter (I)- Abraham Martin (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611; 2nd marriage 1653 (II)-Marguerite Hayet Radisson, d-1651, daughter (I)-Sebastien Hayet dit Hayot dit Radisson and Madeleine Heraut. 1st marriage Helene October 22, 1640, Kebec, (I)-Claude Etienne, b-1610,

September 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Marin De Repentigny, Sieur de Francheville, b-1619 to (I)-Jeanne Jallaut (1624-1708), epouse, September 9, 1654, Trois Rivieres, Maurice Poulain.

September 11: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Macard, died February 14, 1667 Quebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne, d-1659 and (II)-Marguerite Couillard, died April 20, 1705 Quebec, veuve Jean Nicolet; married January 18, 1663 Quebec Charles Le Gardeur.

September 19: Kebec, marriage (I)-Charles Guillebout (1617-1658) to Francoise Bigot b-1632, epouse May 8, 1658. Quebec, Denis Briere.

September 30: Kebec, marriage (I)-Mathurin Gagnon (1606-1690) to Francoise Boudeau, also Godeau (1634-1696)

October 3: Kebec, death (I)-Antoine Pelletier he drowned when his canoe capsized at Montmorency Falls. His property reverted to his brother (I)-Guillaume Pelletier (1598-1657)

October 4: Kebec, death (I)-Gabriel Tru, killed during a meeting with the Iroquois.

October 8: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Aubuchon dit LeLoyal a master carpenter to Mathurine Poisson, d-1681, he was involved in forty four legal cases in Trois Rivieres.

October 9: Kabec, birth/death Anonyme Brossier child Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse.

October 14: Kebec, marriage (I)-Emery Caltaut (Cailleteau), b-1606, died June 2, 1653 Trois Rivieres to Marie Madeleine Couteau (Cousteau),b-1606, died September 10, 1691, Batiscan

November 3: Montreal, marriage (I)-Mathurin Meunier (Le Mounier. b-1619 to Francoise Fafart, (1624-1702)

November 13: Marriage (I)-Etienne Seigneuret, sieur de L’Isle, b-1620, died June 10, 1677, Trois Rivieres married (II)-Madeleine Benassis, died December 3, 1716 Trois Rivieres. Daughter (II)-Marguerite was born November 16, 1653, Trois Rivieres.

November 15: likely Trois Rivieres, marriage (I)-Urbain Daudry dit Lamarche (1621-1682) to (II)-Madeleine Boucher (1634-1691)

November 18: Montreal, marriage (I)-Jean Desroches (1621-1684) to (II)-Francoise Gode b-1635 daughter (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) and Francoise Gaddis (1586-1689) Soeur de Pierre I.

December 3: (I)-Medard Chouart Des Groseillier (1618-1696?) married Helene Martin, in Fort Quebec and settled down in Trois Rivieres; being the first wedding in several years (this is not true). Helene is the daughter of a river pilot, Abraham Martin, whose land would become known as the Plains of Abraham. Medard’s second marriage after the death of his first wife, is to (II)-Marguerite Hayet dit Radisson,a half sister of (II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson, Metis, (1632-1710). Pierre Radisson, at age 15, while out on a duck shoot, is captured by the Mohawks and taken to Lake Champlain. He is adopted by the tribe and became an Indian. He and a Algonquin escaped but were soon captured. The Algonquian is killed and (II)-Pierre Esprit Radisson, Metis (1632-1710) is tortured but rescued by his adoptive family. He later escaped to the Dutch Fort Orange near Albany, New York, worked as an interpreter for the Dutch, and then made his way back to Trois Rivieres- all before turning 21 years old. (see Radisson 1631)

December 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Guillaume Brossard son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?: married February 15, 1672, Quebec Catherine Louvet.

December 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Nicolas Goulet, son (I)-Jacques Goulet (1615-1688) (who worked at the mill of Mr. Deschatelets) and Marguerite Maillier b-1631: married November 24, 1672 Chateau Richer, Xainte Cloutier

December 18: Kebec, death (I)-Leonard Pichon de Limoges

December 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis , died February 5, 1648, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, b-1620

December 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Prevost, Metis, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611-1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Sauvagesse, (1626-1665); 1st marriage unknown: married 2nd June 11, 1670 Ste Famille, Michel Aubin

1648

Twelve marriages, thirty one births and twenty four deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. Some claim the first white child born in Ville-Marie (Montreal) was Barbe Meusnier. There were 191 births to date in New France, and this might imply the majority are Metis.

(I)-Boisvert a soldat is at Kebec.

(II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de Boucherville, Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicolas Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married Marie Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse; 2nd married July 9, 1652, Quebec, (II)-Jeanne Crevier.

