Danzig History

DANZIG / GDANSK

This page is concerned with the history of the whole Danzig territory as set up in 1919, not only with the town of the same name.

(Please note the site from which this history was duplicated and edited no longer is functioning: http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/)

Polish names :

Berent = Koscierzyna
Dirschau = Tczew
Elbing = Elblag
Gotenhafen = Gdynia
Karthaus = Kartuzy
Neustadt = Wejherowo
Zoppot = Sopot


THE DANZIG – GDANSK AREA UNTIL 1920

The town of Gdansk or Gyddanyzc was first mentioned in 997.
It was part of the Polish Principality of Pomerelia until 1309 when conquered by the Teutonic Order.  In 1457 Gdansk – by now largely Germanized and renamed Danzig – became a Free City independent of the Order. By the Treaty of Thorn in 1466 the city was brought under Polish sovereignty continuing however to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (confirmed in 1577). In 1793 the City – which had already lost its external possessions as a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772 – was likewise annexed to Prussia, becoming part of the Regierungsbezirk (district) Danzig of the Province Westpreussen. Except for a brief period in 1807 – 1814 – when Danzig was once again a Free City under French protection – this remained so until 1919.

At the end of WW I the city and the surrounding lands were claimed by Poland. As the majority of the population was German, a possible integration into the new Polish state was however out of question for the Allies. Instead it was decided to restore once again a Free Territory of Danzig, under the supervision of the League of Nations. By the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Germany had to renounce in favour of the Allies and their Associates, all rights over the following parts of the Regierungsbezirk Danzig :

  • the whole Kreis (circle) of Danzig-Stadt,
  • parts of the Kreise Berent, Danziger-Höhe, Danziger-Niederung, Dirschau, Elbing- Land, Karthaus, Marienburg and Neustadt.

__________________________________________________________________________________

LOCAL PRUSSIAN ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(Until the formation of the Free City in 1920)

CITY OF DANZIG

Lords Mayor of Danzig- Oberbürgermeister

The town of Danzig became a separate Kreis in 1818.

1818 – 1848 Joachim Heinrich von Weikhmann
1848 – 1852 …
1852 – 1861 Carl August von Groddeck
1862 – 1890 Leopold von Winter 1823 – 1893
1891 – 1896 Karl Adolf von Baumbach 1844 – 1896
1896 – 1903 Clemens Gottlieb Ernst Delbruck 1856 – 1921
1903 – 1910 Heinrich Otto Ehlers 1846 – 1910
1910 – 1918 Heinrich Scholtz 1874 – 1918
1919 – 1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm 1877 – 1939

Police Presidents- Polizeipräsidenten

1840 – 1875 Friedrich Wilhelm von Clausewitz
1875 – 1882 Friedrich Gustav Edmund Hugo Schultz
1882 – 1890 … Heinsius
1890 – 1892 … Freiherr von Reiswitz-Kaderzin
1892 – 1919 … Wessel

BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE

Landrate of Berent

The Kreis Berent was established in 1818.

1825 – 1853 … Blindow
1853 – 1896 … Engler 1… – 1896
1896 – 1919 Friedrich Lebrecht Trüstedt

Landräte of Danzig-Land

The Kreis of Danzig-Land was created in 1818. It was divided in 1887.

1845 – 1853 Gustav Pustar
1853 – 1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Brauchitsch (* 1853 – 1854)
1865 – 1866 … von Treyden*
1866 – 1867 Hermann Wilhelm Karl August von Brandt
1867 – 1887 Archibald August von Gramatzki

Landrate of Danziger-Höhe

The Kreis Danziger-Höhe was established in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land.

1887 – 1904 … Maurach (*1887 – 1888)
1904 – 1915 Emil Venske 18.. – 1917
1916 – 1919 … von Unger

Landrate of Danziger-Niederung

The Kreis Danziger-Niederung was formed in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land.

1887 – 1895 Archibald August von Gramatzki
1895 – 1919 … Brandt
1919 … Walzer*

Landrate of Dirschau

In 1887 the remnant of Danzig-Land was merged with part of Preussisch Stargard to form the new Kreis of Dirschau.

1887 – 1908 … Döhn
1909 – 1918 … von Kries* 18.. – 1918
1918 – 1919 … Freiherr von Dungern*

Landrate of Elbing-Land

The Kreis of Elbing was formed in 1818. It was renamed Elbing-Land after the city of Elbing had become a separate Kreis in 1874.

1821 – 1868 … Abramowski
1868 – 1879 … Frank
1879 – 1883 … Birkner
1883 – 1888 Eugen Karl Hugo Dippe
1888 – 1907 Rüdiger Etzdorf (*1888-1889)
1907 – 1925 Arthur Adolph Graf von Posadowski-Wehner (from 1919 only for the part that remained German)

Landrat of Karthaus

The Kreis Karthaus was established in 1818.

