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Population of Kebec 83 French
(I)-Adrien du Chesne (Duchene), a surgeon, from Dieppe arrived Kebec this year. He remained in Kebec with his wife during the English occupation.
Pierre Antoine Pastedechouan a young Montagnais is taken to France for an education in French, Latin and is baptized.
(I)-Abraham Martin dit l’Ecossais, (1589-1664) the father of the bride, (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679) was one of the earliest colonists of the country. Having arrived before 1610, with his wife, he practiced the trade of royal pilot. His presence in New France, during the occupation by the Kirke brothers, between 1629 and 1632, is not unanimous with historians. Some, following Benjamin Sulte, affirm it strongly. Archange Godbout doubts it. Marcel Trudel and Rene Jette are of the opinion that, he and his family returned to France, which seems to be the case if we believe the observations held by Father Le Jeune, in 1632. (II)-Eustache Martin, Metis, b-1621 the eldest son of Abraham and his sister, Marguerite, were baptized respectively in 1621 and 1623, were the second and third children of White men born at Quebec, the first having been their cousin Helene Desportes, born in 1620, to the marriage of Pierre Desportes and Francoise Langlois. See 1609 – 1610 & 1624.
Guers a commission agent of the Duke Montmorency is in Kebec.
Kebec, baptism (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) son (I)-Louis Hebert, Metis (1575-1727) and (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649; married October 1, 1634, Kebec, Helene Desportes .
(I)-Oliver Tardif dit LeTardif, b-1601, died January 28, 1665, Chateau Richer was in the employ of Samuel de Champlain as interpreter to the Huron Nation. Tardif joined forces with Roch Manitouabewich of the Huron Nation as a guide, scout and traveling companion. Roch and his Huron wife later had a child who they named Marie Oliver Sylvestre, b-1626 in honor of Tardif. Tardif adopted the girl so she could receive a Christian education and at 10 years of age, in 1636 was placed with the family of (I)-Guillaume Hubou, d-1653, and Marie Rollet,d-1649, epouse (I)-Louis Herbert.
(I)-Noel Morin aka Morini (1609-1679) (Morini means brown of skin) arrived Kebec 1619 or 1620, married December 27, 1639, Quebec (II)-Helene Desportes (1620-1675) daughter (I)-Pierre Desportes and Francois Langlois.
Most Frenchmen who took Indian wives, this century in New France, did so a la facon du pays (according to Indian customs), regardless of French marriage laws and customs. Unfortunately most were not recorded or their Metis offspring.
The pirates dominated the coast of New France from 1612 to 1620, having stole 40,800 L and 1,080 fur traders and fishermen who were sold into slavery. This is astonishing considering Kebec only has 60-67 colonists at this time. The Hurons are supplying 50-60% of the French furs, and their other major industry for trade is agriculture.
John Nutt of England with his wife and family lived at Torby, Newfoundland. He captured a French fishing boat and became a pirate 1620 to 1623 and then captured two more French ships.
(I)-Jacques Archambault (venu de France avec sa famille) b-1604, died February 15, 1688, Montreal. married 1629 France, Francoise Toureau, sauvageese, b-1600, died December 9, 1663 Montreal. Some suggest Jacques Archambault married January 24, 1629, France, Francois Toureau, b-1600 France, died December 1663. Others suggest he married Francoise Chanveau b-1599 on January 24, 1629 in France. Others suggest 1st married, January 24, 1620, France, Francois Toureau (Touraude) daughter Francois Toueaude and Marthe Noel; 2nd marriage, June 6, 1666, Trois River, Marie Denote. The children attributed to Jacques and Francoise are Anne b-1621, likely Metis, Marie (I), b-1636, Louise, b-1640, Laurent, b-1642, and Marie (2), b-1644. It is reported that Jacques, Francoise and family arrived Quebec 1645. Also see Tanguay for Francois Toureau. As I see it there are three possibilities, 1. Tanguay made an error, 2. There are two Jacques Archambault in New France, 3. Jacques was in New France in 1620 and returned to France then returned to New France in 1645 and had 3 marriages one a country marriage to a sauvageese in 1620. This may account for one child born 1621 and the next child born 1636. It’s possible (I)-Denis Archambault died, August 25, 1651, Montreal, when a canon exploded, and he might be mixed up in this genealogy? Why would Tanguay post this under 1620 and say he came with his family, he had no family at this time? Every time I look at this it gets more messed up. Some say the Archambault family arrived New France, 1656, others say August 5, 1645 and others September 23, 1646. My best guess is we are dealing with more than one Jacques Archambault. The (OMFR) Ontario Metis Family Records identified Francois Toureau (1559-1663) as aboriginal.
The PRDH and Fischer Original, state the family all came from De Lardillière À Dompierre-Sur-Mer, Aunis, France, and Notary Adhemar reports their birth place as France, also.
SHARLENE BELL-HAUSSMANN says:
The first child I have is Jacques born c1629, (no other mention of him, so may have died in France) then Denis born 1630 then Anne I. the last child, of nine, is Marie II born 1644 in France.
Anne Archambault I – Born 1631 France.
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Archambault I, Anne
Naissance 1631/01/01 (Dompierre-sur-Mer, Lardillière)
Décès 1699/07/29 (Montréal)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
inconnue 1678/07/16 1699/07/28 administration civile
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Chauvin dit Sainte-Suzanne, Michel 1647/07/29 1650/09/30
Gervaise, Jean 1654/02/03 1690/03/11
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Naissance 1642/01/10 (Dompierre-sur-Mer, Lardillière)
Décès 1730/04/19 (Pointe-aux-Trembles)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
cultivateur et charpentier 1672/03/03 1693/03/24 agriculture-grande
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Marchand, Catherine 1660/01/07 1713/02/24
Marie Archambault I
ADHÉMAR — Fiche biographique
Archambault I, Marie
Naissance 1636/02/24 (Dompierre-sur-Mer)
Décès 1719/08/16 (Pointe-aux-Trembles)
Parents Archambault, Jacques ; Tourault, Françoise
Occupation Début Fin Groupe professionnel du chef de famille
inconnue 1668/04/26 1702/01/21 agriculture-grande
Conjoint Début de l’union Fin de l’union
Tessier dit Lavigne, UrbainI_ 1648/09/28 1689/03/20
Port La Tour, Acadia, birth Andre Lasner, Metis son Louis Lasnier of Dieppe and Indian woman. Some believe this is the first recorded Metis birth in North America.
(II)-Anne Herbert, died Kebec, 1620, daughter, (I)-Louis Herbert, born 1575, died January 25, 1627, and (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649); was married to (I)-Etienne Jonquit.
There is only sixty-seven official colonists, including women and children, in Fort Kebec (Quebec) at this time. Included are four French Recollects that are an offshoot of the Franciscan. The Franciscan or Minoritie are an old order, being established in 1223. The Franciscans are not popular with the Curia, as they demanded absolute poverty to awaken popular piety and scientific works. The Franciscan established themselves at St. Charles River. These first priests are Father’s Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632), Jean D’Olbeau, Dennis Jamey and Pacifique du Plessis. Father Jean D’Olbeau said the first mass in New France, then removed himself to the Tadoussac Trading Post. Carbon attached himself to the Wendat Nation. This would imply that 15 colonists either died, returned to France or are in the country as free traders?
Kabec begins to fortify their fort.
The free fur traders established a trading post called Palace Royal at Hochelaga (Ville-Marie Montreal). The Catholic Priests would later consider these free traders as having the instincts and morals of pirates. They would call them Coureurs des Bois. The priests would come to believe that free thinking and free trading pose a considerable threat to the fur trade and religious monopoly. Their thinking is consistent with the rising French philosophy of absolutism; one King, one Religion. Because of this absolutism belief, the Church historians largely ignore the contribution of the early Coureurs des Bois in opening up the continent. Unfortunately, they had to glorify some lesser men or claim the glory for themselves. Meanwhile, the Wendat (Huron) are building upon their farming and trading empire and are the major merchant center in New France. They would supply New France with beans and corn. Later tobacco would become a major trade item.
Few European women survived in New England, and the Company of Virginia undertook the recruitment of young and uncorrupted maids for Jamestown. The population of Jamestown, Virginia drops from 1,000 to 866 due to death or abandonment. The English Puritans who seceded from the Church of England exiled in the Netherlands, obtained patent for a settlement near the Hudson River in Southern Virginia. The Mayflower arrived on November 9, 1620 at Cape Cod (Provincetown) harbor. This location is outside Virginia, making their patent useless, so they claimed their own liberty, as none had the power to command them. They established a civil body politic, claiming submission and obedience to just and equal laws. They relocated to Plymouth on December 16 and, by spring, 52 of the 102 died. The Wampanoag Indians showed them how to plant and cultivate corn. They eventually would trade corn for beaver pelts.
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) lived among the Algonquians of Allumette Island on the Ottawa River and Nipissing until 1620-1621. He spent the next 8-9 years(1622-1630/31) with the Algonquin Nipissiriniens at Lake Nipissing.. The French called the Nipissings the Nation des Sorciers. He traveled Green Bay and the Fox and Illinois Rivers. He had his own cabin which likely suggests he had a family. He married likely about 1622-1630) a Nipissing woman b-1610 and had a daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet. Metis, born 1623-1631) and a 2nd marriage October 7, 1737, Kebec, (II)-Marguerite Couillard, Metis, b-1626
Father Joseph de la Roche, a Recollect, became a missionary to Kebec.
The Company of de Caen is created led by the De Caens, Guillaume Robin, Jacques de Troyes and Francois Herve, merchants; Francois de Troyes, chief of Royal Finances at Orleans, Claude le Ragois, receiver general of finance at Limoges; Pierre de Verton, counselor secretary of the King and others.
The first fort to occupy the top of the cliff at Quebec City was the one (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) constructed in 1620. It consisted of a few wooden buildings surrounded by a palisade.
New France begins formal registration of births, marriages and deaths at Kebec. Country marriages are not acknowledged.
The Recollets built a convent and chapel in 1620-1621 on St. Charles River, about one half a French league from Fort Kebec. They named it Notre Dame des Anges (on the site of the future General Hospital).
February 25: (I)-Henri II, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), is appointed Viceroy of New France, and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is confirmed as his lieutenant. He began construction of Fort Saint Louis on the cliff at Fort Kebec (Quebec). Henri II, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Grand Admiral of France, had bought Prince de Conde’s interests, and he established Compagne de Montmorency for la Nouvelle France that gave a trade monopoly to Guillaume William de Caen, a merchant, and Calvinist and his cousin Emary, a naval Captain. He had an eleven-year trade monopoly that required he established six Recollects at Kebec and settle six French families per year. He is told to not annoy the Fathers or any of the Orthodox Christians. The Company of De Caen included Guillaume Robin, Jacques De Troyes, Francois Herve, Francois De Troyes, Claude Le Ragois, Pierre De Verton and others.
May 8: (I)-Helene Boulle born 1598 and married 1610 to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at Kebec with her husband and four women servants.
June 3: The Recollets laid the cornerstone of the first stone church and convent in Kebec, Notre Dame des Anges on the St. Charles river, about 1/2 league from Fort of Kebec.
July 20, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), an employee of The Company of De Caen, arrived in Kebec and began construction of Fort Saint Louis on Cap aux Diamants, on the cliff at Kebec.
August 30: family arrived Quebec, (I)-Abraham Martin, dit I’ecossois (1589-1664) a Scotsman, with 2nd wife Marguerite Langlois b-1611 he married this year in France, (not likely see 1609 – 1610 & 1624) her sister (I)-Francoise Langlois b-1600 who married December 31, 1620, France, (I)-Pierre Desportes, b-1600 and daughter (II)-Anne Martin. It is noteworthy that the Plains of Abraham is named after Martin. (I)- Pierre Desportes, b-1600 married December 31, 1620, France (I)- Francoise Langlois (1599-1629). This appears highly unlikely as Francoise was already in Kebec. Others suggest Martin & Desportes arrived Kebec in 1619 or 1620. Some suggest both families stayed in Kebec during the English occupation, while others say they were deported. It is noteworthy that (II)-Helene Desportes (1620-1675) daughter (I)-Pierre Desportes and (I)-Francois Langlois arrived this date, this year so it not likely they were married in December this year in France. This conflicting information could suggest Francois might be Indian or Metis?? Some suggest Tanguay made an error and (II)-Helene Desportes was b-1601?
August 30: Kebec (II)-Anne Martin (1614-1684) arrived with father (I)-Abraham Martin, a Frenchman and stepmother Marguerite Langlois, a shipmate aboard the Le Sallemande. Her biological mother was Guillemette Couillard. Anne married 1636 Kebec, Jean Cote d-1661, who arrived Kebec July 20, 1635.
November 8: Henri, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Viceroy of New France, bought the Prince de Conde’s commercial interests and established the Compagnie de Montmorency pour la Nouvelle France which gave a monopoly to Guillaume de Caen and his cousin Emery.
December: Gape Cod, the colonists discovered a corpse with blond hair and assumed he was from a French shipwreck a few years earlier.
Population of Kebec 85 French + 1 marriage + 1 birth
George Baltimore established a colony in Placentia Bay (Avalon), Newfoundland but was abandon in 1629.
(I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658), a physician arrived and stayed Kebec until 1627 and had his own cabin in the woods. Others say he was in Kebec (1627-1629). see 1628 re, attempt to marry Indian girl.
(I)-Jacques Alard, Halard et Allard dit Labarre arrived Kebec this year.
(II)-Anne Archambault, Metis b-1621, died July 30, 1699 Montreal, daughter (I)-Jacques Archambault (1604-1688), and Francloise Toureau, sauvageese, (1600-1663); married February 3, 1654, Jean Gervaise. Not listed as a family in 1629 in Kebec.
(I)-Rounier arried Kebec from Duponf
(I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is in Georgian Bay this year.
(I)-Emery de Caen arrived Kebec this year and visited Kebec every year. He was provisional governor during Champlain absence and (1632-1633)
(I)-Jacques Alard Halard et Allard dit Labarre arrived Quebec 1621 and is at Tadoussac in 1624.
(II)-Radegonde Joy Lambert b-1621/1629 (Metis). d-1686, daughter (I)-Jean Antoine Lambert and Marie Radegonde Kagijonais a MicMac; married about 1642 Port Royal toJean Blanchard b-1611
(I)-Greffler Nicolas is at Kebec this year
(I)-Pierre Roy is living Kebec this year.
The mission Quebec de la Province de Quebec is established this year.
The Parish registers of New France contain about 300,000 entries describing all Catholic baptisms, weddings and funerals from 1621 to 1760 with very few missing records. The main reason was to guard against bigamy and consanguineous marriages. All French Canadians can trace their ancestors to some 10,000 French settlers. Only 27,000 Frenchmen came to Canada but 2/3rds returned to France, leaving no recorded descendents. The British, in the same period, would send over one million to America. Unfortunately, many of the mixed blood children would go unreported.
(I)-Abraham Martin’s wife Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611 (not likely see 1609 – 1610 & 1624) had the first (5th known) European child born in New France named (II)-Eustache Martin. The first known children were born 1610, 1611, 1619 and 1621 Kebec. The Metis children born New France are not considered European. This, of course, excludes the Viking, Basque, Spanish, Chinese and other previously born aliens, to say nothing of the mixed blood children. The Europeans, as a culture, is driven by a masochistic fetish to be recognized as the first to see or do in hopes of being recorded in history. This cultural inferiority complex appears very deeply rooted.
Jamestown, Virginia population stands at 843, down 23 from last year, even given the the influx of 1051 settlers this year. It is interesting to note that England began to diversify the Virginia economy by purchasing vines and olive trees from France for the colonies. France had no such self-sufficient policies for her colonies.
January 3: Henri, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Viceroy of New France, named Guillaume de Caen, General of the Fleet of the new company known as the Compagnie de Caen. The company gained an 11 year monopoly of trade in the St. Lawrence River valley. The had to maintain six Recollet priests at Kebec, settle six families per year and not trade in arms with the savages.
June 3: The Dutch West India Company is created this year, as successor to the United New Netherlands Company chartered in October 11, 1614, and is trading guns to the Iroquois.
August 16: (I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) signed a petition in Kebec to settle company disputes by Royal authority.
August 26: Kebec, marriage (II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis b-1606, died October 20, 1684, Quebec, daughter (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1727) and (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649; married August 26, 1621, Kebec, Guillaume Couillard (see 1602)
August 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) who some say preceded the Herbert’s to Kebec. married (II)-Marie Guillaumette Herbert,Metis, (1606-1684), daughter of (I)-Louis Herbert, born 1575 died January 25, 1627 and (I)-Marie Rollet (d-1649) (some suggest she died May 27, 1619). It is believed Couillard is the second recorded marriage in Kebec.(see 1602)
TEN CHILDREN ARE RECORDED
(II)-Louise Couillard (1625-1641), Kebec,
(II)-Marguerite Couillard, (1626-1705), Kebec
(II)-Louis Couillard, b-1629, Kebec
(II)-Elizabeth Couillard, b-1631, Kebec, died 1704 Chateau Richer
(II)-Marie Couillard, , b-1633, Kebec
(II)-Guillaume Couillard, b-1635, Kebec
(II)-Madeleine Couillard, b-1639, Kebec
(II)-Nocolas Couillard, (1641-1661), Kebec
(II)-Gertrude Couillard, (1648-1664), Kebec
(II)-Charles Couillard (1647-1715) Kebec
September 10: King James I of Great Britain ignored the French Acadian claims and granted Acadia ( Nova Scotia), New Brunswick and Cape Gaspe to the St. Croix River in fact all of Canada to (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640); a Scott. Alexander had convinced the King that he needed a New Scotlande comparable to New France, New Holland and New England. (I)-Alexander was made Lord Proprietor of the new territory, Acadia, to be called Nova Scotia. Alexander was to setup a colony called New Scotlande. (I)-Alexander however was unable to establish a settlement in the next six years. The term New Scotlande in Latin reads Nova Scotia.