(I)-Jacques Brisset b-1626, died December 1, 1701, Champlain, married likely 1647-48, Trois Rivieres, (I)- Jeanne Feteis (Fetive or Frontier) b-1626, died November 30, 1698 Champlain.

(II)-Jacques Brisset b-1648 son (I)-Jacques Brisset b-1626, died December 1, 1701 Champlain married likely 1647-48 Jeanne Feteis (Fetive or Frontier) b-1626, died November 30, 1698 Champlain: married Marguerite Dandonneau..

Kebec, birth (II)-Francoi De Chavigny son (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: 1st married June 19, 1675, Quebec, Antoinette De L’Hopital: 2nd marriage April 20, 1699, Beauport, Genevieve Guyon.

(I)-Jean Deschamps (de Beaclieu) arrived Kebec.

(II)-Anne Gaudin b-1648. Kebec daughter (I)-Elie Gaudin d-1672 and Ester Ramage, b-1624

(I)-Jean Gauldry, soldat is at Kebec this year.

(I)-Guillaume Isabel, d-1652 married this year Kabec Catherine Dodier, b-1628, epouse Pierre Le Pelle.

(I)-Chirurien Lacroix is at Montreal.

(I)-Nicolas La Morandiere (de) dit Le Depensier is in Kebec this year.

Birth likely Kebec? (III)-Ignace Le Gardeur, son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.

(III)-Charles Martin Metis b-1648 son (II)-Pierre Martin born La Rochelle and Madeleine Panis (Indian slave) de la Rochelle (see 1642); 1st married November 28, 1663 Montreal, Catherine Duval; 2nd marriage October 6, 1683 Boucherville, Marie Batanville b-1645, veuve Jean Fauconnier, epouse February 25, 1686 Boucherville, Francois Cesar

Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Peltier, Metis died November 2, 1692, Sorel, son (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married August 21, 1662, Quebec, Marie Manevely

Oliver Le Tardif married Kebec, (II)-Barbe Aymard, daughter (I)-Jean Aymard and Marie Bineau

In Massachusetts the act of 1648 made Indian wampampeag legal tender. I was also noted that the Iroquois didn’t have wampampeag so it was inferred they didn’t reach the Atlantic coast. However the sea shell to make wampampeag was very rare.

The mission of St. Peter on Manitoulin Island is established for the Ojibwa. (I)-Louis de Coulonge d’Ailleboust (1612-1660) is appointed Governor (1648-51) of New France. In Huron Country there are 19 Jesuit and 42 Frenchmen. The Iroquois Nation launched a full-scale attack against the Wendat Nation; some 35,000 people. The first series of encounters at Saint Joseph (Teanaostaise) resulted in 700 Wendat dead. The Iroquois then turned toward the French Colony. The citizens of Quebec, this season, are allowed to engage independently in trade, as the Iroquois had effectively severed normal Company trade. Father Superior, Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), complained that drunkenness at Tadoussac was becoming as bad as in Germany. It is noteworthy that most Jesuits had wine on their own tables.

Jesuit Missions in Huronia included St. Michel (Scanonaenrat), St Joseph II (Teanaustaye), St. Ignace I (Taenhatentaron), Ste Marie II, St. Joseph I (Ihonatiria), La Conception (Ossossane), St. Louis, and St. Ignace III. Huronia was divided into four clans: the Bear People (Attignaouantan), the Deer People (Tahontaenrat), the Cord People (Atinqueenonniahak) and the Rock People (Arendahronon).

(I)-Louis d’Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulonge (1612-1660), returned to New France as Governor, from August 20, 1648 to October 4, 1651, to replace Governor Charles Jacques de Huault de Montmagny (1583-1653) of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). The Jesuits were not pleased with his removal.

The Jesuit were fully aware that the faith is usually followed by afflictions in the country of this new world. The history of plagues in Europe, taught the Jesuit that they were the carriers of disease. The disease seized upon them, and followed them into the vary depths of their great woods, where it destroyed a great number of them. The Savages believed these French are bringing disease to the People.

The Savages believed those who venture to the Black Robes are going to seek disease. The Jesuits say such talk is the Devil inspired. The Jesuit however know that disease is spread from person to person. The Savage say they are going because the Jesuit are their only means of commerce and trade.

The Savages said when we obey the Great Manitou (God), my traps for bears, beavers and other animals never fail. When we abandon our God, the Savages died of hunger and disease, because they amused themselves with certain words or certain prayers that were taught to them. He had a vision and the souls of the baptized and of the un-baptized go, and that neither heaven nor the pit, but a place towards the setting sun, where they meet together.

The Jesuit say the disease and famine is nothing compared to the fires of hell.