1833 – 1851 Georg Kaspar Otto von Kleist
1851 – 1875 Gustav Friedrich Eduard Mauve (*1851-1854)
1875 – 1884 Werner Freiherr von Schleinitz
1885 Ernst Ferdinand Julius Bruno von Schwichow*
1885 – 1893 … von Krosigk
1893 – 1901 … Keller
1901 – 1910 Gottfried Hagemann 1… – 1918
1911 – 1914 … Römhild
1915 – 1919 … Simon

Landrate of Marienburg

The Kreis Marienburg was created in 1818.

1839 – 1851 Robert Plehn
1851 – 1861 Bernhard Otto Curt von Beneckendorff und
von Hindenburg (*1851-1852)
1861 – 1870 Georg Ernst Carl Parey (*1861-1862)
1871 – 1877 Gustav Gottfried Keil
1877 – 1890 … Doehring
1890 – 1895 … von Zander
1895 – 1901 … von Glasennapp
1901 – 1910 … Freiherr Senfft von Pilsach
1910 – 1918 Gottfried Hagemann s.a.
1918 – 1920 … von Rönne*, since 1919 only for the part that remained German

Landrate of Neustadt

The Kreis Neustadt was established in 1818.

1835 – 1862 Lt. Ludwig von Platen
1862 – 1868 Paul August von Jordan
1868 – 1879 Friedrich Eberhard Vormbaum
1879 – 1881 … Wenzel*
1881 – 1893 … Gumprecht
1893 – 1907 Robert Graf von Keyserlingk-Cammerau
1907 – 1919 Theodor Christian Traugott Graf von Baudissin-Neustadt 1874 – 1950
__________________________________________________________________________________

ALLIED REPRESENTATIVE

High Commissioner

1919 – 1920 Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (UK) 1860 – 1939
__________________________________________________________________________________

DANZIGER CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Chairman of the Council of State

1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a.


FREE CITY OF DANZIG

In 1920 Danzig became a Free and Sovereign City under the Protection of the League of Nations. (1)

(1) Based on the Peace Treaty of Versailles and on the Conventions of Paris and Warsaw (1919 – 1921), Poland retained however some economic privileges safe guarding its free access to the Baltic :

  • Polish civilian ships had free entry to the harbor,
  • Poland toke over the administration of the Danziger railways, which were now administered by the Direction of the Polish State Railways at Torun,
  • Poland had the right to maintain a separate Post Office (since 1925),
  • Danzig and Poland were united in a customs union.

The same treaties also transferred to Poland all diplomatic and consular representations of Danzig, which did however retain the right to conclude treaties, join international organizations, etc.

Later (in 1924, with effect from 1926) the League of Nations also allowed Poland to establish a munition depot on the Westerplatte peninsula and to maintain a small garrison of ca 90 men.

Polish Commanders of Westerplatte

1926 Com. Ignacy Szaniawski
1926 – 1927 Com. Borys Mohuczy
1927 – 1931 Com. Józef Czechowicz
1931 – 1934 Capt. Jan Litynski
1934 – 1938 Maj. Stefan Fabiszewski 1896 – 1974
1938 – 1939 Maj. Henryk Sucharski, captured by the Germans 1898 – 1946
1939 Capt. Franciszek “Kuba” Dabrowski* 1904 – 1962
__________________________________________________________________________________

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

High Commissioners

The High Commissioners appointed by the League of Nations did not intervene in the internal affairs of the Free City. Their main task was to settle problems which could arise between Poland and the Free City.

1920 Col. Edward Lisle Strutt* (UK) 1874 – 1948
1920 – 1921 Bernardo Attolico (Italy) 1880 – 1942
1921 – 1923 Gen. Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking (UK) 1862 – 1945
1923 – 1925 Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (UK) 1880 – 1949
1925 – 1929 Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.) 1880 – 1964
1929 – 1932 Manfredi, Conte di Gravina dei Principi di Ramacca (Italy) 1883 – 1932
1932 – 1934 Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting (Denmark) 1893 – 1945
1934 – 1936 Seán Lester (Ireland) 1888 – 1959
1936 – 1937 none
1937 – 1939 Carl Jakob Burckhardt (Switz.) 1891 – 1974
__________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF STATE

Presidents of the Senate- Senatspräsidenten

(also in charge of foreign affairs)

1920 – 1931 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a.
1931 – 1933 Ernst Bruno Viktor Ziehm 1867 – 1962
1933 – 1934 Hermann Adolf Reinhold Rauschning 1887 – 1982
1934 – 1939 Arthur Karl Greiser 1897 – 1946

State President (2)
Staatspräsident

1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 – 1952

(2) The Senate, still headed by Greiser, continued to function as an executive
body.
__________________________________________________________________________________

SENATORS

Senators of Home Affairs- Senatoren des Inneren

1920 – 1924 Wilhelm Schümmer
1924 – 1925 Willibald Wiercinski 1888 -
1924 – 1928 Hubert Schwartz 1883 – 1966
1926 – 1933 Bruno Kurowski 1879 -
1928 – 1929 Friedrich Grünhagen 1876 – 1929
1929 – 1931 Franz Arczynski* 1886 – 1946
1931 – 1933 Georg Hinz
1933 – 1939 Artur Karl Greiser s.a.