October 24: Kebec, birth (II)-Eustache Martin, Metis, b-1621, Kebec, son of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage and or Marguerite Langlois, Metis b-1611; See 1609 – 1610 & 1624.
Population of Kebec 69 French + 16 Huron
(I)-Le Baillif, a native of Amiens, France arrived Tadoussuc. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) claimed he was a vicious man.
(I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1632) and Grenolle met with the Ojibwa at Sault Ste Marie.
Guillaume Poulin, the Recollect, reached the Nipissing and encountered the Iroquois, suffering torture at their hands.
The Virginia Company allowed any Englishman who agreed to take 250 people to Virginia at his own expense, to choose a tract of land in the colony, of 1,250 acres or more. He would be given the powers of local self-government. Unfortunately, they didn’t negotiate the land acquisition with the inhabiting Indians. Powhatan, the brother of Pocahontas, died, and his brother, Opechancanough, resented the steady encroachment of the English on their cornfields. The Indians attacked the English, killing 347 colonists in Virginia.
A settlement is begun at Piscataquia (Kittery Point, Maine) and Monhegan Island, Maine.
March 20: Louis XIII merged the Compagne de Montmorency and the older Compagne des Matchands de Rouen and de Saint Malo, under the direction of the William de Caens- a Calvinist.
June: (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) sent colonists from Scotland to Acadia ( Nova Scotia), but they wintered at St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Population of Kebec 36 French + 16 Huron
(I)-Etienne Brule an intermediary for the Hurons and French since 1611 came to Kebec with Desmaris. Etienne was given over to the English, he was killed and eaten by the Hurons.
(I)-Jean Le Cocq was killed by a block at Kebec.
(I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) is granted more land at Kebec. He was granted 10 acres in 1616.
(II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) 1st married an Micmac Indian Woman and they had 3 Metis daughters and one Metis son. One daughter Antoinette became an Ursuline nun. He had a second marriage to Francois Jacquelin to improve his standing in France she was more of a business partner. He was likely a bigamist.
(I)-Jean Le Cocq, died 1623 Kebec.
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) is serving as an interpreter, that he was proficient in the Montagnais, Algonkin, and Huron dialects.
A road was completed to the upper town of Kebec.
A delegation of western savages arrived in Kebec to trade, and they complained that the Huron and some Algonkin had held them up and robbed them of much of their cargo, as they were being bypassed in trade.
Father (I)-Nicolas Viel, d-1625, a Recollet, and lay brother (I)-Gabriel Sagard Theodat d-1636, visited the Huron (Wendat). Friar (I)-Gabriel Sagard Theodat d-1636, a Recollet considered the savages quite kind, more so than many civilized people, but he condemned their religious ignorance and stressed the need for them to learn to live like Frenchmen. The missionaries found the savages going about naked most disconcerting. Trial marriage also disturbed them, but the Huron could not understand why these French are so coy when other Frenchmen previously encountered had not rejected the advances of the young unmarried girls. Friar (I)-Gabrial Sagard noted that several French men are in the interior; one 100 leagues north of the lakes, with the Neutrals and Tobacco nations. This is likely a second hand story, as the Neutrals and Tobacco Nations are south of the lakes.
Friar Gabriel Theodat Sagard, a Recollet complained bitterly of the hardships endured by traveling and living with the savages when they established a mission at Quienonascaran.
Fort Nassau (Gloucester, New Jersey) is established this year.
Fort Orange is established on the Hudson River, New York.
(I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) and his settlers arrived Cape Sable but found the region in full possession by the French so he returned to England.
Since I came out of the ship, I never ate anything but peas, and loblollie (that is water gruel) as for deer or venison I never saw any since I came into this land, there is indeed some fowl, but we are not allowed to go, and get it, but must work hard both early, and later for a mess of water gruel, and a mouthful of bread, and beef, a mouthful of bread for a penny loaf must serve for 4 men….–Richard Frethorne, 1623
February 4: Henri II, Due de Montmorency (1595-1632), Grand Admiral of France, began the feudal land system in Canada by granting the fief of Sault au Matelot to (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1627). This grant is based on an assumption that all lands discovered belong to the King. Originally, most people believed God owned all the lands and men were only the caretakers. When ancient Middle East peoples invented the belief that Kings are gods, a natural conclusion is a belief that the King owned the land.
April 7: George Calvert (1580-1632) obtained a Royal Charter for the Province of Avalon, Newfoundland, which he acquired from William Vaughn.
June 28: (I)-Gabriel Theodat Sagard a Recollet frier, d-1636 arrived this date Kebec. He would return to France in 1625 to write a history of New France. He was possessed with Demonic possessions and of diabolical apparitions. He had an undeniable credulousness. It was his testimony that destroyed (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) reputation with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). It’s possible he also poisoned the Huron mind against Brule and the belief he was killed because of immorality with the Indian women..
Population of Kebec 47 French + 10 Huron + 1 birth
(I)-Pilote Gascoin arrived Kabec this year.
(I)-Jacques Alard Halard et Allard dit Labarre arrived Quebec 1621 and is at Tadoussac in 1624.
(I)-Acadia, marriage Charles de LaTour to a Louise Sauvagesse, d-1704. Charles married a native woman of the First Nations in 1624 and he had a daughter, (II)-Jeanne de LaTour, Metis born in 1625, who married c. 1655 Martin de Martignon d’Apprendisteguy, a Basque who raised his Metis family in La Rochelle, France. Charles had previously had other children including a son by another Indian woman who was named (II)-Stephen La Tour, Metis. It’s highly likely Martins Metis children returned to New France maybe under the sir name Martin as Basques were not appreciated in New France. (See 1642 Pierre Martin, very interesting?)
(I)-Nicolas Pivert and wife Marguerite Lesage, d-November 20, 1643 Kebec are living Kebec at this time.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of the Compagnie de Chaen, laid the cornerstone for a new stone Habitation at Kebec on the site of the original one.
Only Father (I)-Le Caron, (1586-1632) Recollet, remained at the mission Quienonascaran, Huronia to service 30,000 Savages.
The Recollet Gabriel Sagard, d-1636 began his campaign to discredit (I)-Etienne Brue (Brule) (1592-1632) because of his loose morals with his Country wife a Huron with whom he fathered a number of Metis children. Sagard also claimed Brule was working with the free trading fur merchants.
The Recollet had established six missions in New France: Tadoussac, Kebec, Trois Rivieres, Carhagouha in Huron Country, and one among the Nipissing. Another location is Acadia on St. John River being established in 1619 and closed 1624. The Recollet by their charter were forbidden to own property. Trois Rivieres was a major historic trading center and was occupied by the French free traders during the English occupation.
The Iroquois came to trade and make peace with the Huron and Algonkin. Champlain agreed to mediate and could have achieved a lasting peace. The Company Directors, however were horrified, as peace would allow the savages to divert some of the trade to the Dutch. This all or nothing philosophy, derived from One God, One King, One Church principle, is the foundation of war. The French failed to understand that the Indians had practiced free trade for generations. The Indians also practiced the freedom of religion. The French would instigate measures to ensure that peace was not achieved.
A peace treaty is established between the French, Algonquins, Wendat (Huron) and the Iroquois.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), at age 39 years, became Chief Minister to the French Crown until 1642. He, in effect controlled France and, therefore, became the absolute master of New France. He imposed a New France monopoly on all commerce and proclaimed equal rights to all baptized Natives. Church and State would later repeal this order. He basically imposed absolutism on New France. Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), believed that the colonies exist to enrich the mother country by exporting raw materials and by importing finished manufactured products. This philosophy, with slight modifications, became entrenched into Canadian culture and survives, especially in the Liberal Party, into the twenty first century.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), began recruiting a hundred French-Roman Catholic men of wealth and affluence to make a covenant with the King for control of New France. (VIII)-Francis Xavier Garneau, however, would later write that Cardinal Richelieu committed a ‘great mistake’ when he consented to exclude the Protestants from New France. Xavier fully understood the implications of not giving equal rights to Protestants or non-baptized persons. The Roman Catholic Church contributed to the creation of a cast system in Canada that would remain into current times. As a result many mixed marriages and Metis offspring were not recognized.
The Company of New France was personally controlled and managed by Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642). The Company was given authority over America from Florida to the Artic Circle, from New Found Land to Lake Huron. Only Roman Catholics were allowed to join and no Huguenot or foreigner is allowed into New France.
Gabriel Sagard, the Recollet, denounced (I)- Etienne Brule (1591-1633), claiming he was working for the fur merchants who were opponents of Compagnie de Chaen. This is likely a false allegation because Brule had a country wife and fathered a number of Metis children and the Recollet considered this an immoral act, Demonic possession.
The Dutch West India Company established Fort Orange (Albany).
Robert Gorges established a colony at Agamenticus (York, Maine).
Helen Boulle departed Tadoussac for France
–Journals of the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1624, on life in Virginia during the Starving Times
So lamentable was our scarcity that we were constrained to eat dogs, cats, rats, snakes, toadstools, horsehides, and what not. One man out of the misery he endured, killing his wife, powdered her up to eat her, for which he was burned. Many besides fed on the corpses of dead men, and one who had gotten insatiable out of custom to that food could not be restrained until such time as he was executed for it.
January 4: Kebec, baptism, (II)-Marguerite Martin, the daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’ecossais (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, (Metis or savage), b-1611, was baptized at Quebec, on January 4, 1624 and displayed the freshness of her thirteen years against the mature thirties that her suitor had already accumulated. The young girl was assisted by her godfather and godmother, Nicolas Pivert and Marguerite Lesage and Guillaume Hebert . What probably appeared to her as a fortune was the 200 livres promised from her groom to her, plus a dowry of 50 livres. The couple benefited also from the 100 livres in silver which Abraham Martin gave Etienne after the wedding, plus utensils and clothes valued at 64 livres. The godfather and godmother, who had no children, also gave a gift of 100 livres, in silver, several articles of clothing and utensils appraised at 260 livres, for a total value of 524 livres. Also noted was the presence of Guillaume Hebert, Olivier Tardif/LeTardif, general clerk and Adrien Duchesne, the first surgeon of Quebec. Also see 1609 – 1610
January 4: (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis, born January 4, 1624, Kebec, died November 25, 1679, Chateau Richer, daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’ecossais, (1589-1664) and savage and or Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?); married May 22, 1638, Kebec, (I)-Etienne Racine (1607-1689). Thierry Des Dames is godfather of (II)-Marguerite Martin, a girl of (I)-Abraham Martin, in 1624, Kebec . Marguerite Lesage, wife of (I)-Nicolas Pivert is godmother to (II)-Marguerite Martin.
August 15: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of the Compagnie de Chaen, departed Kebec, arriving at Dieppe, France on October 1.
October 18: King James I created the order of Knights Baronet of Acadia ( Nova Scotia). Any man could become a Baronet of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) if he lived on his grant of land or paid £150.
September: One of the Compagnie de Caen’s vessels, on its way to New France, is captured by the Turks, and the Frenchmen are carried away as slaves.
Population of Kebec 59 French + 1 birth
(I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) married Julienne Barry (Baril), possible daughter (I)-Jean Barry, d-1658, servant Lambert, one son born 1626 (II)-Francois Boucher b-1626 Not included in Tanguy list families in 1629. 2nd marriage 1632 Perinne Malet (1606-1687), neither women are mentioned anywhere, therefore possible savages?
Some contend (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) was in the Detroit area 1625/1626.
(II)-Louise Couillard, Metis, b-1625 Kebec, daughter (I)-Guillaume Concillard and (II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis, b-1606. (see 1602)
Jean Juchereau d-1661, Quebec, married 1625, (I)-Marie Langlois, died January 15, 1661, Quebec.
Acadia, marriage (II)-Charles De Saint Etienne De La Tour (1595-1665) son (I)-Claudew De Saint Etienne De La Tour; married Acadia Louise Mi’Kmaq a native person; the had four children (III)-Jeanne La Tour, Metis, who married Martin d’Aprendestiguy de Martigon’ (III)-Antoinette La Tour, Metis, who became a nun, (III)-Marie La Tour, Metis, who also became a nun and possibly a Metis son. The marriage was blessed in 1626 and the children were baptized . (III)-Stephen LaTour Metis a son of (II)-Charles LaTour was recorded as traveling with his father.
(II)-”Charles LaTour traveled the woods with 18 or 20 men, mingled with the savages and lived an infamous and libertine life, without any practice of religion, not even bothering to baptize the children they procreated and instead abandoned them to their poor, miserable mothers as the coureurs de bois still do today. These half-breed children, called METIS by the French, became some of the staunchest allies of the first French families of Acadia. Many of them were baptized by French missionaries and clung to the faith of their fathers. They diligently pursued the trade in furs that sealed the relationship between the worlds of their fathers and their mothers.”
Pierre Antoine Pastedechouan a young Montagnais is taken to France in 1620 for an education in French, Latin and is baptized and returned to Kebec this year..
Father/brother? Nicolas Viel, d-1625, a Recollet Father/brother left a dictionary of the Huron (Wendat) language. He died in the rapids of Sault-au-Recollet. The Jesuits lied and told France that the Recollets didn’t understand the Huron language. This was a cover up for their difficulty in learning the language.
The Jesuit (Black Robes) arrived Kebec this year. They resided with the Recolet Fathers as there was no room at Fort Kebec. Their effort to impose alien religion upon the savages was appreciated by few. The Jesuits were impervious to criticism on this score, believing that any unconvinced of the savages, was a small price to pay for salvation. Despite their diligent efforts, the number of actual converts remained small. The Jesuit were also impervious to the savage claim that they were spreading disease and were the main reason for the fall of the Huron Nation.
Friar Gabrial Sagard, d-1636 of the Recolettes wrote: The country is almost uninhabited (by the French) and uncultivated (less than 15 acres) and this through the negligence and lack of interest of the merchants who hitherto have been satisfied to get furs and profits out of it without having been willing to make any outlay for cultivation, settlement, or progress of the country. It is noteworthy that the French trading establishment Kebec numbered less than 70 people, and the religious, themselves refused to cultivate their own needs, expecting handouts from the garrison and Savages.
(II)-Charles (Turgis) de Saint-Etienne de La Tour (1595-1665), son (I)-Claude La Tour; 1st married 1625, Acadia, a Mi’Kmaw woman (1st of three marriages) daughter Chief Membertou. They had three daughters and one son. (III)-Jeanne de Saint-Etienne de la Tour, Metis, born this year, who married 1655 Pentagouet, Acadia, d’Apprendestiguy de Martignon. 2nd marriage La Tour put aside his Indian family and entered into a apologists union with Francoise Jacqueune, a Huguenot who died 1645: 3rd marriage February 24, 1653, Madamine d’Aulnay widow Charles d’Aulnay de Charinsay (1605-1650)
Father Nicolas Viel, d-1625 a Recollect drowned in the rapids, some suggest he drown in 1624 having only arrived June 28, 1623. Others suggest in the summer of 1625 on a voyage with the Huron to Kebec, the Huron threw him to his death with his disciples in the rapids above Hochelaga (Montreal), which from that time was named Sault au Recollet. Other accounts suggest they were killed for being witches and then they threw them into the river.
The historical period of 1625 to1658 is dominated by the Jesuits Relations Historia; a collection of Canadian missionary letters highly edited under censorship from a Jesuit perspective. The Jesuit Relations is a biased embellished plea for canonization based on the glories of martyrdom. The Jesuits are religious activists, organized along military lines. The Jesuit Order has wealth and power, along with access to the purse of the wealthy in France. The Jesuits are very familiar with the writings of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1557) who lived among the Indians (1527-1537) and who urged a peaceful winning of the Indians to King and Church, saying that the Indians believed in God, heaven and the brotherhood of man and that the Indians are cultured, the Spanish and English being the real savages. The question becomes why, then, do the Jesuits pursue such an anti-Christian course of action. The answer is reflected in three of the rules of the Jesuit Order established by St. Ignatius Loyola.
* Rule #1 “All judgment laid aside, we ought to have our mind ready and prompt to obey, in all, the true Spouse of Christ Our Lord, which is our Holy Mother the Church hierarchical”. History has ruled that individuals are responsible for their own evil actions; they can’t use obedience to Church or State as an excuse for these actions. This rule effectively places the Church above God.