The Governor of New France issued a decree (ordinance) that foreign liquors should not be sold under any circumstances. French traders had been secretly selling foreign liquor to the Savages. A second decree commanded was that, without exception , unbelievers and apostates should withdraw from the abodes of Christians. These proclamations are read to the Algonquin, Wendat and Montagnais. This proclamation divided families, reducing their ancestral customs and traditions and made the people more vulnerable to the Iroquois advances. The Algonquion prophecy that the French are intent on destroy the Wendat is again remembered. A Wendat is warned in a dream to throw down the Frenchmen’s bell before it is too late.

The Jesuit speak of the fresh water sea to the west and two other lakes which are still larger further to the west. Lakes Erie, Ontario and Niagara Falls is well known.

The Jesuits had established a policy of only selling guns to baptized Savages and, even with this incentive, only 15% of the Huron are baptized. The Huron only had 120 guns, whereas the Iroquois guns numbered 500. The Jesuits forbade converts to participate in public traditional feasts and celebrations. They were instructed to abandon all their traditional religious practices which were the very foundation of their culture. Christian warriors refused to fight alongside traditionalists. The Huron’s ability to defend themselves was being eroded. Christian warriors were driven from their wives and mother’s longhouses resulting in a rapid increase in divorces.

The Iroquois see that the Huron are gravely weakened by the Black Robes. The Black Robes have brought disease and demoralization to the Huron Nation. They make plans to attack this once powerful brother of theirs.

A vessel arrived Kebec with a number of sick which seldom happens.

The first fort and Chateau St. Louis was built by Governor Charles Huault de Montmagny in 1648.

January 12/25: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Marie Cote, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684:

January 13: Montreal, marriage (I)-Louis Loisel (1617-1691) to Marguerite Charlot, b-1631

January 21: Kebec, marriage (II)-Jean Cloutier, b-1621, died October 16, 1690, Chateau Richer, son (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, (1590-1677) and Xainte Dupont (1596-1680): married Kebec, (II)-Marie Martin, Metis, born April 10, 1635, Kebec, died April 25, 1699, Kebec

January 28: Kebec, marriage (I)-Etienne Dumay, carpeter b-1626 to Francoise Morin d-1666, veuve (I)-d’Antoine Pelletier d-1647

February 2: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Chouart, Metis, child of (I)-Medard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers, (1618/21-1696) and (II)-Helene Martin, Metis, (1627-1651), veuve October 22, 1640, Kebec, Claude Etienne, b-1610;

February 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Gagnon, son (I)-Jean Gagnon (1611-1670) to Marguerite Cochon, b-1620. married October 26, 1670 Chateau Richer, Marguerite Drouin

February 15: Kebec birth (II)-Marie Bonhomme, daughter (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) and Catherine Goujet (1616-1679); married Jult 21, 1661 Quebec Jean Nau

February 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Belanger, died February 6, 1682 Cap St. Ignace, son (I)-Francis Belanger b-1612 and (II)-Marie Guyon (1618-1696): married November 17, 1671, Chateau Richer, Marie Cloutier

March 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Amador Martin, Metis, died June 19, 1711 Quebec second priest New France born, son of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?;

March 25: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Aubuchon, died September, 1655 Trois Riviers, son (I)-Jacques Aubuchon, d-1681 and Mathurine Poisson d-1681.

April 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Jolliet daughter (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) and Marie D’Abancour dite La Caille: married April 6, 1660, Quebec, Francois Fortin.

April 28: Jacques Douart (1626-1648) is killed, by a blow of a hatchet, at St. Marie, by the Huron. Six Captains had ordered the killing because the Christians are trying to ruin the Country, by reproving their faith. At Fort St. Marie are 18 Jesuit Fathers, four coadjutors (assistants), twenty-three donnes (merchant traders), seven servants, four boys and eight soldiers.

May 18: Two canoe of Hiroquois landed on the Island in sight of Fort Ville-Marie (Montreal). Soldiers were sent to reconnoiter. The Hiroquois said they had war only with the Algonquians not the French.

May 23: Trois Rivieres, death (I)-Francois Marguerie, from Normandy arrived Kebec 1617 as an interpreter to the Algonkins, lived with the Algonkins during the English occupation drowned crossing the Saint Lawrence River, near Trois Rivieres with his friend Jean Amiot. Some reported that two Frenchmen, Francois Marguerie and Jean Amiot (Amyot) drown in the Saint Lawrence River, in plain view of the habitants.

May 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Charles Delaunay son (I)-Pierre Delaunay (1616-1654) and (II)-Francoise Pinguet

June 1: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Vernon daughter (I)-Jean Vernon de Grandmenil and (II)-Marguerite Hayet dis Radisson, b-1632 See Radisson 1631.

June 6: Kebec, death Nicolas Garnier who was at La Pointe Levis same day.