Senators for Justice- Senatoren für Justiz

1924 – 1928 Albert Heinrich Frank 1881 -
1928 – 1931 Albert Evert
1931 – 1933 Fritz Dumont
1933 – 1939 Willibald Wiercinski-Keiser (since 1934 Wiers-Kaiser) 1888 -

Senators of Finances- Senatoren für Finanzen

1921 – 1928 Ernst Volkmann 1881 – 1959
1928 – 1931 Bernhard Kamnitzer 1890 – 1959
1931 – 1939 Julius Hoppenrath 1880 – 1960
__________________________________________________________________________________

OTHER OFFICIALS

Presidents of the Harbor Council

The Harbor Council was in charge of the harbor and all waterways of Danzig. It comprised 10 members – 5 Danziger and 5 Poles – and its president was a Swiss citizen (Nederbragt was an exception. He was appointed because he had successfully resolved an important traffic problem in Danzig the year before)

1921 – 1925 James de Reynier (Switz.)
1925 – 1931 Hugens de Loes (Switz.) 1863 -
1931 – 1934 Carl Josef Benziger (Switz.) 1877 – 1951
1934 – 1939 Johan A. Nederbragt (Neth.) 1880 – 1953

General Commissioners of the Polish Republic (3)- Komisarze Generalni Rzeczpospoltej Polskiej

The Polish representatives were reponsible for the liaison between the Senate and the Polish government.

1920 – 1921 Maciej Biesiadecki 1864 – 1935
1921 – 1924 Leon Boleslaw Pluciñski 1875 – 1935
1924 – 1932 Henryk Leon Strasburger 1887 – 1951
1932 – 1936 Kazimierz Papée 1889 – 1979
1936 – 1939 Marian Stanislaw Chodacki 1898 – 1975

(3) Polish Delegate

1919 – 1920 Mieczyslaw Jalowiecki 1876 – 1962


GERMAN DANZIG 1939 – 1945

In 1939 the Free City of Danzig was annexed to the German Empire. After a short transitional period its area became part of the restored Regierungsbezirk Danzig of the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen (= restored Province Westpreussen). The territory of the former Free city was divided over nine Kreise :

  • Danzig-Stadt,
  • Berent, Dirschau, Elbing-Land, Karthaus and Neustadt,
  • Danzig-Land [included Danziger-Höhe and part of Danziger-Niederung]
  • Grosses Werder [included Marienburg and part of Danziger-Niederung]
  • Zoppot [detached from Neustadt]

Like the rest of the Gau Danzig-Westpreusen, the city territory was conquered by Soviet troops in early 1945 and transferred to the Polish administration. (4)

(4) First postwar administrator of the town of Gdansk :

City President of Gdansk -(Prezydent Miasta Gdanska)

1945 – 1946 Franciszek Kotus-Jankowski
__________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN ADMINISTRATOR OF DANZIG

Head of the Civil Administration

1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 – 1952
__________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(all subordinated to the Regierungspräsidenten of Danzig)

DANZIG-STADT

Lords Mayor- Oberbürgermeister

1939 – 1945 Georg Lippke

Police Presidents- Polizeipräsidenten

1939 – 1940 …
1940 – 1943 … Henze
1943 – 194. SS-Oberf. Walter Stein 1896 -

BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE

Landräte of Berent

1939 – 1940 Günter Modrow
1940 – 1941 Kurt Witte*
1941 – 194. Heinz Hesemann (*1941-1942)
1944 – 1945 … Schwager

Landräte of Danzig-Land

1939 – 1943 Erwin Johst (*1939-1941)
1943 – 1945 … Gillhoff*

Landräte of Dirschau

1939 – 1940 … Sommer
1940 – 1945 Reinhold Isendick (*1940-1941)

Landrat of Elbing-Land

1926 – 1945 Karl Cichorius

Landrat of Karthaus

1939 – 1945 Herbert Busch (*1939-1941)

Landrat of Neustadt

1939 – 1945 Heinz Lorenz (*1939-1941)

Landräte of Grosses Werder

1939 – 1940 … Andres
1941 – 1942 … Jansson*
1942 – 194. Ernst Wallhöfer

Oberbürgermeister of Zoppot

1936 – 1942 Erich Temp
1942 … Koss*
1942 … Schröder
1942 – 1945 the Police Presidents of Danzig-Stadt s.a.
__________________________________________________________________________________

PARTY LEADERS

LOCAL LEADERS OF THE NSDAP IN THE DANZIG AREA

The NSDAP of the Danzig area was divided into nine Kreise, part of the Gau Danzig -Westpreussen.