* Rule #13 “To be right in everything, we ought always to hold that white which I see, is black, if the hierarchical Church so decides it.” This is the greatest evil of all as it systemizes all the evils of mankind and especially organized religion. This systemic evil has woven its way into the current cultural fabric of our times. We now call resigning our free will as politics, or politically correct or its not my fault, its the system or its because of drugs, alcohol or gaming. machines, anything but self. This effectively removes honor, truth, wisdom and free will from the agenda of man.
* Rule #14 “No one can save himself without being predestined.” The Jesuits were told they were predestined for heaven by the hierarchical Church. It is noteworthy they were denied entry into China because China believed in God and the hierarchical Church didn’t want to repeat this error again so rule #13 was evoked. This supported their belief that the end justifies the means.
Some suggest I and the world are being unjust towards the actions of the Jesuits, that is why I have added these old world and new world comments. Their rules and actions are not supported by scripture as some contend. Finally, the civil courts are ruling on religious value cases, as the religious are unable to manage their own cultural sets of beliefs and values. We, however, still have a long way to go to right the wrongs of the past four hundred years.
The Jesuits Relations (1632-1673) speaks for itself. It deals with the conversion of the savages in the New Country. The Jesuits deliberately do not name men who are in their disfavor so as not to immortalize them. The Jesuits suggest the savages need to be subjugated just like the Romans subjugated Europe. The Jesuits apply this analogy to the Roman Catholic Church. Subjugation is considered a virtue, provided the Church is the subjugator. The fear of the Jesuits was well founded as, later, most agreed the Jesuits were extremely wicked men, the sepulchers of piety and religion, and ought to be destroyed and driven out of New France because they lacked integrity. All of Europe would eventually agree with this position and demand that they be driven out of Europe. The First of the Jesuit Blackrobes to arrive in the Canadian River Valley (St. Lawrence) are Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), Masse and Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) this year.
The Compagnie de Caen had sent out no settlers. Very little land is under cultivation, and the Huguenot Christians and Roman Catholic Christians are constantly squabbling. The colony had little to show for nearly twenty years effort.
This year, in ten days, pirates had seized 27 ships and 200 men off the New France coastal waters.
The savages presented three little girls to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to compensate for the killing of two Frenchmen and also to avert famine and to cement treaty. Champlain accepted the girls, although a French surgeon had asked for a savage girl as a wife and been refused by the French council.
New Netherlands in the Hudson River Valley has 200 settlers.
It is believed that Riviere des Prairies located in the northern portion of the Island of Montreal was named by (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) because his companion Francois des Prairies was lost there.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is ordered back to France and (I)-William de Caen, a Calvinist, replaces him. The Jesuit immediately began to conspire against (I)-William de Caen, blaming him for the poor reception of the Jesuits. (I)-Raymond de la Ralde would replace him by the following year.
The parish Sault au Recollet aka La Visitation du Sault au Recollet is established this year.
January: Henri II, Duc de Montmorency (1595-1632), Grand Admiral of France and Viceroy of New France, resigned in favor of his nephew, Henri de Levis, Duc de Vantadour, who became Viceroy. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) remained as a lieutenant of the Compagnie de Chaen
January 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Louise Couillard, Metis died November 23, 1641, Kebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); married November 3, 1637, Kebec, Oliver LeTardif, (see 1602)
April 1: Acadia ( Nova Scotia) was divided into two provinces with counties, bishoprics and baronetcies.
April 26: The Jesuits: (I)- Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), Father Superior (I)- Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) and Father (I)- Enemond (Ennemond) Massie (1574-1646), with two lay brothers: (I)- Francois Charton and (I)- Gilbert Burel, arrived in Kebec (Quebec) on June 19, being the first of their Order. They are not well received either in the settlement or the Fort, and it is suggested they return to France. Only the Recollet Fathers would take them in out of charity. (I)-Jean de Brebeuf eventually went to live with the Huron (Wendat), and the rest remained near Fort Kebec. The Recollet missionary Father (I)- Nicholas Viel is deliberately drown in the Ottawa River near the Mountain of Hochelaga (Montreal). He is considered the first martyr in Canada. The Jesuit considered the Algonquin and Montagnais Savages as wretched tribes with universal ignorance and with moral depravity, idolatry, brutal savagery and foul nudity which are universal. Most New France citizens disliked the Jesuits and ignored Father (I)- Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), refusing to attend his services. Father (I)- Charles Lalemant is also known as Lallemant, L’Alemand, L’Amand, and Allemand. His birth is recorded as 1593 and November 17, 1587.
August 12: The mayor of Plymouth reported that 27 ships and 200 men had been taken in 10 days by pirates.
August 27: On the north eastern corner of Cape Breton the 48 gun, 600 ton, French man-of-war, the pride of the French navy the Le Chameau (the camel) was lost. All aboard, 316 persons perished and 180 bodies washed up on shore. Included in the dead were Me De Chazel, new Intendant of Quebec, de Louvigny, Governor Three Rivers and Jacques L’Hermitte a military engineer. Included were new recruits for Louisbourg, soms as young as age 14.
Population of Kebec 74 French + 10 Huron + 1 birth
Kebec birth (II)-Francois Boucher son (I)- Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619 and Julienne Barry; married September 3, 1641, Kebec, Florence Gareman
(I)-Gervais Monier, a Recollet arrived Kebec.
(I)-Nicholas Pivert, his wife Marguerite Lesage, d-1643 and a niece, also with a hired hand, are at Cap Tourments, Beaupre attending to the Kebec cattle.
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) was a sub-agent for the Hundred Associates (1626-1629) he gave up the keys to Kirk in 1629 and returned to France..
Acadia: (II)-Charles LaTour (1596-1665) son (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne La Tour, (II) Charles, lived among the Indians in Acadia since 1610 and married a Mi’Kmaq (Micmac) girl and they had 3 Metis daughters and one Metis son. He had a second bigamist union to (I)-Francois Jacquelin, a Huguenot to improve his standing in France and she to become a business partner. The marriage was more of a contractual arrangement. His 3rd marriage was to Madame Motin widow Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier Charles d’Aulnay de Charinsay (1605-1650) and they had 5 more children.
(I)-Rene de Rohault proposed establishing a college at Kebec.
Kebec has only 18-20 acres under cultivation; mainly wheat, rye and peas.
Isle aux Couldres, 10 leagues below Kebec is established as a cattle colony with a few men to care for their needs.
Lobsters, or sea crabs, were caught by the French of St. Sauveur in their great poverty.
The Jesuits were amazed that the savages knew the name of Jesus and the Jesuits assumed the Basques had told them as they frequented this place (Kebec). However the Recolet Fathers had lived among the savages for at least 10 years. The Jesuit were amazed that the savages knew two days before a ship arrived at Kebec. When asked how they knew, they say they saw it in a dream.
The Basque fishermen controlled the fishery of the northeast coast of Canada from 1525 to 1626. They set up fishing camps where they set up scaffolding to dry codfish and built stone ovens to prepare whale oil. Their encounters with Natives, particularly the Micmac, were friendly. Tadoussac, Quebec, one of their major trading centers, is booming, with as many as twenty ships being in the port at one time. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), for the Compagnie de Caen, had imposed a monopoly, reducing the number to two ships per year, and the Tadoussac settlement consists of 40 people or less. It is likely the free-traders move to new locations about this time. Twenty two thousand furs are taken this year with the usual average being 12,000 -15,000. The Company of Merchants in France received a 40% return on their investment.
Some French free traders are wintering for trade 25 leagues above the Kebec settlement. Father Brebeuf would venture into this wintering region to assess the situation. This is likely Trois Rivieres which is a historic trading location.
About 20 ships visited Tadoussac but since the fur business was given to the Association they see only 2 ships once a year. They say 40 men are in New France devoted to the fur trade.
There appears to be two interpreters operating in Kebec and are well paid for their services. The Recollets have been try since 1615 to have them teach the Savage language but they have always refused.
It is estimated that 8,000 beaver and other furs were traded to the Dutch.
The Jesuits had succeeded in disrupting the affairs of New France and would now begin their campaign to establish a French Roman Catholic citizenship with the Jesuits in control. The French colony of Fort Kebec (Quebec) is in great distress due to lack of provisions, and Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) accepted a invitation of de la Ralde to return the Jesuits, except for five, to France. Only forty or fifty-five men remained at Fort Kebec (Quebec). The number of free traders is unknown.
The Dutch West India Company established New Amsterdam (New York City). They claimed to have purchased Manhattan Island for about forty dollars in trade goods. The Dutch are Protestant and love liberty, but have no surplus population to emigrate. The Dutch, English and French developed rivalry over trading commerce. The Dutch had established Fort Nassau (Gloucester, New Jersey) by this time.
A trading post is established at Penobscot Bay (Castine, Main).
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), the Jesuit, and Anne de Nouve traveled to Huronia. The Jesuit complained of the Calvinists at Tadoussac and would not be satisfied until all Protestant heretics were driven from New France and Roman Orthodox Catholic administrators are assigned. The Jesuit requested of the Kings Council that the fur trade be taken away from the Calvinists and given to the Jesuit, as these evil men are blocking the attempts to Christianize the savages. The French Calvinists, hearing of the Jesuit intrigue, curtailed supplies and obstructed the sailing of ships to New France. The Jesuit embraced the principle that the end justifies the means.
Pere Joseph visits the Neutrial People who considered the French magician, unsociable, rude, sad, and a melancholy people. It is likely that the Huron (Wendat) spread these stories so that they would not be by-passed in trade.
The Jesuit noted that some Savages can tell you two days before a ship is coming and the hour of its arrival.
Father Philibert Noyrot (1592-1629), a Jesuit, arrived Kebec with 20 workmen to build a residence for the Jesuit. Father Lalement immediately sent him back to France to have the Huguenots removed from the direction of the Mercantile Company resulting in the Company of New France. Noyrot attempted to send a year supply for the Jesuit and workman but De Caen stopped the ship at Hontleur, from resentment over Jesuit complaints of the Recollet conduct. The workmen had to be recalled due to lack of provisions.
Jesuit Father Philibert Noyrot (1592-1629) proposes to Cardinal Richelieu that missionary work in New France be organized and strengthened. The first 4 Jesuits arrive in Huronia under Father Paul Le Jeune.
The Mercantile Company only cleared one arpent of land in 22 years, an arpent is 191.85 English feet.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) began expanding his Kebec facilities in 1626. This second fort was surrounded by ramparts of wood and soil
March 10: The Seigniory of Notre Dame des Anges, on the St. Charles River near Fort Kebec (Quebec), is the first of many grants to the Jesuits.
April 15: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of the Compagnie de Chaen, is ordered back to Kebec.
July: The Jesuits Fathers Brebeuf, Noue and Daillion left Quebec to re-establish a mission on Georgian Bay at the present site of Penetanguishene.
July 5: Champlain arrived in Kebec and completed the building of an outpost at Cap Tourmente.
August 1: Father (I)-Joseph de la Roche-Dallon (d’allion), a Recollet, accompanied the Jesuit to New France and went to the Neutral Nation.. More Recollet arrived including brother (I)-Gervas Mohier.
August 1: The Jesuit are allowed into New France and those arriving include:
Father (I)-Charles Lalemont, superior,
Father (I)-Enemond (Ennemond) Massee (1574-1646)
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649)
Father (I)-Anne de Nouve (1587-1646)
Brother (I)-Gilbert Burel d-1635
Brother (I)-Jean Goffestre
Brother (I)-Francois Charrenton (Carton) d-1626
August 1: The Jesuit entered the Huron Country with a set of preconceived beliefs.
* The Savages are beggars.
* They consider the French less intelligent than themselves.
* Their rude and untutored minds, able to comprehend so little.
* They live licentious and lazy lives.
* Vices of the flesh are common among them.
* They are very dirty about their eating.
* They are covered with vermin in their cabins.
* They believe in the immortality of the soul.
* They call the sun Jesus and it is believed the Basques frequented Kebec and likely told them this.
* They believe that there is one who made all, but they do not render him any homage.
* They have physicians, and cure all kinds of disease.
August 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Couillard, Metis, died April 20, 1705, Kebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); 1st married October 7, 1637, Kebec, (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642): 2nd marriage November 12, 1648, Kebec, Nicolas Macard. Nicolet was first married to a Nipissing woman and had a daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet., Metis.
October 20: Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) wintered among the Savages about 20-25 leagues from Kebec, returning March 27, 1627. It is noteworthy that after called the Savages lazy the Jesuit complain they can’t keep pace with the Savages and how hard they work is.
Population of Kebec 71 French + 1 birth, this was 60 men, 5 women and 6 young girls. Those living outside Kebec and the Metis are not counted.
(I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658), a physician, is in Kebec 1627-1629, others say 1621-1627 and built a cabin in the woods. He had asked for permission to take a savage wife but was turned down. It is likely he took a country anyway
(I)-Pierre Magnan, baptised 1627, arrived Kebec 1617, is killed by the Iroquois 1627
(I)-Francois Marguerie, from Normandy arrived Kebec 1617 as an interpreter to the Algonkins.
The Jesuits recorded that to the west from Kebec are 38 to 40 tribes of savages before the ocean sea of China.
Kebec started out with only one resident (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) and wife (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649 epouse Hebout (Hubou). This is not true as Guillaume Couillard who married Hebert’s Metis daughter was farming at the same time as Herbert. Some call him the first tiller of the soil. The Jesuit said in 1636 he was seeking passage back to Old France in order to live under the laws of the true religion. The Jesuit could be confusing Louis with Marie’s second husband? Hebert had planted apple trees, that did quite well, but the cattle spoiled the trees. Others had escaped into the forests during the English occupation but the Hebert family remained to Kebec. Some suggest as many as 20 people remained in New France after the deportation of 1629.
The Jesuits concluded the Basque had frequented the savages near Fort Kebec before this period. From this date, Missionary work in Canada is restricted to Roman Catholics. No Protestant worship nor Protestant teaching is permitted in Canada. Many would pay lip service to the governing church and practice their religion in secret.
The Jesuit planted peas, rye, oats and Meslin this year.
New France had a population of 107. New England and Newfoundland had a population of 2,100, not counting the 4,000 fishermen.
The Superior of the Quebec mission, Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) decides that work cannot continue with the Huguenot in power. He lobbies Cardinal Richelieu, the powerful advisor to King Louis, to annul the traders’ charter. Little does he realise he bagan the down fall of New France. Richelieu does so, forming his own company, the Company of New France, headed by himself and composed of 100 Associates who each contribue 3,000 livres and together receive a fief running from the North Pole to Florida. The rules are: it is to form a Catholic colony, no foreign Protestants are allowed; the Company will defray the costs of running a mission, the seigneurial land system will be inaugurated and baptized Indians are entitled to French naturalization. They have a 15 year charter and a formidible budget. There are about 100 habitants in Quebec.
Philibert Noyrot secured permission to revoke the Nantes Edict of 1598 in New France, allowing religious and civil liberty to the Huguenot and thereby ensuring the Catholic fur trading monopoly and setting the stage to replace the less zealous Recollects in New France. Francois Marguerie arrived this season at Fort Kebec (Quebec).
(I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640), a Scott, joined forces with the Kirke brothers to create the Scottish and English Company, a pirate organization, to seize Port Royal and establish trade in Acadia and the St. Lawrence. The Kirke company captured Tadoussac and off the Gaspe Peninsula (Quebec) they captured the French ships with 400 settlers. David Kirke (1597-1654) held Tadoussac while brothers Lewis Kirke (1599-1660) and Thomas Kirke went on to take Kebec.
As of this date, all descendants of Frenchmen, as well as converted Natives, will be considered as French citizens and may live in France without further declaration of nationalization. Political rhetoric but largely ignored by New France especially the Jesuits.
It is recorded that upwards of 20 ships are in Tadoussac at one time this year, vying for trade.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), while arranging to send settlers to New France, barred any non-Catholics from settling.
Virginia, New England had a population of 2,000 people who were basically engaged in the tobacco trade.
March: England and France again commence hostilities.
April 25: King Louis XIII’s minister, Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), revoked the charter of the Montmorency Company based on the Jesuit reports and formed the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France (Company of New France), also called the One Hundred Associates or Compagnie Des cents-associes. Huguenots, Calvinists or other aliens are excluded from joining the company, as are foreigners. Only Catholics are allowed to settle, and the company is required to settle 4,000 before 1643. Each settlement must support three priests. The Company, in perpetuity, gains the whole of New France, extending from Florida to the Arctic Circle in width, from New Found Land to the Great Lakes called the freshwater sea. The William de Caen charter had been revoked. The One Hundred Associates had full seigniorial ownership, a perpetual fur monopoly and a 15-year trade monopoly in New France, Acadia and Newfoundland. It is to nominate a Governor and settle 200 per year to 4,000 colonists by 1643. This population level, however, would not be achieved until about 1667. The Company of New France was unsuccessful in its goals. Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), hoped to populate Kebec with settlers who were moved more by religious and patriotic motives than by the hope of economic enrichment.
June 21: (II)-Helene Martin, Metis, born June 21, 1627, Kebec daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’ecossais, (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?); married 1st. October 22, 1640, Kebec, (I)-Claude Etienne b-1610; married 2nd September 3, 1647, Kebec, (I)-Medard Chouart b-1621.