June 22: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Grimard, died March 22, 1700 Batiscan, son (I)-Elie Grimard, b-1586 and Anne Perrin, (1619-1685): married 1662 Christine Reynier

July 3: Kebec, birth (II)-Medard Blanot son (I)-Michel Blanot dit Lafontaine and Elizabeth Derlugny

July 4: Father (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at Teanaostae near Hillsdale, Simco County, Ontario. Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois.

July 4: Trois Rivieres, De la Chausse is killed by the Iroquois.

July 5: Sillery, birth (III)-Genevieve Gareman daughter (I)-Rene Mezeray aka Mezler, (1611-1695) and (II)-Nicole Garman; 1st married January 24, 1661 Quebec Etienne Letellier, 2nd married 1676 Francois Dusault

July 13: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacques Leblanc, died November 29, 1660, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Leblanc, b-1620 to Euphrasie Madeleine Nicolet, b-1636:

July 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Gagnon, died September 27, 1648 Kebec, son (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

August: Kabec, four ships arrived, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage captain Jean Pointel, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage, the Saint Georges, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage.

August 20, Kebec, (I)-Louis D’Aillebout, governor of New France, arrived Kebec, died June 7, 1660, Montreal, married Barbe De Boulogne, b-1618, died June 7, 1685, Kebec, daughter (I)-Florentin De Boulogne and Gertridude Phillippe, one child is noted (II)-Barbe D’Aillebout who married Jean De Lauzon.

September 4: Kebec, birth (II)-Barbe Godfroy daughter (I)-Jean Paul Godfroy and (II)-Marie Madeleine Le Gardeur daughter (I)-Pierre Le Gardeur

September 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Gertrude Couillard, Metis, died November 18, 1664, Kebec, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); married February 6, 1664 Beaufort, Charles Aubert.

September 24: Kebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Banse to Marguerite Bigor.

September 28: Kebec, marriage (I)-Paul Chalifou, b-1618 to Jacquette Archambault, b-1632, died December 17, 1700 Quebec.

September 28: Kebec, marriage (I)-Urbain Tessier, (1624-1689) to (II)-Marie Archambault, (Metis?) baptised, 1636, died August 16, 1719 Pte Aux Trembles, Ville-Marie (Montreal), daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married December 5, 1675, Quebec, Marie Cadieu Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646. Some say Marie Archambault was baptised February 24, 1636

September 29: Sillery, birth (III)-Pierre Boucher son (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1626 and Florence Gareman, b-1629: married 1672 Helene Gaudry.

October 1: Kebec, marriage (II)-Charles Le Gardeur de Tilly, b-1611, died November 10, 1695 Quebec son (I)-Rene Le Gardeur and Catherine De Corde, d-1657: married October 1, 1648, Kebec (II)-Genevieve Juchereau. Charles was Governor Trois Rivieres (1648-1650)

October 1: Kebec, marriage (II)-Charles Le Gardeur de Tilly, d-November 10, 1695, Kebec son (I)-Rene Le Gardeur sieur de Tilly. de Thury, en Normandie and Catherine De Corde, died July 7, 1757, Quebec: married (II)-Genevieve Juchereau, died November 5, 1687, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jean Juchereau

October 2: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1601-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre

October 12: Montreal, marriage (I)-Leonard Lucault (Lukos dit Barbot) (1616-1651) to Barbe Poisson, b-1634, epouse November 19, 1651 Montreal Gabriel Celle Duclos.

October 15: Kebec, birth (II)-Nicolas Boissel, died December 25, 1660, Quebec son (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 and Marie Eripert ou Heripel, (1611-1697)

October 17: Ste Anne, birth (II)-Martin Poulain, died January 16, 1710, Quebec, son (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) and Jeanne Mercier (1622-1687): married January 21, 1688 Ste Anne, Jeanne Barette

October 19: Kebec, marriage (I)-Guill Gauthier de la Chenaye, d-1657 and Ester De Lambourg, b-1630

October 25: Kebec, marriage (I)-Francois Bissot, Sieur de la Riviere, (1613-1678) to (III)-Marie Couillard, epouse September 1675, Quebec, Jacques de la Lande

October 25: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie LaFond daughter (I)-Etienne LaFond, (1615-1665) and (II)-Marie Boucher, d-1706:

November 10: Kebec, marriage (II)-Louise Cloutier, b-1621, died June 22, 1699, Chateau Richer, daughter (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, (1590-1677) and Xainte Dupont (1596-1680): 1st married October 26, 1645 Chateau Richer, Francois Marguerie: 2nd marriage November 10, 1648, Kebec, Jean Migot: 3rd marriage February 3, 1684, Chateau Richer, Jean Mataut

November 10: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Mignot dit Chatillon to (II)-Louise Cloutier veuve Francois Marguerie, elle epouse February 3, 1684 Jean Pierre Mataut of Chateau Richer. It would appear he might have had a daughter by a sauvagesse in February 1647. He arrived 1643 and was living with the Ursulins in the savage quarters until this year learning French. See below differing info.