Kreisleiter of Berent

19.. – 194. Johannes Affeld

Kreisleiter of Danzig-Land

19.. – 194. Erwin Johst

Kreisleiter of Dirschau

19.. – 194. Reinhold Isendick

Kreisleiter of Elbing

Incorporated both Elbing-Land and Elbing-Stadt (before a Kreis not included in the area of the former Free City)

1939 – 1941 Ernst Wagner
1941 – 194. Kurt Bietau

Kreisleiter of Gross Danzig

19.. – 1941 …
1941 – 1943 Werner Kampe
1943 – 1945 …

Kreisleiter of Karthaus

19.. – 194. Herbert Busch

Kreisleiter of Neustadt

19.. – 194. Heinz Lorenz

Kreisleiter of Werder

19.. – 194. … Neufeld

Kreisleiter of Zoppot-Gotenhafen

Incorporated both Zoppot and Gotenhafen (before a Kreis outside the area of the former Free City)

19.. – 194. Erich Temp s.a.

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DANZIG / GDANSK

This page is concerned with the whole Danzig territory as set up in 1919, not only with the town of the same name. Polish names : Berent = Koscierzyna Dirschau = Tczew Elbing = Elblag Gotenhafen = Gdynia Karthaus = Kartuzy Neustadt = Wejherowo Zoppot = Sopot
See also ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN DANZIG 1848 - 1945

THE DANZIG - GDANSK AREA UNTIL 1920

The town of Gdansk or Gyddanyzc was first mentioned in 997. It was part of the Polish Principality of Pomerelia until 1309 when conquered by the Teutonic Order. In 1457 Gdansk - by now largely Germanized and renamed Danzig - became a Free City independent of the Order. By the Treaty of Thorn in 1466 the city was brought under Polish sovereignty continuing however to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (confirmed in 1577) In 1793 the City - which had already lost its external possessions as a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772 - was likewise annexed to Prussia, becoming part of the Regierungsbezirk (district) Danzig of the Province Westpreussen. Except for a brief period in 1807 - 1814 - when Danzig was once again a Free City under French protection - this remained so until 1919. At the end of WW I the city and the surrounding lands were claimed by Poland. As the majority of the population was German, a possible integration into the new Polish state was however out of question for the Allies. Instead it was decided to restore once again a Free Territory of Danzig, under the supervision of the League of Nations. By the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Germany had to renounce in favour of the Allies and their Associates, all rights over the following parts of the Regierungsbezirk Danzig : - the whole Kreis (circle) of Danzig-Stadt, - parts of the Kreise Berent, Danziger-Höhe, Danziger-Niederung, Dirschau, Elbing- Land, Karthaus, Marienburg and Neustadt. __________________________________________________________________________________