Population of Kebec 34 + 21 Huron French, source Tanguay
The estimated French population of Fort Kebec (Quebec) is some 76 persons?
Basque fishermen are at Kebec.
A young man named Grec or Le Grec is in Kebec
Marguerite Couillard b-1628, Kebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard and Guillemette Herbert.
(I)-Nicolas Pivert and his wife Marguerite Lesage, died November 29, 1643, Kebec was at Cap Tourmentse this year.
Raymond de la Ralde attacked the English in Newfoundland.
Father Joseph de la Roche-Dallon (d’allion), a Recollet, went to Huron Country.
Friar Le Caron is at Kebec with brother Recollet. They discovered Foucher, who commanded Cape Tourmente and was disabled in a canoe on the river.
Montagnais dit Kebik (the Algonquian People) gave to (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) three young girls who he named Foi (Faith) b-1617, Esperance, b-1616 and Charity, b-1613 but Faith returned to her people.
The French, in 1687, claim that King Louis XIII established a new Company to which he conceded all countries of Canada including the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), also a Duke, had recruited 100 investors to send 400 settlers to Kebec. The Company of New France issued an edict that no Huguenot or foreigner be allowed into New France. The charter obligated the Company to send 4,000 colonists before 1643. This however was beyond their ability, therefore in 1645 they turned it over to the inhabitants of Kebec. Their monopoly of the fur trade, with their debts and other obligations.
It is noted that the Huron have their own religion and do not want the Black Robes amongst them. The Huron believe in the immortality of the soul, and they believe they will go to heaven when they die. This accounts for the Recollect’s young servant boys’ (15-16 years old) reluctance to be converted.
King Charles I of England authorized the Thomas Kirk and his brothers, Lewis, John, James and David, along with other English merchants, to take possession of Canada. Captain Michel and ten French settlers who were in the service of Caens and were expelled as Huguenots. They were determined to seek vengence.
A trading post is established on the Kennebec, not far from Casco Bay, Maine.
Isle aux Couldres, 10 leagues below Kebec is destroyed by the Kirk brothers and they captured Nicholas Pivert, his wife and niece as well as the men who took care of the cattle.
(I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) returned to Kebec and was appointed agent and interpreter and was sent 300 leagues to the west, to ‘The People of the Sea’, to secure a peace treaty. He was considered by the People as Manitouiriniou or the Wonderful Man. He met with 5,000 People and concluded peace and returned to Three Rivers.
(I)-Claude La Tour, (1570-1736+) the elder, a Huguenot is captured by David Kirk and sent to England and was imprisoned. He eventually deserted his French heritage and pledged allegiance to the English. His son (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) had fortified himself and gathered the Acadians in Fort La Tour near Cape Sable, Acadia. Kirk took Port Royal and captured the French fleet of 18 vessels on their way to Acadia.
(II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) was captured in 1628 or 1629 and taken to England.
An English fleet moves into the St. Lawrence and is able to remain there until 1632
The first fleet sent by the Company of 100 Associates to Kebec is captured by the English.
January; (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) writes “Robert Giffard (d-1668), some time before, wished to have a young Indian woman to educate her & to marry her, but her people would not give her up to him, what ever offers he made.” It was customary for Canadian women to enter into marriages for the benefit of trade, but they rarely left their own villages, preferring instead that their husband visit when he could, and remain loyal to her people; but any offspring were raised in her own community. Obviously Robert wanted to take her away, and this was rarely acceptable.
February 2; (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) officially adopted three young girls, aged 11, 12 and 15; whom he named Faith, Hope and Charity. The girls were given instruction from some of the veteran women, who taught them how to dress and behave as good French wives; But the young girls were miserable, and missed their old lives and families at Tadoussac. When the Kirk brothers arrive things were settled. Faith, Hope and Charity were taken as prisoners, of the English, thrown into the hold and the trap door nailed shut. To make matters worse, Marsolet had taken a fancy to young Hope, but when she spurned his advances, he turned his attention to her sister Charity; who threatened to tear his heart out and eat it. Out of revenge, he told Kirke that the Montagnais wanted them back or they would wage war on the British, hoping that Kirke would then release the girls into his custody, with a promise to take them home. Instead, they were invited to dine with the captain, and after getting assurances that they would not incite war, he allowed them to remain with Guillaume Couillard, who would be staying on under British rule.
February 12: France marriage (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668), a physician, to Marie Renocard, b-1659, Tanguay obviously is confused:
Remember this is the man who wanted a savage girl as a wife and was turned down by the council, so he built a cabin in the woods.
March: Jarvis Kirke, a merchant of London, outfitted three ships manned by 200 men to set sail and capture Kebec for the English. He captured the French Company of New France ships en route and the trading post at Tadoussac. David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) a French Huguenot sailing for England was sent to demand the surrender of Kebec. The remaining supply ships were captured, numbering 11 ships, and 600 prisoners were taken and returned to France. David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) returned to London and was confident he could return next year and finish the job. This action was the damnation of many French Canadians. The Kertks were French Huguenots who escaped French Religious persecution by fleeing to England. It is ironic how the French in their religious fanaticism breed hate that returns to pay them back.
April 27: Kebec, the plow is first used in Canada by (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663), son-in-law of (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727). France had no desire for Canada to go to agriculture.
April 29: (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663), (I)-Louis Hebert’s son-in-law, is the first recorded person to use the plow in Canada.
May 6: The Council of the State of France gave the One Hundred Associates full seigniorial ownership, a perpetual fur monopoly and a 15 year trade monopoly in New France, Acadia and Newfoundland. The company is to nominate a governor to be appointed by the king, and settle 4,000 colonists by 1643.
July 10: The Company of Kirkes captured Tadoussac, Miscou, and Cap Tourmente and seized the 1st supply ship of the Hundred Associates before it reached Kebec. They demanded that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) surrender. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) refused, and the Company of Kirkes assumed he did so from a position of strength so they withdrew. It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would likely not be aware that the company he worked for had been replaced by the Hundred Associates. About 20 French Huguenots led by Desdames landed Kebec in a small boat and entered on friendly terms but soon began to pillage and burn, killing the cattle.
July 18: Returning to England, the Company of Kirkes encountered the French supply fleet off Gaspe. They engaged the fleet under command of Claude Roquemont de Brison (1570-1636) and captured the four ships. Roquemont and associates are taken to England as prisoners.
October 29: The third Huguenot war ended with the surrender of La Rochelle, France.
Population of Kebec 76 French + 600 English + 1 marriage + 1 birth
When the Kirk brothers controlled New France only five women are noted: the widow of Hebert who was married to Guillaume Hubon, her daughter Marie Lamglois, married to Jean Juchereau, Guillemette Couillard wife of Abraham Martin and two women of lesser note, not remembered by name. They could be two of the five Indian girls married to Frenchmen before 1629. Some say the 17th century French had little detachment to people of other races or cultures that carried into the 18th century. Some religious took exception to these relationships especially the country marriages which they refused to record or their offspring.
Folks are split some suggest (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais and family was sent to France, during the English occupation, the other camp suggest they remained in New France. I would suggest that (I)-Abraham was sent to France and his wife and four children remained in New France. (II)-Helen was born 1627 and (II)-Marie born 1635 and no children born 1628-1634. The wife was most likely savage and therefore returned to her people, during the occupation.
The inhabitants of Kebec are forced to sign an allegiance to England, thereby renouncing their allegiance to France. Among those signing are the Herberts, Couillards and Piverts. The only ones who did not sign were those who escaped to live among the Indians and those others who were deported.
(I)-Le Baillif, a native of Amiens, France defected to the English. He ill-treated the French who remained in Kebec. He plundered the French stores of 3,500 to 4,000 beaver skins.
Breton a ships captain was in Canada this year and Kebec 1630
(II)-William Alexander’s son brought 70 settlers to Port Royal and built Charles Fort, New Scotlande.
(II)-Louis Couillard, Metis, b-1629 Kebec, son (I)-Guillaume Concillard and (II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis b-1606; married 1653, Kebec, (II)-Genevieve Despres, b-1639, died May 11, 1706.
Sieur (I)-Jean Paul Godefroy (Godfroy) (1608-1681) returned to France with Champlain. He was back at Trois Rivieres in 1636.
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan arrived Kebec 1613 and worked as interpreter until the Kirk brothers arrived this year.
(I)-Francois Marguerie from Normandy arrived Kebec 1627 as interpreter to the Algonkins, and during the English occupation he lived with the Algonkins.
The Jesuits say Jacques Michel, a Huguenot led the English to Kebec.
(I)-Jacques Hertel d-1651, some say died August 10, 1651, an interpreter, took refuge among the Savages when the Kirke Brothers captured Kebec. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632), an interpreter, also took refuge among the Indians as did (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677), an interpreter at Tadoussac. Of the 13 known Frenchmen who remained in New France, 7 were interpreters. All these people likely had Metis families. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) refused to return to France not wanting to desert their Country wives and Metis families. It was also very clear that if they returned to France they would be hung because of false reports of the Recollets and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635).
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne born 1598 and died October 9, 1642, Sillery; 1st known marriage about 1629 (or earlier) Nipissirinienne sauvagesse, b-1610 and one daughter resulted from this union, Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet, Metis; 2nd marriage 1737, Quebec, (II)-Marguerite Couillard Metis, (1626-1705), daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) (died March 4, 1663 Kabec) and (II)-Guillaume Herbert (1606-1684), epouse November 12, 1646, Quebec (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne died October 5, 1659, Quebec, Quebec. (I)-Jean and his family stayed in New France during the English occupation. He returned to Quebec 1632.
(I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) took two of his girls, Esperance Montagnais, b-1616 and Charity Montagnais, b-1613 to Tadoussac for a trip to France but the Kirke Brothers refused to let them embark. The Kirkes had them placed in the care of (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespindcy (1591-1663) who arrived 1617 (son-in-law of (I)-Louis Hebert, (1575-1627)). No further mention is made of these girls. Others suggest: (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613 and who Champlain said, he was one of the earliest settlers in Kebec. It was him who Champlain trusted the care of his two savage girls, who he considered his daughters, with a promise they would become foster parents until his return, him being sent to France by the English. It is said (I)-William is a son-in-law to Madame Hebert. Some say Louise Couillard b-1625 is his daughter. It is also interesting that (II)-Louise Couillard, (1625-1641) who married 1637, (I)-Oliver LeTardif, (1601-1665) and sister (II)-Marguerite Couillard, (1626-1705) who married 1637, (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) are believed by some to be the daughters of (I)-William?. See 1635 list of women in Kebec.
Father Francois Ragueneau, a Jesuit & Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) were sent back to France with Champlain.
London, authorized by Charles I, declared war on the Jesuits.
Mynheer Wouter Van Twiller is appointed Governor of the Providence of Nieuw Nederlandts (New Netherlands).
The Company of Adventurers to Canada captured the French party sent to meet the supply ships from France.
The Huguenots in France revolted against the French Crown.
Plans were made in 1626 to establish a college at Kebec by Rene de Rohault and his father but was interrupted by the Kirk Brothers.
(I)-Oliver le Jeune is believed to be the first slave to have been transported directly from Africa to Canada and sold this year. About 1,000 black people were bought from New England or the West Indies as slaves for New France to 1760. This, however, is misleading, as by 1759, there was 3,604 slaves in New France, including 1,132 of African origin. The Loyalists would bring another 2,000 black slaves.
King Charles I of England declared a private war by giving permission to make prize of all French and Spanish ships and their goods, at sea or land. The Scots sent 70 men (tua weemen) to occupy (Acadia) Port Royal and Baleine on Cape Breton Island. These privateers would be shipped home in 1633 after King Charles I married the sister of France’s King Louis XIII.
(I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) finally secured his grant to Acadia by landing 70 Scot settlers in Port Royal. They would secure this site 1629-1632 when they were forced to leave.
Tanguay suggests the following census in 1629, Kebec.
He suggests their are only 4 families but the census suggests 8 families but the other 4 are likely French/Savage families. Namely: Jonquest – Couillard – Hubou – Hebert This excludes the Martin family
Recollets = 4
Jesuits = 4
Women = 8
TOTAL 100 Other records suggest the population is only 76 French, the balance may be with the Huron in the bush?
Emery de Caen is at Tadpussac and sends Froidemouche a French envoye to deliver a message that a peace treaty was signed but the envoye only made it to La Malbaie (Quebec)
The second fleet sent by the Company of 100 Associates to Kebec is captured by the English. The English Kirke brothers seize raid up and down the St. Lawrence and seize Kebec.
(I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) departed Kebec with Champlain and is believed to have died on the returning ship or in France.
February 4: The rival commercial interests of (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) and the Company of Kirke’s combined forces in support of the Calvinists under the Company of Adventurers to Canada, with a monopoly of the trade of the St Lawrence and the power to remove the French. The Kirke’s alias Kertks French Huguenots included David Kirke (1597-1654), Lewis Kirke (1599-1600), Thomas Kirke, John Kirke and James Kirke who were determined to drive the French from Canada and Acadia.
March: The Kirke brothers, with Jacques Michel, a deserter from Champlain, explained the sorry state of Kebec and again acting as pilot on the river guided the Kirks in the conquest of Canada. It is noteworthy that the Kirke brothers and Jacques Michel were Huguenots and some suggest it was out of revenge for the persecution of the Huguenots by French Catholics.
April 24: The Treaty of Susa established peace between France and England. The terms of the treaty were that all territory captured after the signing would be returned. The Company of Adventurers to Canada had already sailed.
May 16: Kebec, marriage, (I)-Guillaume Hubou, died May 13, 1653, Quebec; married Marie Rollet, died May 27, 1649, Kebec, veuve de (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627).
May 18: Kebec, birth (II)-Louis Couillard, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); married April 29, 1653, Genevieve Despres (see 1602)
June 15: The nine ships of the Company of Adventurers to Canada reached the Gaspe. The invading force is under the command of David Kirke alias Kirke (1597-1654); a French Huguenot and others say a mixed blood English-French with orders to take possession of the French colony. The Calvinists, including Jacques Michel, who were expelled from New France provided the English with full details of the desperate condition of New France and the ships that would sail this year.
July 1: James Stuart, Lord Ochiltree, who had been granted a barony by (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640), landed 60 colonists at Baleine, Cape Breton Island. Most would depart by 1632, except for one of two families who elected to remain in Acadia ( Nova Scotia).
July: The Recollets were offered the protection of the Huron Nation to provide them shelter until such time as the French returned. The Recollets declined this offer and returned to France as English prisoners. The Recollet would later be highly criticized by their order for abandoning their missions. They however had no idea that Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642) would prevent their return to New France and give 14 years of labor and all their missions to the Jesuit.
July: The Kebec settlement is near starvation; they are grubbing for roots. The English, through Basque fishermen, requested that Champlain surrender. The English interception of their supply ship at Tadoussac was the last straw. The men of the colony are fearful of the pending English attack. Some are no longer content to exist on starvation rations. Most of these colonists are convicts or indentured slaves. Some escaped into the woods during the confusion. They had little loyalty to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) or their wives and children who remained in the Fort. They joined the bands of migrating Native hunters, which added to the growing ‘Bois Brule’ (burnt wood) Metis population. Most chose to live in freedom with the Natives rather than be killed or captured and returned to France via England. They chose to become free traders and explorer entrepreneurs. This would become a recurring theme in New France.
July 19: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Jean Nicollet (1598-1642) arrived with his country born daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet a Nipissing Metis. Upon hearing the Kirke Brothers had taken Kebec he fled back into the woods to avoid deportation.
July 19: Captain Louis delivered an ultimatum of surrender on July 19. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant, had no more then sixteen men at his command at this time, including the priests of St. Charles. In reality, only one man held the Fort, the others are in the woods in search of food. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) surrendered the Fort to Captain Louis and discovered that (I)-Etienne Brule (1582-1632) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677), who had been living with the Wendat and Iroquois, had led the English to Fort Kebec (Quebec). This was Champlain’s account but Marsolet was living Tadoussac 1608-1635 at the time. Champlain hated Marsolet because he reported directly to the King. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would plot (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633)’s future demise. Brule became the word to describe all those who renounced French rule to live with the Natives. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) attempted to barter to allow his two native girls about 17 & 12 years of age to return with him to France, but is refused by the English. One girl had previously returned to her People. The English shipped all the colonists to France by way of England, including the priests. (I)-Lewis Herbert’s family claimed to have escaped deportation and remained with the Indians and 7 free traders in New France. (I)- Etienne Brule (1591-1633) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677) claimed they were taken by force, and they believed if they were taken to France they would be hung. This is to counter claims that they aided the Kirk Brothers. Others suggest it was Jacques Michel, who led the Kirke’s to victory over (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) .
July 19 (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) recounted: “Louis Kirke landed about 150 armed men and took possession of the settlement. He came to the fort to drive me out. He planted the English flag on one of the bastions, sounded the drum, assembled his soldiers and fired the cannon to signal his joy.”
July 22: David Kirke (1597-1654), Lewis Kirke (1599-1660) and Thomas Kirke stormed Fort Saint Louis built on the St Lawrence River in 1620. The Kirke’s alias Kertks were French Huguenots who escaped French Catholic persecution by escaping to England.