November 10: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Mignot dit Chatillon b-1628 married (II)-Louise Cloutier b-1631 daughter (I)-Zacharie Cloutier (1590-1677) and Xainte Dupont (1596-1680). Louise epouse October 26, 1645 Kebec Francoise Marguerie

November 15: Kebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Griveran, b-1620 and Suzanne Bugeaux

November 24: Montreal, birth (II)-Barbe Meuier, died December 3, 1648, Montreal, daughter (I)-Mathurin Meunier (Le Mounier. b-1619 & Francoise Fafart, (1624-1702)

December 4 Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre Dodier son (I)-Sebastin Dodier and Marie Bonhomme: a son named (II)-Sebastien is also listed but no date of birth.

December 4: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Catherine Lefebvre, Metis, died November 30, 1705 Batiscan daughter (I)-Pierre Lefebvre, b-1616 and Jeanne Aunois, b-1621, died February 11, 1697 Trois Rivieres: she married Antoine Trotier: Two other children were born but no birth date listed, Marie a Metis, likely b-1646, who married Andre Martel and Jacques a Metis born Trois Rivieres (likely 1647) birth date was January 12, 1647, Trois Rivieres, who married November 11, 1670, Trois Rivieres, Marie Baudry.

December 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Agnes Duquet, died April 4, 1702, Quebec, Ursuline, daughter (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) and Catherine Gautier, b-1627:

December 20: Quebec, birth, (II)-Jean Langlois, Metis, son (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Montreal area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married December 5, 1675, Quebec, Marie Cadieu

1649

Ten marriages, forty three births and twenty one deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France. New France has nearly 1,000 inhabitants.

(I)-Martin Chauvin dit La Fortune, b-1619 married 1649 Gilette Ban, b-1629, epouse 1653 Jacques Bertant.

(I)-Nicolas Colson, b-1626, usher of Council, Kebec in 1649

(I)-Claude David, (1621-1687) married likely Trois Rivieres Suzanne De Noyon, b-1633

(I)-Mathurin Guillet was at Trois Rivieres this year where he settled.

(II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain b-1649 son Jean Lamoureux; married Marguerite Pigarouiche sauvagesse b-1647.

February 15: Kebec, (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais (1589-1664) is imprisoned on a scandalous charge concerning a girl 15-16 years old who was executed this year for theft. It is said this old pig Abraham had debauched the girl. This could be the reason the birth and marriage records are not retained, the Jesuits likely cleared the files?

Fishing is almost a total failure in Kebec except for the sturgeon.

Famine is prevalent this year, more than has been since the French entered Quebec. The Iroquois attacked Saint Ignace (Taenhatentarow) killing 400 Huron. Fifteen Huron villages have been abandoned.

Jerome Le Rouer (Royer) de la Dauversiere, a co-founder of the mission of the Mountain of Montreal, is almost bankrupt and his goods are going to be seized.

Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1606-1649) believed the ruin of the Huron was clearly part of God’s grand design and that now they would have to work among the more distant nations. It was clear the Jesuit saw no fault among themselves.

Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) of Toulouse died, having been unable to learn the language thereby making him most ineffectual. He also had a great aversion to the customs of these Barbarians.

Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is stationed to Tadoussac, Quebec.

Only a few thousand Wendat remain out of a 30,000 people nation.

An ancestor of the Garneau Clan, (II)-Catherine Annennontak (Huronne), is born 1649, daughter (I)-Nicholas Arendanki of Arenda, Sainte Marie Madeleine, La Conception and Jeanne Otrihoandit.

Louis Gaudet Dufont, a Royal Commissioner, concluded that New France is governed by men without education or experience and that nearly all were incapable of resolving problems of any consequence.

The Huron culture was in disarray. 50% were converted to Christianity by the Jesuits. Many non-catholic Huron, being rejected by their wives longhouses, joined the Iroquois and played a leading role in taking vengeance against the Jesuits and their Christian Huron allies. Some 700 Huron died this year or are captured by the Iroquois/Huron army. Many more Huron would join the Iroquois against the French. The Jesuits Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) were executed for their crimes against the People. Bruce Trigger notes: “The situation would have been far worse for the French if the Huron traditionalists had been able to conclude an alliance with the Iroquois”.

Kebec, a fleet of 6 ships arrived led by admiral Jean Paul Godefroy, the Cardinal at 300 tonnage, the Neuf or Saint Sauveur at 150 tonnage captain Jammes, the Bon-Francois at 90 tonnage, the Notre Dame at 250 tonnage, the Anglois and an unnamed ship captain Jean Poulet.