LOCAL PRUSSIAN ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(Until the formation of the Free City in 1920) CITY OF DANZIG Lords Mayor of Danzig Oberbürgermeister The town of Danzig became a separate Kreis in 1818. 1818 - 1848 Joachim Heinrich von Weikhmann 1848 - 1852 ... 1852 - 1861 Carl August von Groddeck 1862 - 1890 Leopold von Winter 1823 - 1893 1891 - 1896 Karl Adolf von Baumbach 1844 - 1896 1896 - 1903 Clemens Gottlieb Ernst Delbruck 1856 - 1921 1903 - 1910 Heinrich Otto Ehlers 1846 - 1910 1910 - 1918 Heinrich Scholtz 1874 - 1918 1919 - 1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm 1877 - 1939 Police Presidents Polizeipräsidenten 1840 - 1875 Friedrich Wilhelm von Clausewitz 1875 - 1882 Friedrich Gustav Edmund Hugo Schultz 1882 - 1890 ... Heinsius 1890 - 1892 ... Freiherr von Reiswitz-Kaderzin 1892 - 1919 ... Wessel BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE Landrate of Berent The Kreis Berent was established in 1818. 1825 - 1853 ... Blindow 1853 - 1896 ... Engler 1... - 1896 1896 - 1919 Friedrich Lebrecht Trüstedt Landräte of Danzig-Land The Kreis of Danzig-Land was created in 1818. It was divided in 1887. 1845 - 1853 Gustav Pustar 1853 - 1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Brauchitsch (* 1853 - 1854) 1865 - 1866 ... von Treyden* 1866 - 1867 Hermann Wilhelm Karl August von Brandt 1867 - 1887 Archibald August von Gramatzki Landrate of Danziger-Höhe The Kreis Danziger-Höhe was established in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land. 1887 - 1904 ... Maurach (*1887 - 1888) 1904 - 1915 Emil Venske 18.. - 1917 1916 - 1919 ... von Unger Landrate of Danziger-Niederung The Kreis Danziger-Niederung was formed in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land. 1887 - 1895 Archibald August von Gramatzki 1895 - 1919 ... Brandt 1919 ... Walzer* Landrate of Dirschau In 1887 the remnant of Danzig-Land was merged with part of Preussisch Stargard to form the new Kreis of Dirschau. 1887 - 1908 ... Döhn 1909 - 1918 ... von Kries* 18.. - 1918 1918 - 1919 ... Freiherr von Dungern* Landrate of Elbing-Land The Kreis of Elbing was formed in 1818. It was renamed Elbing-Land after the city of Elbing had become a separate Kreis in 1874. 1821 - 1868 ... Abramowski 1868 - 1879 ... Frank 1879 - 1883 ... Birkner 1883 - 1888 Eugen Karl Hugo Dippe 1888 - 1907 Rüdiger Etzdorf (*1888-1889) 1907 - 1925 Arthur Adolph Graf von Posadowski-Wehner, from 1919 only for the part that remained German *1907-1908) Landrat of Karthaus The Kreis Karthaus was established in 1818. 1833 - 1851 Georg Kaspar Otto von Kleist 1851 - 1875 Gustav Friedrich Eduard Mauve (*1851-1854) 1875 - 1884 Werner Freiherr von Schleinitz 1885 Ernst Ferdinand Julius Bruno von Schwichow* 1885 - 1893 ... von Krosigk 1893 - 1901 ... Keller 1901 - 1910 Gottfried Hagemann 1... - 1918 1911 - 1914 ... Römhild 1915 - 1919 ... Simon Landrate of Marienburg The Kreis Marienburg was created in 1818. 1839 - 1851 Robert Plehn 1851 - 1861 Bernhard Otto Curt von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (*1851-1852) 1861 - 1870 Georg Ernst Carl Parey (*1861-1862) 1871 - 1877 Gustav Gottfried Keil 1877 - 1890 ... Doehring 1890 - 1895 ... von Zander 1895 - 1901 ... von Glasennapp 1901 - 1910 ... Freiherr Senfft von Pilsach 1910 - 1918 Gottfried Hagemann s.a. 1918 - 1920 ... von Rönne*, since 1919 only for the part that remained German Landrate of Neustadt The Kreis Neustadt was established in 1818. 1835 - 1862 Lt. Ludwig von Platen 1862 - 1868 Paul August von Jordan 1868 - 1879 Friedrich Eberhard Vormbaum 1879 - 1881 ... Wenzel* 1881 - 1893 ... Gumprecht 1893 - 1907 Robert Graf von Keyserlingk-Cammerau 1907 - 1919 Theodor Christian Traugott Graf von Baudissin-Neustadt 1874 - 1950 __________________________________________________________________________________

ALLIED REPRESENTATIVE

High Commissioner 1919 - 1920 Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (UK) 1860 - 1939 __________________________________________________________________________________

DANZIGER CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Chairman of the Council of State 1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a.

FREE CITY OF DANZIG

In 1920 Danzig became a Free and Sovereign City under the Protection of the League of Nations. (1) (1) Based on the Peace Treaty of Versailles and on the Conventions of Paris and Warwaw (1919 - 1921), Poland retained however some economic privileges saveguarding its free access to the Baltic : - Polish civilian ships had free entry to the harbor, - Poland toke over the administration of the Danziger railways, which were now administred by the Direction of the Polish State Railways at Torun, - Poland had the right to maintain a separate Post Office (since 1925), - Danzig and Poland were united in a customs union. The same treaties also transferred to Poland all diplomatic and consular representations of Danzig, which did however retain the right to conclude treaties, join international organizations, etc. Later (in 1924, with effect from 1926) the League of Nations also alllowed Poland to establish a munition depot on the Westerplatte peninsula and to maintain a small garrison of ca 90 men. Polish Commanders of Westerplatte 1926 Com. Ignacy Szaniawski 1926 - 1927 Com. Borys Mohuczy 1927 - 1931 Com. Józef Czechowicz 1931 - 1934 Capt. Jan Litynski 1934 - 1938 Maj. Stefan Fabiszewski 1896 - 1974 1938 - 1939 Maj. Henryk Sucharski, captured by the Germans 1898 - 1946 1939 Capt. Franciszek "Kuba" Dabrowski* 1904 - 1962 __________________________________________________________________________________