July 24: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) left Kebec as a prisoner of the Company of Adventurers to Canada.
(I)-Nicolas Pivert and his wife Marguerite Lesage, died November 29, 1643, Kebec are still in Kebec after (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) left Kebec.
July 25: The English encountered the French ship commanded by Emery de Caen, who also surrendered.
August 1: At Tadoussac, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) reprimanded (I)- Etienne Brule (1591-1633) and (I)- Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677) who had gone over to the Indians. Both men had fathered Metis children. Champlain had no authority over Marsolet and this bothered him greatly. Marsolet was one of 7 interpreters who remained in Kebec during the Kirk occupation, in fact he became great friends with the English brothers. He had three savage wives by country marriage.
August 24: Father (I)-Philibert Noyrut (1592-1629) is lost in a shipwreck off Cape Breton, as is Brother (I)-Louis Malot (1592-1629).
August 29: L’Estourneau wrecked off Canso, Nova Scotia, 14 died.
Population of Kebec 26 French + 90 English. Others suggest the total population of Kebec was 103.
Some believe (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort is appointed Governor of Trois Rivieres this year. There was secret papers created by the Jesuits to make him acting Governor of New France in event of Champlain’s death.
Breton a ships captain was in Canada 1629 and Kebec 1630
The Plymouth Company established a trading post at the mouth of the Penobscot River (Maine)
(I)-Jacques Badeau d-1658 Quebec married Anne Ardouin d-1670.
(II)-Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet de Belleborne, Metis, b-1630 daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne born 1598 and died October 9, 1642, Sillery; and Nipissirinienne sauvagesse, b-1610.
(I)-Adrien du Chesne (Duchene), a surgeon, from Dieppe who arrived Kebec 1620. remained in Kebec with his wife during the English occupation. It is likely his wife was savage and with his skills he was considered an asset by the English. There is no record of children but they would not be recorded by the religious.
(I)-Francois Marguerie had fled the English to live among the Wendat (Huron) and learned their language to later become an interpreter.
Portugal Cove (St. Philips), Newfoundland is named after Portugal fishermen who occupied this area prior to this time.
The Great Puritan migration of the 1630′s had a profound impact on New England (American culture). These English and Scottish Puritans branched into the Congregational, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Unitarian, Quaker and other Protestant sects. Their Protestant ethic suggested the Roman Catholic Church had taken a wrong turn after the fifth century by adding forms, ceremonies and dogmas with no basis in the Holy Scriptures. They rejected the Church of England because they retained bishops, vestments and ritual. They wanted to worship as the early Christians had worshiped. The French Huguenots and Scotch, German, Scandinavian and Netherlands Calvinists are essentially Puritan in nature, differing only in details. Charles I is told by Bishop William Laud to considered the Puritans as blasphemous because they brushed aside candles, the cross, kneeling and chanting along with other forms of worship. Persecution by Bishop William Laud would drive 10,000 Puritans to New England over the next four years.
The Dutch colony of Rensselaerswyck is established near Fort Orange, New York.
New Amsterdam (New York), a Dutch colony, had 300 people by this date with neat gabled houses and a brick church. Baie Forteau in the Strait of Belle Island, is a long time Basque-whaling station.
The Iroquois gained ascendancy over the Algonquins, thanks to the firearms sold to them by the Dutch.
The third fleet sent by the Company of 100 Associates to Kebec is lost.
March 29: The Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye was signed by England and France. The colonies of Canada and Acadia were returned to France. King Charles I, however, had refused to restore the captured territories until further settlements were made.
April 30: (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) granted a barony in Acadia ( Nova Scotia), from Yarmouth to Lunenburg to (I)-Claude La Tour (1570-1736+) and (II)-Charles de La Tour (1595-1665) if Charles would defect to the English..
May 12: (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne de La Tour, (1570-1736+) who transferred his allegiance from France to England, enrolled his son (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665), a Frenchman, as an English baronet. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) knew nothing of his father’s actions until his father appeared before Cape Sable, Acadia ( Nova Scotia) where (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665), the son, commanded the French Fort La Tour (Lomeron). (I)-Claude La Tour, (1570-1736+) the father, attempted to persuade (II)-Charles La Tour, the son, to surrender the Fort to the English, and when this failed, father fought son until (I)-Claude, the father, and the English withdrew. The English had promised land grants to entice the son to join the English. The English suffered significant losses after two assaults were repelled. As a result (I)-Claude La Tour (1570-1736+) and his second wife were reduced to beggary and settled in Port Royal, Acadia among the Scots who were settled there by (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640). The first winter 30 of the original 70 Scot settlers died.
August 1: Saint Jacques de Dieppe, France, baptism Pierre Martin son of Abraham Martin and Marguedith Langlois is likely not Abraham (1589-1664)
The French Captain Marot arrived Fort La Tour with supplies of arms and ammunitions. The war ship was put under command of (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) who enticed his father to quit Port Royal and join him at Fort La Tour, which he did. He brought news that the Scots planned to attack Fort La Tour. (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) started construction of a new fort at the mouth of the St. John River to repel the English by sea and secure the river for trade..
Population of Kebec 25 French + 76 English + 1 birth
One birth is recorded in Kebec, New France.
(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon arrived Chibou, Cape Breton Island.
(I)-Hubert Anselme ordered a vessel of the Company of the Hundred Associates to Tadoussac and in 1632 voyages de Champlain.
France: (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) is appointed Superior of the Jesuits in New France. He also is appointed to act as Governor of New France in case of any extraordinary event. He had the unusual power of superseding Champlain’s authority when he deemed it advisable.
(II)-Charles De Saint Etienne De La Tour Metis (1595-1665) is made a baronet of Nova Scotia by Sir William Alexander in 1631. (II)-Charles LaTour Metis was already a “seigneur d’Acadie” by de Bienville’s will. Also in 1631, Louis XIII of France grants (II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) a concession at the mouth of the St.John River, now in New Brunswick, where he builds Fort Ste-Marie in Jemseg.
(II)-Nicole Madeleine Gareman b-1631 Kebec? daughter (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot: married October 10, 1645, Quebec Rene Mezeray.
(II)-Louise Garnier, b-1631, Lachine, daughter (I)-Charles Garnier and Jeanne Labraye. Another daughter is b-1627 no location given and an older daughter Louise age nor location not given.
Marriage likely 1631, assumed St. Malo, France (I)-Sebastien Hayet aka Hayot dit Radisson married to Madeleine Herault aka Hainault, second marriage likely Metis or savage still alive in 1654 at Trois Rivieres.
FIVE CHILDREN ARE RECORDED
(II)-Francoise Radisson, no birth date given, but likely died young, is listed Tanguay
(II)-Marguerite Radisson b-1632, 1st married 1646, age 12 yrs. most likely Trois Rivieres? to Jean Vernon Grandmenil, Tanguay
The following children are considered to be half sisters and a half brother to (II)-Marguerite
(II)-Francoise Radisson, Metis, b-1636, married about 1653, likely Trois Rivieres, (I)-Claude Volant de St Claude, b-1636
(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouard dit Radisson Metis, (1636/40-1710) Marguerite is recorded as half sisters to (II)-Pierre.(*)
(II)-Elisabeth Radisson, Metis, (1638-1722)
#0 (II)-Pierre calls himself Peter Efprit Radiffon, likely his ‘S’ looked like ‘F’
#1 (II)-Pierre swore while in England, he was born 1636, St. Malo, France.
#2 A search for baptismal records suggests (II)-Pierre was not born St. Malo, France
#3 The English believed (II)-Pierre to be Italian not French. (**)
#4 Some claim (II)-Pierre is the son of Pierre Esprit Radisson, b-1590, Avagon, France and Madeleine Heraut.
#5 No record exists in New France that Pierre Esprit Radisson, b-1590, Avagon, France is in New France.
#6 (II)-Pierre claims he arrived Quebec, May 24, 1651.
#7 (II)-Pierre claims capture by the Mohawk Iroquois May 24, 1651 near Trois Rivieres & escaped October 29. 1653
#8 (II)-Pierre claims he was captured by the Irokoits in 1652
#9 (II)-Pierre claims to be among the Dutch in 1653, and claims to be from Trois Rivieres.
#10 The Dutch believed (II)-Pierre was an Indian
#11 (II)-Pierre claims to be in Holland January 4/7, 1654.
#12 (II)-Pierre claims to have married 1656, Trois Rivieres, Elizabeth, daughter Madeleine Hainault
#13 (II)-Pierre claims to be in Quebec May 17, 1654 and then Trois Rivieres to see ‘his relatives’ all at Trois Rivieres..
#14 (II)-Pierre claims ‘his relatives’ are his ‘natural parents’, and ‘Country People’, and ‘my brother, his wife & children’.
#15 (II)-Francoise Radisson, b-1636 married Quebec 1654, Trois Rivieres, Claude Volant (***) de St Claude, b-1636
#16 Some claim (II)-Pierre married England daughter of John Kirke.
#17 (II)-Pierre has been known to stretch the truth, if it serves his purposes.
#18 Some suggest (II)-Marguerite Radisson, b-1632 is (II)-Francoise Marguerite (1635-1677)
#19 (II)-Marguerite first child born June 1648, Trois Rivieres.
#20 (II)-Marguerite is living with (I)-Jean Baptiste Godefroy (1608-1681) on November 25, 1646, as though a servant?
(*) This position of birth is very problematic, as is his claim of, ‘Country People’, as relatives.
Country People usually refers to mixed marriages Indian/European unions or Metis People.
(**) During my life time a Metis was said, by the English, to have a bit of Italian in them!
(***) Tanguay says Volant dit is deRadisson, (II) Pierre’s brother & family?
It is fairly obvious that the second (II)-Francoise, (II)-Pierre and (II)-Elizabeth are Metis, therefore not listed by Tanguay.
The English of Kebec are represented by Governor Captain Thomas Ker, originally from Dieppe, France, his brothers David and Louys Ker and Jacques Michel, also originally from Dieppe, all being Huguenots and are now working for the English. These English-Frenchmen are held responsible for the destruction and plunder of New France. The home and property of Madame (I)-Herbert is not damaged, nor her property taken. Her daughter and her husband are also not molested. They likely made some arrangements with the English. Sieur Brusle, a Frenchman, is also known to have gone over to the English during occupation but was killed by the Huron for unknown reasons. This must be a reference to (I)-Etienne Brule (1582-1633) who is killed in 1632. The Kirks brought the first known slave to Canada, a Negro or Moor slave, later to be sold to Le Bailly at Kebec for fifty ecus. The first recorded Black African slave in Canada was Oliver Le Jeune who was sold this year in Quebec. The Savages of the Kabec region had been trading and supporting the English during the years of occupation.
Slavery became a common practice in New France and the Church became the largest slave owner. Many have asked how could this happen, when in 1435 Pope Eugene IV in his Bull Sicut Dudum condemned slavery and those engaged in it, and those who ignore the Bull are excommunicated, ipso facto. In 1537, Pope Paul III issued the Bull Sublimis Deus that condemned slavery, Popes Gregory XIV, 1591, Pope Urban VIII, 1639, and Pope Benedict XIV, 1741 also condemned slavery. We can only assume those Jesuits and Religious Sisters who held slaves were automatically excommunicated, ipso facto.
King Charles I granted Cape Breton Island to Robert Gordon of Lochinvar and his son Robert Gordon.
February 8: Louis XIII named (I)-Charles de La Tour (1595-1665) Governor and Lieutenant General of New France.
February 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Elizabeth Couillard, Metis, died April 5, 1704 Chateau Richer daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); married November 27, 1645, Kebec (I)-Jean Guyon: Elizabeth was baptised, not by a French Priest, but by Anglais minister. Because during Kirk occupation, there was no priest in Kebec. Is this (I)-Jean Guyon who arrived Kebec 1619 and is possibly (I)-Jean Guton (Guton) (Dion) dir du Buisson (1592-1663)???
April 28: Luke Fox (Foxe) (1586-1635) departed London in search of the North West passage. He skirted the western shore of Hudson Bay and discovered relics of the 1612 Button expedition.
July 10: King Charles I instructed (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) to give Port Royal back to the French and to destroy Fort William; built by his son (II)-William Alexander.
August 29: Luke Fox (Foxe) (1586-1635) met Thomas James (1593-1635), an English explorer, near Cape Henrietta Maria. Fox sailed into Foxe Channel as far as Cape Dorchester and established that the Hudson Bay did not offer a passage to the east.
September 7: Thomas James (1593-1635) sailed for two days before Luke Fox sailed from England to Hudson Bay, and they met by accident. Thomas James wintered on Charlton Island, James Bay. He recorded the presence, on nearby Danby Island, of stakes that were driven into the ground, being cut with a hatchet. Some speculate this represents the presence of Henry Hudson. Eskimo tradition suggests a live white boy is rescued from a boat in Hudson Straits with a dead white man. (I)-Claude de La Tour (1570-1736+) built a fort on Portland Point at the East Side of St. John harbor.
No marriages, births or deaths recorded in Kebec.
Marriage (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687), 1 child reported 1st marriage, 5 children 2nd marriage.
(I)-Jean Bigot de Tourouvre, au Perche married 1633 Kebec, Thomine Chastel is in New France 1633 to 1636, however 1st child (II)-Francoise Bigot (most likely Metis) is born 1632 and 1st married 1647 Charles Guillebout and 2nd married May 8, 1659 Denis Briere, Kebec .
It is believed that 6 households of French remained in Kebec during the English occupation along with 7 interpreters who were living among the savages.
Francois Albert married Kabec Thomasse Gabarette.
(I)-Gilbert Burel, Jesuit lay brother returned to Kebec with LeJeune another lay brother.
Guillaume Guillemot, sieur Duplessis Bochart aka Duplessis Quebodo is a lieutenant of Emery de Caen in Kebec.
(II)-Marie Le Neuf, b-1632 likely France, December 5, 1702 L’egglise des Recollets, daughter (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie, b-1606 in Kebec 1636 and (II)-Marguerite Le Gardieur, b-1608, died 1697
(I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) Superior of the Jesuits in New France and acting Governor New France arrived Kebec. It’s likely (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort also arrived about this time to become Governor Trois Rivieres and under secret papers to act as Governor of New France in event of the death of Champlain. There is little doubt that (I)-Paul Le Jeune, Jesuit exercised his unusual authority, but he appears to always act through others.
P. Lejeune said mass at (I)-Guillaume Couillard’s house and Francais was not heard in past three years.
(I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) returned from the interior after living 12 years among the savages, taking at least one wife and a 2nd wife in Kebec in 1637. He worked for the One Hundred Associates.
Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), executed Henri II, Due de Montmorency (1595-1632), Grand Admiral of France, for participating in an abortive revolt.
(I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632), the first known Coureurs des Bois of Kebec, is killed by the Huron for unknown reasons. If the Jesuits are correct in saying he was much addicted to women, then it is highly likely that he was killed for impropriety. Others suggest he sided with the English and that being the reason he was killed. Still others suggest he killed another man and was killed for that reason. He left a Huron Country Wife and Metis children who were lost to history.
The Jesuits Fathers (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) and Ambrose Davost (1586-1643) went to Cape Breton this year, then moved to Fort Kebec in 1633.
(I)-Nicolas Denys Bras d’Or (1598-1688), a La Rochelle Merchant, sailed for La Have (Bridgewater, Nova Scotia), Acadia and would spend the next forty years trying to develop new colonies. They, Isaac de Razilly and Denys, first established a fur trading post then established fishing establishment at Port Rossignol (Liverpool, Nova Scotia). They also started a lumbering venture.
The (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) and Herbert family is believed to be the first slave owners in New France.
(I)- Isaac de Razilly (1587-1635) with 300 soldiers and settlers arrived to reoccupy Acadia. Included are Charles De Menou, sieur d’Aulnay, Charmisy and likely Nicolas Denys. They founded a new colony at La Heve on September 8.
Father Gabriel Sagard wrote: The French themselves, better educated and raised in the school of faith, are becoming Savages for no better reason than that they live with the Savages. Father Paul Le Jeune wrote: Let no one be astonished at these acts of barbarism. Before the faith was received in Germany, Spain or England, those nations were not more civilized. Both these men had no understanding of the attraction for the Coureurs de Bois. Freedom, adventure and democracy, terms the French could not understand.
King Charles I of England effectively sold their interest in New France and L’Acadie to France for $240,000. The St. Lawrence River has been closed to Frenchmen during the past three years.
Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), of France, excluded the Recollets from New France, opening the field to complete Jesuit control. The Jesuits were to assimilate by civilizing and were to convert to French/Roman Catholic Christianity, the Savages of the New World. They had very little success but would continue towards this end until the mid to late twentieth century.
The Couillard-Hébert family receives the first slave of the colony. He is a Black boy from the West Indies. The historian Marcel Trudel has counted 4092 slaves throughout Canadian history, of which 2692 were Indians (the favorites of French-speakers) and 1400 Blacks (the favorites of English-speakers) owned by approximately 1400 masters. The region of Montréal dominates with 2077 slaves compared to 1059 for Québec and 114 for Trois-Rivières. Many were held by religious orders. Several marriages took place between French colonists and slaves (31 unions between with Indian slaves and 8 with Black slaves) which means that a number of Québécois today have slaves somewhere in their family trees.