January 1: Three soldiers in prison died of suffocation by the fumes of charcoal.

January 4: Kebec, death (I)-Louis Robichau, b-1609.

January 11: Montreal, marriage (II)-Francois Gode son (I)-Nicolas Gode (1583-1657) and Francoise Gaddis (1586-1689) Soeur de Pierre I; married (I)-Francoise Bugon, b-1626, St Pierre de Clermont, epouse September 26, 1667 Montreal Francois Bots.

January 11: Montreal, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Desroches child (I)-Jean Desroches (1621-1684) and Francoise Gode b-1636

January 19: A female of age 15 or 16 is hung at Quebek (Quebec) for theft and Monsieur (I)-Abraham Martin, dit I’ecossois (1589-1664) a Scotsman is accused of violating (raping) her. Some suggest a sixteen year-old girl in Quebec, sentenced to death for theft, escaped death by acting as her own executioner. Still others suggest the executioner is a pardoned criminal and the girl is hung.

January 15/28: Kebec, Birth/death (II)-Paule Hebert daughter (I)-Augustin Hebert and Adriane Du Vivier, b-1626, epouse Robert Cavelier.

January 29: Kebec, birth (III)-Joseph Guyon son (II)-Jean Guyon DuBuisson: married November 24, 1661, Kebec, Adrien Hayot: married Genevieve Cloutier

January 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Gaudin, died December 4, 1726 Pointe aux Trembles, daughter (I)-Barthelemi Gaudin (1608-1697) and Marthe Coignat (1606-1689): 1st married October 29, 1665 Quebec, Antoine Boutin: 2nd marriage 1677 Jean Beland

January 30: There are eighteen Jesuit priests in Wendat country. The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Gabrial Lalemant (1610-1649) are killed at St. Louis. The Iroquois saw the Jesuits as their trading enemies, and one thousand Iroquois and Hurons attacked Taenhatentaron, killing or capturing three hundred and ninety Wendat. The Iroquois knew that the Jesuits longed for martyrdom and they said, mockingly: You see we are your friends because we will be the cause of your eternal happiness. The more you suffer the greater will be your reward from your God. The Huron Nation will be reduced from 25,000 or 30,000 people to about 1,000 this year as a result of their alliance with the French. In just 40 years a Great Nation is utterly destroyed. The Jesuits claim the destruction is the will of God. The Indians do not believe God is a vengeful God, they rightfully blame the Black Robes and carry this message to the Ojibwa of the West and beyond. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit especially Brebeuf are under sentence of death by the Huron Nation for evil activities.

January 31: Kebec, birth (II)-Eilzabeth De Chavigny daughter (I)- Francois De Chavigny, Sieur DeBerchereau and Eleonore, De Grandmaison, b-1619: married October 10, 1667, Quebec, Etienne Landron

January 31: Kebec, death (I)-Philippe Gosselin who was married to Vincente Despres.

February 7: Kabec, birth Antoine Brossier, died February 26, 1649, Kebec, son Jean Brossier and Marguerite Banse.

March 16: About 1,000 Iroquois captured St. Ignace then went on to capture St. Louis.

March 17: Father (I)-Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at St. Ignace of the Hurons, halfway between Coldwater and Vasey, Simco County, Ontario. Father Jean de Brebuef (1593-1649) also is killed this date by the Iroquois. Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois.

April: An old man, head servant at the warehouse, suspected of theft, proved to be lost, it is believed he went to drown himself.

April 6: Kebec, birth (II)-Alexis Gravelle, died March 18, 1715, Quebec, son (I)-Masse Joseph Gravelle (1616-1686) and Marguerite Tavernier (1627-1697): married Marie Lesot.

April 8: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Plusson and Marie Regnault.

April 8: Chambly, marriage (I)-Pierre Boucher born August 1, 1622 Governor Trois Riviers to Marie Madeleine (Chretienne) Ouebaddinoukoue Huron savagesse; 2nd marriage July 9, 1652 Quebec (II)-Jeanne Crevier b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier and Jeanne Enard b-1619; only one child recorded of 1st marriage (II)-Jacques Boucher Metis b-1650. It is noteworthy that Pierre had the idea of creating a new people by the union of French men and Indian women.

April 12: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacques Goulet, son (I)-Jacques Goulet (1615-1688) (who worked at the mill of Mr. Deschatelets) and Marguerite Maillier b-1631

April 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Pepin Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697) and (II)-Jeanne Mechin Metis, b-1630; married October 3, 1663, Trois Rivieres, Gilles La Rue

May 2: Sillery, birth (II)-Nicolas Peltier Metis son (I)-Nicolas Peltier, d-1675 and Jeanne Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. June 22, 1673, Madeleine Tegoussi; 2nd marriage Francoise Lamy

May 24: Kebec, birth (II)-Francois Poisson, died December 13, 1708, Champlain son (I)-Jean Poisson married likely Kebec Jacqueline Chamboy b-1628, epouse Michel Pelletier de le Prade: married November 11, 1687 Trois Rivieres, Marguerite Baudry.