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

High Commissioners The High Commissioners appointed by the League of Nations din't intervene in the internal affairs of the Free City. Their main task was to settle problems which could arise between Poland and the Free City. 1920 Col. Edward Lisle Strutt* (UK) 1874 - 1948 1920 - 1921 Bernardo Attolico (Italy) 1880 - 1942 1921 - 1923 Gen. Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking (UK) 1862 - 1945 1923 - 1925 Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (UK) 1880 - 1949 1925 - 1929 Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.) 1880 - 1964 1929 - 1932 Manfredi, Conte di Gravina dei Principi di Ramacca (Italy) 1883 - 1932 1932 - 1934 Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting (Denmark) 1893 - 1945 1934 - 1936 Seán Lester (Ireland) 1888 - 1959 1936 - 1937 none 1937 - 1939 Carl Jakob Burckhardt (Switz.) 1891 - 1974 __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF STATE

Presidents of the Senate Senatspräsidenten (also in charge of foreign affairs) 1920 - 1931 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a. 1931 - 1933 Ernst Bruno Viktor Ziehm 1867 - 1962 1933 - 1934 Hermann Adolf Reinhold Rauschning 1887 - 1982 1934 - 1939 Arthur Karl Greiser 1897 - 1946 State President (2) Staatspräsident 1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 - 1952 (2) The Senate, still headed by Greiser, continued to function as an executive body. __________________________________________________________________________________

SENATORS

Senators of Home Affairs Senatoren des Inneren 1920 - 1924 Wilhelm Schümmer 1924 - 1925 Willibald Wiercinski 1888 - 1924 - 1928 Hubert Schwartz 1883 - 1966 1926 - 1933 Bruno Kurowski 1879 - 1928 - 1929 Friedrich Grünhagen 1876 - 1929 1929 - 1931 Franz Arczynski* 1886 - 1946 1931 - 1933 Georg Hinz 1933 - 1939 Artur Karl Greiser s.a. Senators for Justice Senatoren für Justiz 1924 - 1928 Albert Heinrich Frank 1881 - 1928 - 1931 Albert Evert 1931 - 1933 Fritz Dumont 1933 - 1939 Willibald Wiercinski-Keiser (since 1934 Wiers-Kaiser) 1888 - Senators of Finances Senatoren für Finanzen 1921 - 1928 Ernst Volkmann 1881 - 1959 1928 - 1931 Bernhard Kamnitzer 1890 - 1959 1931 - 1939 Julius Hoppenrath 1880 - 1960 __________________________________________________________________________________

OTHER OFFICIALS

Presidents of the Harbor Council The Harbor Council was in charge of the harbor and all waterways of Danzig. It comprized 10 members - 5 Danziger and 5 Poles - and its president was a Swiss citizen (Nederbragt was an exception. He was appointed because he had succesfully resolved an important traffic problem in Danzig the year before) 1921 - 1925 James de Reynier (Switz.) 1925 - 1931 Hugens de Loes (Switz.) 1863 - 1931 - 1934 Carl Josef Benziger (Switz.) 1877 - 1951 1934 - 1939 Johan A. Nederbragt (Neth.) 1880 - 1953 General Commissioners of the Polish Republic (3) Komisarze Generalni Rzeczpospoltej Polskiej The Polish representatives were reponsible for the liaison between the Senate and the Polish government. 1920 - 1921 Maciej Biesiadecki 1864 - 1935 1921 - 1924 Leon Boleslaw Pluciñski 1875 - 1935 1924 - 1932 Henryk Leon Strasburger 1887 - 1951 1932 - 1936 Kazimierz Papée 1889 - 1979 1936 - 1939 Marian Stanislaw Chodacki 1898 - 1975 (3) Polish Delegate 1919 - 1920 Mieczyslaw Jalowiecki 1876 - 1962

GERMAN DANZIG 1939 - 1945

In 1939 the Free City of Danzig was annexed to the German Empire. After a short transitional period its area became part of the restored Regierungsbezirk Danzig of the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen (= restored Province Westpreussen). The territory of the former Free city was divided over nine Kreise : - Danzig-Stadt, - Berent, Dirschau, Elbing-Land, Karthaus and Neustadt, - Danzig-Land [included Danziger-Höhe and part of Danziger-Niederung] - Grosses Werder [included Marienburg and part of Danziger-Niederung] - Zoppot [detached from Neustadt] Like the rest of the Gau Danzig-Westpreusen, the city territory was conquered by Soviet troops in early 1945 and transferred to the Polish administration. (4) (4) First postwar administrator of the town of Gdansk : City President of Gdansk (Prezydent Miasta Gdanska) 1945 - 1946 Franciszek Kotus-Jankowski __________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN ADMINISTRATOR OF DANZIG