March: The treaty of St. German En Laye restored New France and Acadia to France. New France, for the past three years, was under the rule of English free traders. Acadia Fort La Tour was not taken and much blood was shed before Port Royal, Acadia was returned. William de Caen, a Calvinist, is appointed Governor of New France because he is a man of means. (I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636) was equipped to remove all English and Scots from Acadia by force if necessary. Port Royal promptly surrendered. Acadia is also restored to France, and (I)-William Alexander’s settlement returns to Scotland, except for one or two families who chose to remain among the French and Metis Acadians.
March 27: (I)-Isaac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1636) and Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), agreed that (I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636) was to take over Port Royal Acadia for the Company of New France. (I)-Isaac de Razilly (1587-1636) settled at Le Heve, built a Fort and brought 40 settlers out. English Governor Winthrop was concerned with the Le Heve Fort and ordered construction of a Fort at Boston, a Fort at Natascott and a plantation at Agawam.
May: (I)-Isaac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1636) is named Lieutenant General for the King in New France and is granted a tract of land at Ste Croix.
June: (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) is killed by the Hurons, likely near Penetanguishe, Ontario
July: The De Caen’s French ship, on July 4th, is lost in a storm not far from Fort Kebec. The Savages came to see the men, having discovered the abandoned ship grounded in the mud. This year a single French ship arrived at Fort Kebec with Captain Emery de Caen- brother of William, Guillaume Guillemmot, Sieur Duplessis Bouchart (Kerbordo or Quebordo?) with forty men including three Jesuit missionaries, Father Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), Father Anne de Noue (1587-1646) and a lay brother- Gilbert Burel, but no Recollects. The English, under Kirke, turned Fort Kebec over to Caen. Kirke departed on July 13 with two shiploads of booty. The Hebert family and five other families had been allowed by the English to remain in Fort Kebec to protect their holdings. The Hebert family is likely allowed to remaim because they are Metis. Father Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), a Jesuit of Huguenot parents, one of the three, in letter, said the Fort at Kebec and some huts on the Island of Hochelaga (Montreal), at Three Rivers and Tadoussac, along with a few fishermen’s log cabins on the St. Lawrence, is about all there is to show for the discovery of New France. The English-French had not only plundered but also burnt a greater part of the buildings. Captain Thomas Ker, a Frenchman, who had gone over to the English with David and Louys Ker, his brothers and one Jacques Michel d-1632, all are Huguenots, were involved in the destruction of Kebec. De Caen says the Kebec inventory of 9,000 beaver skins valued at 40,000 livres is missing. Madam Herbert, her family and most of her farm was intact but the Savages killed her cows. A little Negro and his French family were also left by the English. (I)-Jacques Hertel d-1651 in Canada since 1615 took refuge among the Savages when Kebec was captured and is recorded as the first farmer at Three Rivers. One however is hard pressed to place colonization much before this date. Even this modest toehold would not have been possible were it not for the Coureurs-des-Bois.
July 4: (I)-Charles de Memou d’Aulnay (1596-1650) arrived Acadia and later married Jeanne Motin daughter Louis Motin de Corcelles and Marie De Salins.
July 5: The French De Caen with the Jesuits Father Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father Anne de Noue (1587-1646), arrived at Kebec but the English still occupied the fort.
July 13: The French, (I)-Emery de Caen and du Plessis Bouchart, finally entered Fort Kebec which the English handed over to them.
July 13: Three ships departed France for Acadia with 300 people mostly men but some say there might have been 12-15 women aboard.
August 25: The Canadians arrived Kebec; the Montagnard, the Huron, the Nation of the Bear (Huron), the Tobacco Nation, and the Nation of the Sorcerers (Hiroquois), and many others, arrived in 50 canoes.
September 8: (I)-Issac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635), Lieutenant General of New France, with three ships and 12-15 families, but with 300 men arrived at Acadia. Some suggest 40 families are settled at La Have, Acadia but this count must have included the mixed marriages with the Micmac. They built their settlement at La Have, on the site of Riverport, Nova Scotia. A Micmac village was located nearby. Subsidiary communities soon sprang up, Port Rossignel for fishing and Mirligueche for lumbering. (II)-Charles de La Tour (1595-1665) and (I)-Isaac de Razilly d’aulnay (1587-1636) was designated Lieutenant-General of all parts of New France called Canada and the Governor of Acadia, he returned to France, having assumed control of La Have, Port Royal and the Ste Croix region of Acadia. Some early names include Dugas, Gaudet, Landry and Aucoin. Names to arrive later include Lablanc, Cormier, Gallant, Legere, Saunier, Arsenault, Boudreau, Comeau, Robichaud, Theriault and Thibodeau, to name a few of the several hundred colonists. The colonists built dikes to reclaim the fertile lands of the Bay of Funday, rather than clear the forested upland areas. As a result, they posed no threat to the Micmac People and a great friendship grew between the Peoples. Many of the early French settlers took Micmac wives, and La Have was known as an Acadian Metis settlement. It is noteworthy that La Have from 1632 to 1635 was the capital of Acadia.
October 25: The Manitougache (Montagnait) asked shelter for his family as the Hiroquois had been seen near Kebec. The Jesuit said he and his sons are most welcome but girls and women are not allowed to sleep in our house. The Jesuit sleep in the Huron cabins with the men, girls, women and dogs but can’t provide sanctuary for the Huron. The Jesuits would not see that they had just rejected Jesus Christ by rejecting these girls and women. The first Europeans encountered drank blood (red wine) and ate wood (dry biscuits). The French they called Ouemichtigouchiou (man who work in wood). The Savages have long memories.
December 2: The Jesuit say from this date on we were required to wear raquettes (snow shoes). The Savages can jump like bucks or run like deer wearing these raquettes. They make shoes of elk skin that they use with these raquettes.
September 8: Charles Daniel (d-1661) attacked Ochiltree’s settlement, capturing the Fort and the colonists at Baleine, Cape Breton Island..
September 14: Most of the French settlers are deported from Kebec except for five families and 7 interpreters who are living with the Natives.
October 29: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and the French prisoners reach England.
November 30: (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne de La Tour, (1570-1736+) a prisoner in England since 1628, is enrolled as a baronet of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and transferred his allegiance to the English.
December: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is in France urging the return of Canada to French control.
One birth is recorded in Kebec, New France.
Barthelemi Bertaut aka Bertault, a gunsmith is listed as single but was involved in 44 court cases in Trois Rivieres
Pierre Bienvenu, savage; It is common practice for the French to give the savages French names. Savages at this time means wild, runners of the woods, free not under control of church or state.
Birth (II)-Jean Galeran Boucher son (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married September 1, 1650 Kebec, Jean Plante
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort is Governor of Trois Rivieres and would assume Governor New France upon the death of Champlain.
(I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681) returns to Kebec this year and is credited by some to be the official founder of Trois Riviers.
General du Plessis Bouchard, is at Tadoussac.
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) returned to Kebec this year or next.
(I)-Jean Bigot de Tourouvre, au Perche married 1633 Kebec, Thomine Chastel is in New France 1633 to 1636, however 1st child (II)-Francoise Bigot is born 1632 and 1st married 1647 Charles Guillebout and 2nd married May 8, 1659 Denis Briere, Kebec .
(I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651), an interpreter, who took refuge among the Savages when the English captured Kebec is given a land grant at Trois Rivieres, being the first to settle there, he married 1641 Marie Marguerie. This is not likely as Trois Rivieres has been in use since 1615, however mostly as a trading center for the free traders.. Some suggest, 7 to 15 Frenchmen remained in New France during the British occupation.
(I)-Madame Coullart gave birth to a boy child, in Kebec.
De La Tour (a judge of Champlain) married Louise de sauvagesse, according to Tanguay. Date/location not identified.
Pastedechouan, savage was sent to France by the Recollects and is returned to Emery de Caen at Kebec with the name Pierre and he is given to the Jesuits as an interpreter.
Father (I)-Gilbert du Thet, d-1633, a Jesuit is killed by the English at St-Sauveur-Des-Monts, Kebec
Captain Thomas Ker, David Ker, Louis Ker and Jacques Michel all Frenchmen and alleged Huguenots had gone over to the English.
Frenchmen who took country wives were officially listed as single as country marriages were not considered as binding. Many early country marriages were not recorded and their children were recorded as savages.
The Huron said that the Hiroquois had killed three Frenchman this year.
Those Frenchmen who did not produce baptized children are not considered settlers in New France. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) produced no children therefore he was not a settler.
Lawyers are not allowed to immigrate to New France or even visit, by Royal decree. This policy remained in effect until 1765.
The first French ship to return after the English occupation stopped at Basque Scaffold near Tadoussac a place so called because the Basque go there to catch whales.
The French teach the Savages the art of bleeding to cure illness. Some of the Savages are using the French practice of blood letting to allow evil spirits to escape the body.
The Montagnard say he who made everything is called Atahocan. Others say the Manitou is God. They say Messou restored the world after it was lost in the waters (deluge) that drowned the whole world.
The Jesuits are now in full control, having effectively replaced the Recollect-Franciscans. They have a pathological desire to create a religious monopoly, with the state being sub-servant to Rome. This year marks an end to a century long quest by the Huguenots to establish a colony in Canada. Huguenots had to convert to Roman Catholic to remain in New France.
The Jesuits claim humility is born of truth, vanity of errors and falsehood. The Savages (Montagnais) claim liberty is by ‘right of Birth’. The Jesuits say they are real buffoons. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit in the future are expelled from most countries because of their intrigue and falsehoods.
Louis Amantacha, a Wendat (Huron), arrived at Fort Kebec and returned for his people who came with some 500 Wendat, followed a little later with 140 canoe furs. The Jesuit wished to return with the Wendat but are refused because they say the Algonquin might kill them. They would be allowed to go the next season.
The Huron (Wendat) are competitors with the Algonquin over the fur trade. Rumors abound that the Jesuits are more interested in beaver-skin than winning souls.
The Jesuit have two cows, two little heifers, and a little bull. They have two fat sows with 4 suckling little pigs. Monsieur (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) also has a cow.
It is estimated that 30,000 furs are being traded to the Dutch, exhausting the supply of furs in Iroquois territory. The Iroquois attacked the French on the St. Lawrence above Kebec, killing two French and wounding four others.
A party of French pirates plunder the English at Penobscott, Maine and said they were from the Isle of Rhe. It is believed (II)-Charles La Tour, (1595-1665) is believed behind this attack. They encountered an English sahallop commanded by Dixy Bull and robbed him of his goods. Dixy Bull as a result turned pirate and plundered Pemaquid, Maine. The English spent two months trying to find him without success.
More ships arrive La Have, Acadia with men and supplies but no women.
February 28: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Couillard, Metis, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); 1st married October 25, 1648, Kebec, Francois Bissot: 2nd marriage September 7, 1675, Jacques De Lalande. Marguerite Lesage, wife of (I)-Nicolas Pivert is godmother to Marie Couillard.
March 1: Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), commanded (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) to take control of Fort Kebec with two hundred colonists including Fathers (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648), (I)-Ambroise Davost (1586-1643), Father (I)-Ememond Masse and Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649). Sieur (I)-Jean de Bourdon arrived, an engineer and surveyor in the service of the crown. The objective is two fold: to harvest furs and souls.
April: The Jesuits were amazed at the harmony among and between the savage families living in such close proximity. The French would be squabbling all the time. They noted that the savage women have an equal voice in important matters. A man may promise you something, and, if he does not keep his promise, he thinks he is sufficiently excused when he tells you that his wife did not wish to do it. I told him then that he was the master, and that in France women do not rule their husbands. The Jesuit would try to overturn the culture of the country.
April: The Frenchmen from Old France are astonished that the Jesuit say nothing about the conversion of the Savages during the many years that they have been in New France. The Jesuit list numerous feeble reasons for their lack of progress. The Savages say the French are worthless, they are wicked men, they do not tell us what you, Father Eschom (Brebeuf), tell them, and never the less it is of importance that we ought to talk of it at the Council of the whole land. The implications are if the French traders don’t believe the Jesuit why should the Huron. It is noteworthy that the Savages listen to reason readily, not that they always follow it, but generally they urge nothing against a reason which carries convection in their mind. The Jesuit however often do not respond to reason especially if it contradicts pre-established beliefs about New France. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649).was given the name Eschom when he visited the Huron this year. He likely departed from the trading post at Trois Rivieres. The Huron planted corn but only two families had stored any corn.
May 14: (I)- Olivier Le Jeune (d-1654), a Negro slave, named Oliver Le Jeune d-1654 belonging to (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) is baptized at Fort Kebec. The Kirk brothers had abandoned him. Others suggest he was sold to Couillard.
May 14: Kebec, baptism, a Negro slave from Madagascar, who was sold by the English Captain Ker, a Frenchman, for fifty ecur to Le Bailly. Le Bailly eventually presented him to another family that is settled in Kebec.
May 19: News reached Kebec that an English ship had entered Tadoussac, (Quebec) a few days ago. They did not know if it was a trading vessel or if France and England was again at war. Everyone was upon his guard.
May 22: Kebec, three ships arrived, the Saint Piere at 150 tonnage, captain Pierre Gregoire, the Saint Jean at 160 tonnage, captain Pierre de Nesle and the Don-de-Dieu at 90 tonnage, captain Pierre Morieult.
May 22: Monsieur Emery de Caen gave the keys of Fort Kebec to Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard who delivered them next year to Monsieur Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635), to take command of the ships according to the decree of Monseigneur the Cardinal.
May 23: France reclaims Kebec.
May 30: An Algonquin killed a Frenchman and is put in chains at Fort Kebec.
May 31: La Nasse, a Savage, reported to the Jesuit that he had a vision (a dream) that some Frenchman would be killed
June 2: The Hiroquois (Agnieeronons) near Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) killed two Frenchmen and wounded four others, one of whom died shortly afterwards, just as the savage La Nasse had dreamed.
June 23: Sieur General du Plessis Bouchard sent word that 12-14 canoes of Sorcerers is at Sainte Croix, 15 leagues above Kebec. A few days earlier a dozen called Iroquet had passed this location with no fear. The French called the Hiroquois Sorcerers because they consulted Manitou (God) who the Jesuit considered as the Devil. It is noteworthy that all the nations had no Devil concept and all consulted the Great Manitou (God) and would eventually also be called Sorcerers by the Jesuit.
June 28: The English are still at Tadoussac (Quebec) trading in brandy.
July 2: A Frenchman is struck down while washing his cloths in a brook near Fort Kebec. He died two days later and a Savage of the Petite Nation who struck him down was captured and taken to the fort.
July 10: The Jesuit received news that a Savage (Algonquian) was sick, a half-league from the Jesuit Residence. They took a canoe to the Savage cabins. They encountered a unnamed Frenchman near the cabins, who said that the Savages did not want to show their child to the French. The Jesuit implied this Frenchman maybe trading in brandy secretly.
July 13: (I)-Emery de Caen b-1606, a Huguenot is appointed Provisional Governor of New France, and he took formal possession this date along with Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard. Some Frenchmen were still in the woods who do not appear before the others because they had surprised, massacred and eaten their companions. The survivors at Trois Rivieres are in pitiful shape.
August 16: The French ships departed Kebec for Old France.
November 5: The Huron showed the French a palisade village where French resided, the Hiroquois had burned it down and killed the occupants. It was noted that a field was cultivated and Indian corn was growing. This is likely Trois Rivieres?
Two marriages, one birth and one death are recorded in Kebec, New France.
(I)-Simon Baron arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) one of the more famous Coureur Des Bois is believed to have reached the Mississippi River this year. He always wore a Chinese robe during his travels.
(I)-Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne, b-1607, died August 12, 1697, Trois Rivieres is believed to be at Trois Rivieres this year. He was a syndic of Trois Rivieres, then judge of the seigniory of Champlain, Three Rivers was officially established this year. Some claim Guillaume was born 1620 and arrived Three Rivers 1633. However he was a syndin in 1633 age 13, not likely.
A brother and sister savage are given to the Jesuits who name them Brehault.
During the winter of 1633/1634 the Basque had left a boy at Gaspe to learn the language but the savages had him killed and ate him.
(II)-Jean Bigot, (most likely Metis), b-1634, Kebec, died September 24, 1648, Kebec son (I)-Jean Bigot de Tourouvre, au Perche who married 1633 Kebec, Thomine Chastel is in New France 1633 to 1636, however 1st child (II)-Francoise Bigot (most likely Metis) is born 1632 and 1st married 1647 Charles Guillebout and 2nd married May 8, 1659 Denis Briere, Kebec, 2nd child Jean born this year.