May 31: Montreal, birth (II)-Marie Dumay daughter (I)-Etienne Dumay, carpeter b-1626 to Francoise Morin d-1666

June: The Algonquian traded with the Petite Nation returning via Ville-Marie (Montreal) with their peltry for trade.

June 6: Thirty four Frenchmen departed for Huron Country.

June 9; Kenec, birth (II)-Marie Aubert (Auber) b-1649, died July 28, 1715, daughter (I)-Claude Aubert (Auber) and Jacqueline Lucas (1612-1680) English; married December 2, 1663 Chateau Richer, Jean Premont.

July 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Pierre De Repentigny, died August 7, 1713, Montreal, son (I)-Martin De Repentigny, b-1619 and Jeanne Jallaut, b-1624

July 18, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Amator Godfroy, died September 10, 1730, Trois Rivieres, (Filleul de Charles Amaior de le Tour, de l’Acndie) son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, b-1608-1681) and Marie LeNeuf b-1612-1688); 1st married November 12, 1675 Trois Rivieres, Marguerite Jutrat; 2nd marriage July 22, 1682 Francoise LePele

July 21: Montreal, birth (II)-Jeanne Loisel daughter (I)-Louis Loisel (1617-1691) and Marguerite Charlot, b-1631: married November 23, 1666 Montreal Jean Beauchamps

August: Charles Albanel, (1616-1696) a Jesuit arrived Kebec to serve the Lower Algonquians or Montagnais, at Tadoussac.

August 9: Kebec. birth (III)-Catherine Le Gardeur daughter (II)-Charles Le Gardeur de Tilly, d-1695 and (II)-Genevieve Juchereau, d-1687: married October 10, 1668, Sillery, Pierre De Saurel

August 22: Kebec, birth (II)-Francois Racine, Metis, died February 26, 1714, St. Anne, daughter of (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679); married October 29, 1676, Ste Familie, Marie Bauche

August 23: Montreal, birth (II)-Marie Boudart, died September 1, 1649, Montreal daughter (I)-Jean Boudart, died May 6, 1651 Montreal, silenced by the Hurons and Catherine Mercier who was taken with her husband by the Iroquois 1651.

August 26: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marguerite Hertel, daughter (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) (who was captured by the Iroquois) and Marie Marguerie epouse Moral de St. Quentin: married November 26, 1663, Trois Rivieres, Jean Crevier

September 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Paul Gagnon, ordained December 21, 1677, Kebec, son (I)-Pierre Gagnon (1616-1699) and Vincente Desvarieux (1624-1695).

September 11: Kebec, birth (III)-Joseph Guyon DuBuisson, son (II)-Jean Guyon DuBuisson, d-1694 and (II)-Elizabeth Couillard, d-1704: married January 29, 1674 Chateau Richer Genevieve Cloutier

September 20: The French traders, soldiers and Indians descend to Trois Rivieres and Kebec with 5,000 livres’ weight of beaver skins. This year trade totaled 100,000 livres.

September 21: (I)-Martin Montagne a carpenter is at Trois Riveres

September 22: Kebec: marriage (I)-Nicolas Juchereau, Sieur de St. Denis, seigneur de Beauport to (II)-Marie Therese Giffard, died June 3, 1714, Beauport, daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599:

September 28: Kebec, marriage (I)-Mathieu Hubou dit Des Longschamps. (1628-1678) to Suzanne Botfaite (Bottfair)

September 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Antoine Brossard, died February 22, 1715, Quebec, son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?: married August 26, 1672 Quebec, Jeanne Quelue.

October 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Chalifou, died October 12, 1663, Quebec daughter (I)-Paul Chalifou, b-1618 and Jacquette Archambault, b-1632: Married November 5, 1662, Quebec, Loachim Martin.

October 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Genevieve Macard, died February 23, 1724 Quebec, daughter (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne, d-1659 and (II)-Marguerite Couillard, died April 20, 1705 Quebec, veuve Jean Nicolet; 1st married January 11, 1666, Quebec, Charles Bazire: 2nd marriage August 1, 1679, Quebec, Francois Provost: 3rd marriage November 5, 1703, Quebec, Charles D’Alogny.