Head of the Civil Administration 1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 - 1952 __________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(all subordinated to the Regierungspräsidenten of Danzig) DANZIG-STADT Lords Mayor Oberbürgermeister 1939 - 1945 Georg Lippke Police Presidents Polizeipräsidenten 1939 - 1940 ... 1940 - 1943 ... Henze 1943 - 194. SS-Oberf. Walter Stein 1896 - BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE Landräte of Berent 1939 - 1940 Günter Modrow 1940 - 1941 Kurt Witte* 1941 - 194. Heinz Hesemann (*1941-1942) 1944 - 1945 ... Schwager Landräte of Danzig-Land 1939 - 1943 Erwin Johst (*1939-1941) 1943 - 1945 ... Gillhoff* Landräte of Dirschau 1939 - 1940 ... Sommer 1940 - 1945 Reinhold Isendick (*1940-1941) Landrat of Elbing-Land 1926 - 1945 Karl Cichorius Landrat of Karthaus 1939 - 1945 Herbert Busch (*1939-1941) Landrat of Neustadt 1939 - 1945 Heinz Lorenz (*1939-1941) Landräte of Grosses Werder 1939 - 1940 ... Andres 1941 - 1942 ... Jansson* 1942 - 194. Ernst Wallhöfer Oberbürgermeister of Zoppot 1936 - 1942 Erich Temp 1942 ... Koss* 1942 ... Schröder 1942 - 1945 the Police Presidents of Danzig-Stadt s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

PARTY LEADERS

LOCAL LEADERS OF THE NSDAP IN THE DANZIG AREA The NSDAP of the Danzig area was divided into nine Kreise, part of the Gau Danzig -Westpreussen. Kreisleiter of Berent 19.. - 194. Johannes Affeld Kreisleiter of Danzig-Land 19.. - 194. Erwin Johst Kreisleiter of Dirschau 19.. - 194. Reinhold Isendick Kreisleiter of Elbing Incorporated both Elbing-Land and Elbing-Stadt (before a Kreis not included in the area of the former Free City) 1939 - 1941 Ernst Wagner 1941 - 194. Kurt Bietau Kreisleiter of Gross Danzig 19.. - 1941 ... 1941 - 1943 Werner Kampe 1943 - 1945 ... Kreisleiter of Karthaus 19.. - 194. Herbert Busch Kreisleiter of Neustadt 19.. - 194. Heinz Lorenz Kreisleiter of Werder 19.. - 194. ... Neufeld Kreisleiter of Zoppot-Gotenhafen Incorporated both Zoppot and Gotenhafen (before a Kreis outside the area of the former Free City)

DANZIG / GDANSK

This page is concerned with the whole Danzig territory as set up in 1919, not only with the town of the same name. Polish names : Berent = Koscierzyna Dirschau = Tczew Elbing = Elblag Gotenhafen = Gdynia Karthaus = Kartuzy Neustadt = Wejherowo Zoppot = Sopot
See also ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN DANZIG 1848 - 1945

THE DANZIG - GDANSK AREA UNTIL 1920

The town of Gdansk or Gyddanyzc was first mentioned in 997. It was part of the Polish Principality of Pomerelia until 1309 when conquered by the Teutonic Order. In 1457 Gdansk - by now largely Germanized and renamed Danzig - became a Free City independent of the Order. By the Treaty of Thorn in 1466 the city was brought under Polish sovereignty continuing however to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (confirmed in 1577) In 1793 the City - which had already lost its external possessions as a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772 - was likewise annexed to Prussia, becoming part of the Regierungsbezirk (district) Danzig of the Province Westpreussen. Except for a brief period in 1807 - 1814 - when Danzig was once again a Free City under French protection - this remained so until 1919. At the end of WW I the city and the surrounding lands were claimed by Poland. As the majority of the population was German, a possible integration into the new Polish state was however out of question for the Allies. Instead it was decided to restore once again a Free Territory of Danzig, under the supervision of the League of Nations. By the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Germany had to renounce in favour of the Allies and their Associates, all rights over the following parts of the Regierungsbezirk Danzig : - the whole Kreis (circle) of Danzig-Stadt, - parts of the Kreise Berent, Danziger-Höhe, Danziger-Niederung, Dirschau, Elbing- Land, Karthaus, Marienburg and Neustadt. __________________________________________________________________________________