(II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) son (I)-Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lamaine, arrived this year Kebec with his family, he married April 8, 1649 Kebec his first wife Marie Madeleine (Chretienne) Ouebaddinoukoue, a Huron Indian girl, they had a son (III)-Jacques Boucher b-1650; his second marriage July 9, 1652 Kebec is (II)-Jeannie Crevier, b-1636 daughter (I)-Christophe Crevier Sieur de la Mesle and Jeanne Enard b-1619. He settled Trois Rivieres, likely about 1645, but may have located his Metis family at Trois Rivieres in 1642/43 while working Kebec. It’s noteworthy that sauvagesse married to Frenchmen were not welcome in Kebec unless they were baptized. Now Governor Pierre had the idea of creating a new people by the union of French men and Indian women. So it is likely his second wife was at least a Metis woman.
(I)-Martin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1634, married 1st. February 7, France Julienne Baril, d-1727; 2nd marriage 1628, France, (I)-Pierrine Mallet (1604-1687). Three child arrive with family (II)-Francois Boucher, b-1618, married September 3, 1641, Kebec, Florence Gareman; (II)-Louis Martin Boucher, b-1630 and (II)-Jean Galleran Boucher, b-1633.
(I)-Jasper Bouchard arrived Kabec 1634
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort, commandant of the new trading post at Trois Riveres, whose commission, likely since 1632, had been in the hands of (I)-Paul Le Jeune, (1591-1664) Superior of the Jesuits in New France. It is noteworthy that some believed Chasteaufort received his commission in 1630 but didn’t exercise it until 1634. Others suggest Monsieur de Maupertus was in charge of the trading post at Trois Rivieres (1635-1636). Could this be a reference to the old vs. new trading posts?
(I)-Jean Burbon arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Zacharie Cloutier (1590-1677) married July 18, 1616, France, (I)-Xainte Dupont, arrived Kebec with a family of 7 this year.
(I)-Pierre Cluster arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Jean Coste arrived Kebec 1634
(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon arrived Kebec
(I)-Jean Cote (1603-1661) arrived Kebec 1634, married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (II)-Anne Martin daughter (I)-Abraham Martin and savage and/or Marquerite Langlois, b-1611, see 1624
(I)-Pierre Drouet a carpenter, died March 6, 1635, arrived Trois Rivieres to work for (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660), some suggest Nicolas Goupil and Laviolette are two different persons. Tanguay suggest Laviolette is an alias for Goupil.
Louis Amantacha Sainte Foy, a savage baptized in France is returned to Kebec.
(I)-Jean Guton (Guyon) (Dion) dit DuBuisson (1592-1663) married June 2, 1615, France (I)-Mathurine Madeleine Robin,d-1662, this family of 8 arrived Kebec this year. Or is this the (I)-Jean Guyon who arrived Kebec 1619?? Very suspicious!
(I)-Guillaume Guillemot, sieur Duplessis Bouchard aka Duplessis Quebodo a lieutenant of Emery de Caen transported (I)-Robert Giffard’s de Moncel (1587-1668) colony to Beauport and helped in the foundation of Trois Rivieres.
(I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married Madeleine Boule
(I)-Noel Juchereau des Chastelets, arrived Kebec 1634
Manitouchatche La Nasse, a Savage is baptized a relative of Pierre Antoine, Savage.
Monsieur de Lauson is at Trois Rivieres this year.
(I)-Robert Lecorg arrived Kebec 1634
Sasousmat Marsolet, b-1605/09, a Savage is baptized and given the surname Marsolet.
(I)-Jacques Michel, a French Huguenot who brought the English to Kebec, died this year in Kebec.
Sieur (I)-Oliver is at Kebec (an interpreter of the Algonquins?).
(I)-Francois Petit Pre a Jesuit engage is captured by the Hiroquois in the spring of this year. He managed to escape to the Huron Nation.
Father (I)-Nicolect, a Recolect is believed to have been drowned by the Huron. This must apply to pre 1629 as the Recollet are not allowed into New France after 1632. This would be Father Nicolas Viel d-1625. He produced the first dictionary of the Huron Language.
Under the orders of (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur of Laviolette (1604-1660) travels to the mouth of the Saint-Maurice river to found a fur trading post and a fort. It will come to be known as Trois-Rivières. For a long time, this site will be one of the most advantageous for the activities of fur traders. Tanguay suggests Laviolette is an alias for Goupil, others however suggest Nicolas Goupil & Laviolette are two different persons.
By this year, more than 50 seigneuries were assigned along the St. Lawrence River. The seigneur or lord had to declare himself a vassal of the King. The soil belonged to the seigneur, but the King held the title to all lands. The King retained the mineral or subsoil rights and all oak trees on the property. The peasant settlers could only rent the land and were servants of the lord.
Cap de la Madeleine near Trois Rivieres (established July 1, 1634) is established this year and becomes the home of many Metis People..
Between 1634 and August 1663, while the colony was governed by the Compagnie des Cent Associes, about 262 filles a marier (marriageable girls) were recruited by individuals or by private religious groups who paid their travel expenses and provided for their lodging until they were married. It is noteworthy that savage girls sent to France for an education could return to Quebec under the Fille a Marier program or the Fille du Roi program. An interesting observation in the 1663-1665 lists of girls, was that no documentation followed the girls. They could in effect select their name and place of birth, which some did. It is also interesting that dit names often represents the given name taken at one time, that conflicts with a previous name given. If there is no conflict then dit is not used but there is no assurance the name given is correct. It is noteworthy that the good sisters prided themselves in the educated of a savage girl in reading and writing French, dressed as the French, learned the manners and home skills like sewing, cooking then you couldn’t tell them from the French girls. It stands to reason they would instruct them in selecting suitable names and birth places so as to attract the highest caliber Frenchmen in New France.
The brothers (I)-Noel Juchereau and (I)-Jean Juchereau de Meur are the first to hold the title seigneur. Some are given seigneurs, while others must buy them. Others suggest that (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) was the first to become a seigneur by obtaining the fief of Beauport a few miles below Kebec. Others to follow are Pierre Legardeau de Repentigny, Charles Legardeaur de Tilly, (I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606 and brother (I)-Michel Le Neuf du Herisson (1601-1642). It is noteworthy that the Jesuits also brought workmen, laborers and settlers to bring their seigneur lands into production.
The Huron People very reluctantly allowed the Jesuits to live among them. The people believed that maintaining harmony with nature and between other peoples was the highest order of existence. They believed the Jesuits offered disharmony, universal guilt, a vengeful God, sexual self-denial (which was one of the principle causes of illness), the fundamental inadequacy of man and the eternal fires of damnation. These were all very strange concepts and were alien to the People’s very ancient traditions that predated Christianity. As a Huron Chief said to Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649): “You are talking of overthrowing the Country”. In short, freedom and democracy for slavery.
The Jesuit believe there is a divinity that made earth and men, but the People noticed they are more concerned with temples, priests, ceremonies and religious feasts. The Huron have only one wife, they don’t marry relatives, they believe in the immortality of the soul, they believe animals are immortal and have souls.
The Jesuit Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) attempted to ridicule a Montagnis Shaman, but only brought ridicule upon himself and his Church. The Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) is amazed that the unhappy Savages do not know what the fires of Hell mean. (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668), master surgeon, received a Seigniory at Beauport from the Company of New France. He is employing seven men to clear the land. A fur trader named (I)-La Violette and others occupy Trois Riviers (Quebec). These woodsmen, whom the Jesuits considered as having gone native, had fallen into the habit of making Trois Rivieres their winter quarters. The custom of wearing white scarves had already developed, whereas Fort Kebec woodsmen used red. Flamboyant dress, to these voyager traders, is a symbol of their freedom: a badge of honor. It is also noteworthy that home-brewed beer and wine made from domestic fruits are already commonly consumed.
The officials finally recognize Trois Rivieres, (Quebec), a trading center, upstream from Fort Kebec at the mouth of the Saint Maurice River, by building a fort in this location. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), to confirm this recognition, built a fort forty miles upriver at Trois Riviers, he says, to check the Free-trading English seamen who had established trade during the French absence. The Fort is intended to ensure French Free-traders deal with Fort Kebec and not the English. Trois Rivieres remains the most popular starting point for exploration. The Company of one Hundred associates, created and controlled by Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), granted six arpents of land to the Jesuit.
THE KNOWN INHABITANTS OF TROIS RIVIERES
Trois Rivieres existed as fur trading post since 1615 but the period of 1629 to 1632 only included
Jack Hertel (1603-1651) who stayed during the English occupation and therefore was given a land grant in 1634 at Trois Rivieres, he is considered as the first settler and founder of Trois Rivieres. He is recorded at Trois Rivieres in 1633
Guillaume Isabel, was awarded 24 arpents of land at Trois Rivieres so it is likely he was here during the English occupation
Two unnamed Frenchmen are killed near Trois Rivieres, in 1633
There likely are up to 7 Frenchmen at Trois Rivieres during the English occupation but their names were not recorded because some practiced cannibalism.
Those who were at Trois Rivieres in 1633 are:
Marc Antoine de Brasdefer de Chateaufort, who was assumed to be governor of Trois Rivieres but his tenure was (1636-1639)
Barthelemi Birtaut aka Bertault
Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot (1608-1681)
New folks who were at Trois Rivieres in 1634 are:
General du Plessis Bouchard some contend he was Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660)
(I)-Nicolas Goupil?, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) was governor Trois Rivieres (1634-1636), He arrived Trois Rivers July 1, 1634 to build a fort and returned to France April 17, 1636. It is noteworthy that Laviolette is a dit nickname used by many folks at the time.
(I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer Commandant Trois Rivieres, commisiond in 1630 but arrived 1634, Governor (1636-1639)
Maupertus Commandant Trois Rivieres (1635-1636)
Pierre Droulet, d-1635
The Jesuits were assigned 6 arpents of land at Trois Rivieres but didn’t occupy it until 1637. However Trois Rivieres was used as a staging point to the interior missions.
New folks who were at Trois Rivieres in the fort proper. (1635-1649) first listed dates are from my records and may not be arrival date. You can go to that date and see my first entry. Keep in mind those who had no children were not considered as settlers, those who never married might not be listed, Coureur de Bois were usually not listed and Metis were excluded from most records.
Jacques Aubuchon, d-1681, first listed 1647
Mathurin Baillargeon, b-1626, first recorded 1650
Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) arrived 1634, went to Huron country, 1642 in Quebec, at Trois Rivieres 1645 Indian wife and family 1642?
Emery Cailleteau, (1606-1653), first listed 1647
Chapelle de Jesuits, listed 1637
Martin Chauvin, b-1619, first recorded 1649
Claude David (1621-1681), first listed 1649
Antoine Desrosiers, first listed 1636
Sebastien Dodier Sr.?, first listed 1645
Sebastien Dodier Jr.?, first listed 1645
Bertrand Fafard dit Laframboise (1620-1660), first listed 1645
Thomas Godfroy de Normandville, d-1652, first recorded 1641
Pierre Guillet, b-1626 and brother Mathurin Guillet, both first recorded 1649
Elie Grimard, first recorded 1638
Jean Houdan dit Gaillarbois, no record
Claude Houssaya, no record
Guillaume Isabel, listed 1636 awarded 24 arpents of land
Pierre Michel Lefebvre (1616-1697), first listed 1645
Le fiel Pachirini, no record
Guillaume Pepin dit Tranchemontagne (1607-1697), first listed 1634
Martin de Repentigny, b-1619, first listed 1647
Jean Sauvaget, no record
Etienne Seigneuret (1620-1677), first listed 1647
Gilles Trottier, (1691-1655), first listed 1646
Jean Veron dit Grandmesnil, first listed 1646
Etienne Vien, (1613-1653), first listed 1653
The Island of Miskou, in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence is visited by fishermen from France, Portugal, Italy and many other regions.
Champlain arrived and fears the Savages are continuing trading with the English. Sieur Oliver, the interpreter, is in Kebec.
Meanwhile, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sends (I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1742) to live among the tribes boarding the Great Lakes. Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), the first superior of the Jesuit order in New France, suggested the making of beer and the building of a brewery. He also wintered with a hunting band of Montagnis. He found the experience extremely trying and concluded that the natives needed to be settled for conversion. He failed to learn their language. The Jesuit (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and two companions traveled to the Huron Country.
Four French vessels arrived with workmen and included (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1858) and his family. Eight families, in total, arrived this year. (I)-Gaspard Boucher arrived with his son (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) who settled 1643 or 1645 at Trois Rivieres. Pierre would spend 1637-1641 living at Huronia, assisting the missionaries. The Jesuit sent three recruits: Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1599-1652) and (I)-Jean Liegeois (1600-1655)- a lay brother. A missionary is sent to Trois Rivieres (Quebec). Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father (I)-Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) departed for Trois Rivieres. Commander (I)-du Plessis-Bouchard, (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) Sieur de L’Espinay son in law (I)-Louis Hebert, (1575-1627) and Father (I)-Ambrose Davost (1586-1643) later departed for Trois Rivieres to meet the Wendat (Huron) coming down for trade. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) attempted to secure passage with the Wendat into their country but The Partridge an Algonquian forbid them to take the Jesuits. After much discussion and threats, three Frenchmen, Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), (I)-Fathers Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) and a Frenchman called (I)-Le Baronare, are allowed to enter the west to take over the Recollets mission to the Hurons. Father (I)-Ambrose Davost (1586-1643) managed to secure passage with a later fur trading party of Wendat. (I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) also departed west about this time and would reach Wisconsin. (I)-Robert Le Coq ,a lay person, also traveled to Huronia and eventually became the Jesuit businessman of the Mission.
The Huron are decimated by disease and their numbers have been reduced by 12,000 to 15,000 persons since the arrival of the Black Robes. In every hut the Black Robes visit death follows. Where they don’t visit there is no sickness. The Jesuits do not see the trend or the cause and effect relationships as the Indians do. They are blinded by what they believe is an opportunity to save souls. The Huron begin to drive out the Jesuit with sticks and stones. The elders cry for their death, as they are accused of practicing sorcery.
Sillery, (Quebec) became the first Indian reservation in Canada funded by (I)-Noel Brulart de Sillary (1577-1640), but it failed by 1680 due to alcoholism, epidemic and difficulties adapting to a sedentary existence. The French are hoping the savages will give up their culture, religion and way of life to become ‘civilized’ farmers. It is noteworthy that these savages have been farming for over 5,000 years and have developed over 55% of all known food crops in the world. They also showed the French how to farm in Canada.
Father (I)-Jean de Quen (1603-1659) is erroneously credited with being the first to discover the Great Lake Pickouagham (Lake St. Jean) above Tadoussac, (Quebec) but a map produced in 1544 by Jean Alfonse shows this lake.
The engages of Kebec do not know where the Country of the Huron is, but these potential Coureurs des Bois would rather go to the Country of the Huron than to any other earthly paradise.
Three new families also arrived from France. The Huron (Wendat) arrived for trade, and the Jesuit party soon departed for the interior. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) told the Huron (Wendat) that as soon as they embraced the faith, the French would marry their daughters. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit refused to perform such marriages for fear the French would sink into the barbarism of the Savages. This is likely the beginning of the country marriage tradition in Canada. The Huron (Wendat) country, for a second year, experienced a drought, as though the Great Spirit was unhappy with the Jesuits being in that region. The Huron (Wendat) believed that the Jesuits were trying to destroy their people and ordered the cross be taken down. Seven years earlier, a cross had been raised in the same land and famine had followed.
The Jesuit College opened at Kebec, giving instruction in French, Huron, Latin and Montagnais. The Jesuits, Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674), (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and (I)-Ememond Masse, arrival greatly affected the daily lives of the colonies and the Natives.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) commented on the men of his village who returned from a contest with another tribe. They are marching in bare feet in the snow, having lost their footwear, yet they are all in high spirits. Brebeuf visited 20 villages and estimates it represents 30,000 souls.
(II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) disposed a company at Machias, (Maine) who had a trading house, killing two men and plundering their goods. (II)-Charles is Governor of Acadia, but a feud has developed with Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier d’Aulnay d-1650 which culminates in 1645 when, Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier d’Aulnay d-1650 burns down his property, kills his men and is responsible for his second wife’s death.
January 1: The ship Mary & Jane is stranded on Sable Island.
January 15: (I)-Robert Giffard de Beauport (1587-1658) obtained a concession to Beauport, Kebec.
January 19: Louys Saincte Foy is at the Nutural Nation.
February: The Jesuits report a Frenchman had wintered with the savages last year.
February 15: Six arpents of land at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) including seigniorial rights is given to the Jesuit but did not take possession until 1637. The merchants contend the Jesuit is only interested in land, furs and power.
March: (I)-Robert Giffard de Beauport (1587-1658), his wife and his children and about thirty colonists depart France for New France. Among them:
(I)-Jean Guyon du Boisson married 1634 Madeleine Boule
(I)-Zacharie Cloutier, (1590-1677) married Xainte Dupont (1596-1677), established Chateau Richer
(I)-Noel Langlois, (1606-1634) married 1634 Francoise Grenier (Garnieu), d-1665
(I)-Jean Juchereau de Maure (1592-1672)
(I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) married 1625 Julienne Barry
March 31: Some of the Savages are fearful of being poisoned by the French. When asked why, they said the English or French said the French would try to poison them.
April 5: The Montaignais savages reported the Huron had taken some Frenchmen prisoner to kill them for spreading diseases among the people.
March 13: Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to be known as the “immortals”.