October 11: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Madeleine Gautier daughter (I)-Guill Gauthier de la Chenaye, d-1657 and Ester De Lambourg, b-1630

October 13: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Etienne Vernon, died May 18, 1721, Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Jean Vernon de Grandmenil and (II)-Marguerite Hayet dis Radisson, b-1632: married May 30, 1677 Trois Rivieres, Marie Moral. See Radisson 1631.

October 23: Kebec, birth/death (II)-Anonyme Blanot child (I)-Michel Blanot dit Lafontaine and Elizabeth Derlugny

October 24: Kebec, birth (II)-Sebastien Griveran, son (I)-Guillaume Griveran, b-1620 and Suzanne Bugeaux

October 31: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Etienne Vernon, died May 18, 1721, Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Jean Vernon de Grandmenil and (II)-Marguerite Hayet dis Radisson, b-1632: married May 30, 1677, Trois Rivieries Marie Moral. See Radisson 1631.

November 7: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Mathurin Guillet son (I)-Pierre Guillet dit Lajeunesse, b-1626, carpenter and Jeanne De Launay de St. Per, b-1629: married Marie Charlotte Lemoyne

November 9: Kebec, marriage (II)-Jean Pelletier, b-1631, died February 25, 1698, Riviere Ouelle, son (I)-Guillaume Pelletier b-1598, died November 28, 1657, Kebec and Michelle Morille (Mabile (1592-1665); married (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis (1637-1704) daughter (I)-Noel Langlois (1606-1634) and Francoise Grenier (Garnier) sauvagesse, d-1665 (II)-Jean 2nd marriage January 8, 1689 Riviere Ouelle (II)-Marie Anne Huot born Jauuary 9, 1666 Riviere Ouelle

November 11: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Michellent to Perinne Baudry.

November 14: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Fafard, died February 4, 1717 Batiscan, son (I)-Bertrand Fafard dit Laframboise, b-1620, died November 3, 1660, Trois Rivieres and Marie Sedilot, b-1627, epouse February 16, 1681, Trois Rivieres, Rene Benard: 1st married Marie Lucas: 2nd marriage July 19, 1703, Batiscan, Francoise Lapond

November 16: Kebec, marriage (I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) 1st married November 3, 1637, Quebec, (II)-Louise Couillard, d-November 23, 1641: 2nd marriage November 16, 1641, Quebec, (II)-Barbe Aymart daughter (I)-Jean Aymard and Marie Bineau ou “bureau” Greffe d’audouard 1649

November 16: Pointe Levy, Kebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Couture (Cousture), (1617-1701) married (II)-Anne Esmard Aymard (1629-1700), daughter (I)-Jean Aymard and Marie Bineau

November 16: Kebec, marriage (I)-Pierre Soumande (1619-1689) to (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, b-1637 daughter (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684.

November 29: Quebec, marriage (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) 1st married July 12, 1637 Kebec, (II)-Anne Cloutier: 2nd married Marie Chapelier

December 3: Montreal, birth (II)-Mathurine Meunier, died February 27, 1650, Montreal, & (II)-Charles Meunier, died February 27, 1650 Montreal sons of (I)-Mathurin Meunier (Le Mounier. b-1619 & Francoise Fafart, (1624-1702)

December 7: Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Iroquois at Petun Village of St. Jean (Etharita) near Osprey, Grey County, Ontario. Both the Huron and Iroquois had vowed to kill the Jesuit so it should not be ruled out that all Jesuit deaths can be attributed to the Iroquois.

December 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Jean Francois Bissot, died November 26, 1663 Quebec son (I)-Francois Bissot, Sieur de la Riviere, (1613-1678) and (III)-Marie Couillard, epouse September 1675, Quebec, Jacques de la Lande

December 8: Father (I)-Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) a Jesuit, is killed by the Christian Huron at the mouth of the Nottawasaga River, Ontario.

December 11: Trois Riveres, birth (III)-Jacques Boucher, Metis son (II)-Pierre Boucher, sieur De Gros Bois, seigneur de Boucherville, Governor Des Trois Rivieres, son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicolas Lemaine; married about 1648 likely Trois Riveries 1st. married Marie Madeleine Chretienne sauvagesse: 2nd marriage (II)-Jeanne Crevier?. ((II)-Jeanne Crevier, Metis b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier and Jeanne Enard b-1619, Metis) married July 9, 1652 (II)-Pierre Boucher Governor Des Trois Rivieres. He only had one recorded son (III)-Jacques Boucher, Metis b-1650

December 11: Montreal, birth (II)-Nicolas Desroches son (I)-Jean Desroches (1621-1684) and Francoise Gode b-1636

December 14: Kebec, birth (II)-Ursule Prevost, Metis, died April 1, 1661, Kebec, daughter (I)-Martin Prevost, (1611- 1691) and Marie Oliver Sylvestre Manitouabewich, Huron or Algonquin, (1620-1665