April 30: (I)-Jean Perrault and (I)-Andre (Antoine) Richard b-1600 arrived Kebec.
May 19: A French ship is reported at Tadoussac and three English ships are also there.
May 21: The Champlain party arrived at Fort Kebec, landing first at Tadoussac (Quebec). A few original settlers are claimed to still be at the Fort (Kebec) upon their arrival. (I)-Francois Marguerie, an interpreter, had been living with the Savages during the occupation and would receive a large grant of land in Trois Rivieres (Quebec) for his loyalty. The first Trois Rivieres (Quebec) settler is recorded as (I)-Jacques Hertel this year. Keep in mind a settler is one who has had a child baptized. Singles don’t qualify. Country marriages and Metis offspring also don’t qualify as settlers.
May 22: Kebec, four ships arrived led by captain du Plessart, captain Bontemps, captain Pierre de Neslf, and captain Deville. Lormel is captain of an English ship taken by the French. A bark lands independently. They contained 43 colonists of which 8 are the (I)-Jean Guyon (1592-1663) family and Champlain is among them..
May 23: Champlain arrived in Kebec with three ships loaded with supplies, workmen, a few soldiers, and even some women and children. Three Jesuits had returned the previous year.
May 24: Eighteen canoes of Savages descended to Kebec, but, sieur Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635), suspecting that they might go on to the English, who have three vessels at Tadoussac (Quebec) and a bark far up the Saint Lawrence River. Sieur Oliver, the interpreter, is sent to the cabins of the Savages to convince them not to trade to the French enemy, the English. The Savages did visit Kebec.
May 25: Sieur de Champlain (1570-1635) fearing the loss of trade made his famous speech; “when that great house (fort with an enclosed village) shall be built, (among the People), then our young men will marry your daughters, and we will be one people.” The Savages said if that should happen, we would be vary happy. The expectation was that the French would convert to their culture as Coureurs des Bois as that is the way of the Country. The expectations of the French was that the Savages would settle down in compounds near the French and become French converts.
May 26: Three days after (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived in Kebec, the Canadians (Metis, and Algonquin) from Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) led by Kepitant, came in crowds for the usual bartering. There were eighteen canoes. Kepitant had been trading with the English for guns to defend themselves from the Iroquois who had guns. Some of the Canadians suggested they are on their way to trade with the English. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) feared they might proceed to Tadoussac (Quebec) to trade with the English. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) promised the Canadians that when the great house is built, our young men will marry your daughters and we shall be one people. Kepitant did not believe the words of Champlain.
May 31: A shallop from Tadoussac arrived Kebec bringing news that three vessels of the Associates had arrived. A 4th ship with General du Plessis Bouchard, General of the fleet also arrived. Captain Bontemps had captured an English ship. It is noteworthy that General Bouchard was fully aware of the trading center (or town as the Jesuits called it) of Trois Rivieres and its name before Champlain decided to build a fort in that location.
May 31: Kebec, arrival (I)-Louis Henry Pinguet (1590-1671) and wife (I)-Louise Lousche Boucher b-1589 and family:
(II)-Francoise Bouchier (1625-1661), married November 7, 1645, Pierre Launay (1645-1654), 2nd marriage 1655 Vincent Poirier
(II)-Pierre Boucher (1629-1704), married Anne Chevalier
(II)-Noel Pinguet (1630-1685) married Marie Madeliene Du Point
May 31: Kebec, arrived (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658) others suggested d-1668 ( a cousin of (I)-Louis Henry Pinguet (1590-1671) above) and wife Marie Regnouard (1610-1665) This is the second trip to Kebec for Robert, first time he tried to marry an Indian girl but was refused in 1628.
June 4: Kebec, Captain de Nesle arrived Kebec with monsieur (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668), seigneur de Beauport, arrived Kabec June 4, 1634, married to (I)-Marie Renouard b-1659, who was pregnant and gave birth to one daughter (II)-Francoise is born June 12, 1634, Kebec (II)-Marie Giffard also born 1634. BUT in one place he says Marie Francoise Giffard is born 1628 in France and another place born 1634 Kebec? (I)-Zacharie Cloutier, d-1677, a carpenter and wife Xainte Dupont (1596-1677) arrived Kebec same date as (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668).
June 12: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Giffard (1634-1657/65) daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658/1668), seigneur de Beauport, and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659 Birth is also listed 1628 France.
June 12: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Francoise Giffard, died August 11, 1665, Quebec daughter (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658/1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659: married November 21, 1645, Jean Junchereau. However Tanguay says she was born 1628 Kebec which sounds more likely.
June 24: Kebec Noel Langlois (1603/06-1684) arrived Kebec and married July 1634 Francoise Garnier (Grenier), Algonquin Metis d-1665.
June 24: Captain Morieult arrived Kebec.
June 24: The English ship, commanded by de Lormel arrived Kabec.
July: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would established a fort at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) to protect the fur trade as the Huron and Algonquin frequent this location. There was great concern that some of the trade was going to the English from Trois Rivieres.
July: A young French Huguenot boy drowned right in front of Fort Kebec. A young man Bengalese who was baptized in France but originally from East Indies is laying sick in Kebec.
July 1: (I)- Nicolas Goupil?, Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) arrived Trois Rivieres and was governor Trois Rivieres (1634-1636). He immediately commenced building a fort starting with a stockade. He departed New France April 17, 1636 to France. It is noteworthy that Laviolette is a dit nickname used by many folks at the time, his real name is unknown. Sieur Laviolette (1604-1660) was appointed and commissioned as de la Violette by Samuel de Champlain.
July 1: Father Breboeuf and Father Daniel left in a bark for Trois Rivieres to meet the Huron. They were to make a mission at Trois Rivieres. Father Davost from Tadoussac accompanied General du Plessis Bouchard who wanted to see the settlement and trading post at Trois Rivieres.
July 1: (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) departed Kebec with two fleets of canoes bound for Trois Rivieres, he was in the second fleet which was to explore the Upper Country. Both canoe fleets were involved in building a fort at Trois Rivieres. (I)-Jean went on to Lake Huron, Sault St. Marie, Lake Superior, the Straits of Mackinaw, Lake Michigan and Green Bay. He wore Chinese robes among the Winnebago (Winnipegou), the People of the Sea expecting to meet Chinese Mandarins. He only met the Dakota and Sioux but learned of the Missisepe (Mississippi) Great River. Some suggest he discovered the Mississippi but it was likely the Wiconsia River.
July 2: A Frenchman was struck down by a savage of the Petite Nation who says he was drunk when he struck the blow.
July 4: Some contend (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660) was governor Trois Rivieres from 1634 to 1636 but (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort was recorded as Governor Trois Rivieres 1630-1635 and Governor New France for 1/2 year in 1636 then back as commandant for Trois Rivieres. In fact its hard to find and reference to (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660) or any man named Goupil or sieur Laviolette in this time period. The Jesuit Relations does say that (I)-Marc Antoine de Brasdefer, sieur de Chasteaufort was Governor of Trois Rivieres for some time before assuming the Governorship of New France.
July 4: Louts Amantacha, a Huron savage is baptized in France and returned to Kebec.
July 4: Father Brebeauf records that when he arrived Trois Rivieres a trading post already existed in this location. Only eleven Huron canoes are at Trois Rivieres, at this time, when he arrived, due to threats from the Hiroquois. Brebeauf records that General du Plessis Bouchard arrived July 5, 1634. It is noteworthy that General du Plessis Bouchard upon arriving May 31, 1634 at Tadoussac, his first order of business was to visit the settlement of Trois Rivieres. It would appear that France was well aware of Trois Rivieres before and during the English occupation. Champlain likely complained in 1629 of those free traders, out of Trois Riviers, who trade with the English.
July 4: Trois Rivieres is claimed to officially established by (I)-Nicolas Goupil, Sieur dit Laviolette (1604-1660). some suggest Nicolas Goupil & Laviolette are two different people. HOWEVER (I)-Jacques Hertel (1603-1651) is the first official land owner and first settler, so he qualifies as the person who officially established Trois Rivieres and not Laviolette. Others claim Champlain officially established Trois Rivieres because he ordered construction of the fort.. The first records at Trois Rivieres commenced from this date with the arrival of the Jesuits. Activity from 1615 to 1634 birth, marriage and death goes mostly unreported, however at least 7 Frenchmen resided at Trois Rivieres during the English occupation 1629-1632 until the return in 1634 of Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). It is also noteworthy that the Jesuits claim a town already exists at Trois Rivieres, therefore Laviolette cannot be claimed to have founded the town. The Jesuits also recorded the name of this town was Trois Rivieres. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit Relations makes no reference to a Nicolas Goupil or a sieur Laviolette, which they would surly have done, if he was a person of importance.
July 4: An Algonquain Captain, called The Partridge, who lives in the town of Trois Rivieres advised the Huron not to take the Frenchmen into the country. He expressed concern that if a Frenchman died among the Huron, the good will between the Huron and French would be lost. Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard, arrived Trois Rivieres during these discussions. General du Plessis Bouchard assured them that the good will would not be lost and the Algonquain were satisfied. But the Huron being smaller in numbers were not willing. General du Plessis Bouchard and Monsieur de I’Espimay traded porcelain and tobacco for a place for 6 Frenchmen. However when the Huron were about to depart they said they would only take 3 Frenchmen. One Long Robe and two young men (Petit Pre & la Baron). La Baron had already spent a year among the Huron. Petit Pre gave up his place to allow Father Daniel to take his place. The Fathers agreed to paddle and take limited luggage. Father Davost and five Frenchmen remained behind at Trois Rivieres. Howevewr General du Plessis Bouchard placed Father Davost and the five Frenchmen with the next arriving Huron. Father Daniel would die this month from starvation. (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) is with Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) in Huron country. Brebeuf is told by the Heron that Le Borge of the Island told the Huron that on account of the death of Brule, Champlain demanded four heads..
July 5: At Trois Rivieres only 11 Huron canoes are available to embark 10 additional French and their goods to Huron Country. The Bissiriniens however arrived and reluctantly agreed to deliver some of the Jesuit party to Huron Country. Monsieur General du Plessis Bouchard, Monsieur Oliver, Monsieur Coullart and (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) assisted at Trois Rivieres.
July 12: Kebec, marriage (I)-Robert Drouin (1606-1685) to (II)-Anne Cloutier, died February 3, 1648, Kebec
July 12: Monsieur the Chevalier La Roche Jacquelin commanded the ship Sainct Jacques and cast anchor before Kebec.
July 14: Kebec, Marguerite Memichtigouchiouiscourou meaning ‘wife of a Eurpean’, b-1633 an Algonqauin.
July 25: Kebec, marriage, (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis, born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse but with a French name likely Metis or adopted?) some of their children are Robert Langlois, Metis b-1635, Marie Langlois, Metis b-1636, Anne Langlois, Metis b-1737, Mareguerite Langlois Metis, b-1639 etc. all born Kebec. A second marriage July 27, 1666 Chateau Richer, Quebec Marie Crevet, veuve de Robert Caron and one child, Marie Anne is born.
July 27: Louys de Saincte Foy, surnamed by the Savage Amantacha is sent by Sieur de Champlain (1570-1635) to ensure the Huron come to trade. The Algonquian are trying to discourage the Huron from coming down to Kebec, saying the French will kill them because they killed (I)-Etienne Brusle (Brule) (1592-1632/33). Louys says (I)-Etienne Brusle (Brule) (1592-1632/33), who had been murdered, he was not looked upon as a Frenchman, because he had left his nation and gone over to the English. The Algonquian intended to get the merchandise from the Huron at a very low price, in order afterwards to come themselves and trade it either to the French or English. As a result 500-700 Huron arrived Kabec to trade. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) assured the Savages that, “having given them their word, they would keep it.”
July 27: Six French are reported living with the Huron in the extreme northern part of present Simcoe County (Ontario).
August: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) rebuilt Kebec, enlarging the fortifications, and built a fort at the mouth of the St. Maurice River and started another at Trois Rivers (Quebec).
August 3: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) returned to Kebec from Trois Rivieres. He arrived Trois Rivieres after the Jesuits had departed and when the second Huron party arrived with news from the Jesuits saying the Huron number nearly 30,000 and many were sick with measles and stomach ailments.
August 4: General du Plessis Bouchard returned from Trois Rivieres to Kebec and reported they are working with might and main to build the fort. He presented a savage boy named Akhikouch age 12-14 to Champlain. He turned him over to the Jesuits who named him Dieudonne and he died shortly there after. Fathers Buteux and Duteux are to relocate to Trois Rivieres.
August 4: The French have three settlements on the Saint Lawrence River, namely, Fort Kebec, Fort Richelieu on the Island of Sainte Croix 15 leagues above Kebec and Trois Rivieres, 30 leagues above Fort Kebec.
August 8: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Jean Bourdon, sieur de St. Francois, (1601-1668), Attorney General and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, Quebec, he arrived with his friend Abbe Jean LeSueur of St. Sauveur
August 8: Kebec arrival (I)-Zachere Clouter, b-1589, arrived Kebec 1619 and returned with wife Xaintes Du Pont (1596-1680) widow Michel Lermusier and children:
(II)-Zachere Clouter Jr. born August 16, 1617; married Madeleine-Barbe Emard on April 4, 1648 at Saint-Barthelemi in La Rochelle, France. They had 8 children, 5 boys and 3 girls, all of whom married neighbors. Zacharie died February 3, 1708 and Barbe May 28, 1708. They are buried at Chateau-Richer.
(II)- Jean Clouter born May 13, 1620, died on October 16, 1690, married January 21, 1648 at Kebec, Marie Martin, died April 26, 1699, daughter of Abraham Martin and Marguerite Langlois. Jean and Marie had 14 children, 10 of whom were girls. . His descendants kept the ancestral home for nearly three centuries.
(II)-Anne Clouter, born January 19, 1626, died February 4, 1648; When she was just ten, her father promised her in marriage to Robert Drouin, an employee of Robert Giffard, and the contract was signed on July 27, 1636; married July 12, 1637, Robert Drouin d-1685. The marriage contract stated that there were to be no conjugal visits between the bride and groom for two years They had six children, two of which died in infancy. Robert remarried in 1649 to widow Marie Chapelier who was not accepted by the Cloutiers and as a result, Zacharie and Xainte raised their grand daughters, Genevieve Drouin and Jeanne Drouin, as their own.
(II)-Marie-Louise Cloutier born March 18, 1632 in Perche, died January 22, 1699, married October 26, 1645, Francois Marguerie, Sieur de La Hayeb-1611, drowned May 23, 1648 at Trois-Rivieres. The couple had no children. Louise married the tailor Jean Mignault dit Chatillon d-1681, with whom she had fourteen children. Louise was married for a third time to Jean-Pierre Mataux . They had no children.
August 8: Kebec arrival (II)-Francois Belanger, b-1612, arrive Kebec 1619, 2nd arrival 1634
August 12: The French fleet under command of General du Plessis Bouchard weighed anchor at Kebec for Tadoussac (Quebec) and thence to Old France in Europe.
August 26: The Savages brought some plums gathered not far from Kebec.
September 3: Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1599-1652) took up residence at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) which is still under construction. A Basque student is reported killed at Gaspe Peninsula, (Quebec) over the winter. Famine walked the St. Lawrence River valley due to poor weather.
September 8: The Savages at Trois Rivieres (Quebec) called Metaberoutin are catching sturgeon fish as long as the height of man (5-6 feet).
September 19: The last of the Jesuit party finally arrived Huron Country, complaining of hardship, abandonment, and theft of their belongings by the Bissiriniens. The Algonquin taunted the Jesuit saying the Huron would kill them like they did to (I)-Estienne Brule (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633).
October 1: Kebec, marriage, (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) son (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1727) and (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649; married October 1, 1634, Kebec, Helene Desportes (see 1602)
October 23: About 15-20 Savages return to Trois Rivieres (Quebec) from war with a young prisoner, a Hiroquois. They intend to kill him in remembrance of relatives previously killed including the three Frenchmen last year. They planned torture, roasting and eating him. The Jesuit said, cruelties displeases us, and that we are not cannibals. The Hiroquois is freed in the spirit of peace.
November 3: Kebec, baptism, (I)-Joseph Martin b-1609, a Matchonon Savage is baptized and given the Surname Martin. Possible Metis son of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L’Ecossais, (1589-1664), it also possible he has a Metis daughter (II)-Anne Martin died December 4, 1683 Quebec, married November 17, 1635, Kebec, Jean Cote
November 8: The French family Giffart refers to the Savage (Metis?) children as ‘it’. More commonly they are called Savage, Barbarian, or infidel.
December 13: Near Gaspe Peninsula, (Quebec) the Savages killed and ate a young Basque boy left with them to learn the language. Those of Tadoussac, (Quebec) with whom I passed the winter a year ago, have eaten each other in some locations. The famine was witnessed at Trois Rivieres, (Quebec) they came in bands, greatly disfigured and fleshless as skeletons. There was no warehouse at Trois Rivieres at this time so food was also scarce among the French. No one died of starvation as what was available was shared among the people. Lack of snow was the cause of this great famine, because they could not catch the larger animals and this condition lasted most of the winter.