LOCAL PRUSSIAN ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(Until the formation of the Free City in 1920) CITY OF DANZIG Lords Mayor of Danzig Oberbürgermeister The town of Danzig became a separate Kreis in 1818. 1818 - 1848 Joachim Heinrich von Weikhmann 1848 - 1852 ... 1852 - 1861 Carl August von Groddeck 1862 - 1890 Leopold von Winter 1823 - 1893 1891 - 1896 Karl Adolf von Baumbach 1844 - 1896 1896 - 1903 Clemens Gottlieb Ernst Delbruck 1856 - 1921 1903 - 1910 Heinrich Otto Ehlers 1846 - 1910 1910 - 1918 Heinrich Scholtz 1874 - 1918 1919 - 1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm 1877 - 1939 Police Presidents Polizeipräsidenten 1840 - 1875 Friedrich Wilhelm von Clausewitz 1875 - 1882 Friedrich Gustav Edmund Hugo Schultz 1882 - 1890 ... Heinsius 1890 - 1892 ... Freiherr von Reiswitz-Kaderzin 1892 - 1919 ... Wessel BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE Landrate of Berent The Kreis Berent was established in 1818. 1825 - 1853 ... Blindow 1853 - 1896 ... Engler 1... - 1896 1896 - 1919 Friedrich Lebrecht Trüstedt Landräte of Danzig-Land The Kreis of Danzig-Land was created in 1818. It was divided in 1887. 1845 - 1853 Gustav Pustar 1853 - 1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Brauchitsch (* 1853 - 1854) 1865 - 1866 ... von Treyden* 1866 - 1867 Hermann Wilhelm Karl August von Brandt 1867 - 1887 Archibald August von Gramatzki Landrate of Danziger-Höhe The Kreis Danziger-Höhe was established in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land. 1887 - 1904 ... Maurach (*1887 - 1888) 1904 - 1915 Emil Venske 18.. - 1917 1916 - 1919 ... von Unger Landrate of Danziger-Niederung The Kreis Danziger-Niederung was formed in 1887 at the division of Danzig-Land. 1887 - 1895 Archibald August von Gramatzki 1895 - 1919 ... Brandt 1919 ... Walzer* Landrate of Dirschau In 1887 the remnant of Danzig-Land was merged with part of Preussisch Stargard to form the new Kreis of Dirschau. 1887 - 1908 ... Döhn 1909 - 1918 ... von Kries* 18.. - 1918 1918 - 1919 ... Freiherr von Dungern* Landrate of Elbing-Land The Kreis of Elbing was formed in 1818. It was renamed Elbing-Land after the city of Elbing had become a separate Kreis in 1874. 1821 - 1868 ... Abramowski 1868 - 1879 ... Frank 1879 - 1883 ... Birkner 1883 - 1888 Eugen Karl Hugo Dippe 1888 - 1907 Rüdiger Etzdorf (*1888-1889) 1907 - 1925 Arthur Adolph Graf von Posadowski-Wehner, from 1919 only for the part that remained German *1907-1908) Landrat of Karthaus The Kreis Karthaus was established in 1818. 1833 - 1851 Georg Kaspar Otto von Kleist 1851 - 1875 Gustav Friedrich Eduard Mauve (*1851-1854) 1875 - 1884 Werner Freiherr von Schleinitz 1885 Ernst Ferdinand Julius Bruno von Schwichow* 1885 - 1893 ... von Krosigk 1893 - 1901 ... Keller 1901 - 1910 Gottfried Hagemann 1... - 1918 1911 - 1914 ... Römhild 1915 - 1919 ... Simon Landrate of Marienburg The Kreis Marienburg was created in 1818. 1839 - 1851 Robert Plehn 1851 - 1861 Bernhard Otto Curt von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (*1851-1852) 1861 - 1870 Georg Ernst Carl Parey (*1861-1862) 1871 - 1877 Gustav Gottfried Keil 1877 - 1890 ... Doehring 1890 - 1895 ... von Zander 1895 - 1901 ... von Glasennapp 1901 - 1910 ... Freiherr Senfft von Pilsach 1910 - 1918 Gottfried Hagemann s.a. 1918 - 1920 ... von Rönne*, since 1919 only for the part that remained German Landrate of Neustadt The Kreis Neustadt was established in 1818. 1835 - 1862 Lt. Ludwig von Platen 1862 - 1868 Paul August von Jordan 1868 - 1879 Friedrich Eberhard Vormbaum 1879 - 1881 ... Wenzel* 1881 - 1893 ... Gumprecht 1893 - 1907 Robert Graf von Keyserlingk-Cammerau 1907 - 1919 Theodor Christian Traugott Graf von Baudissin-Neustadt 1874 - 1950 __________________________________________________________________________________

ALLIED REPRESENTATIVE

High Commissioner 1919 - 1920 Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (UK) 1860 - 1939 __________________________________________________________________________________

DANZIGER CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Chairman of the Council of State 1920 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a.

FREE CITY OF DANZIG

In 1920 Danzig became a Free and Sovereign City under the Protection of the League of Nations. (1) (1) Based on the Peace Treaty of Versailles and on the Conventions of Paris and Warwaw (1919 - 1921), Poland retained however some economic privileges saveguarding its free access to the Baltic : - Polish civilian ships had free entry to the harbor, - Poland toke over the administration of the Danziger railways, which were now administred by the Direction of the Polish State Railways at Torun, - Poland had the right to maintain a separate Post Office (since 1925), - Danzig and Poland were united in a customs union. The same treaties also transferred to Poland all diplomatic and consular representations of Danzig, which did however retain the right to conclude treaties, join international organizations, etc. Later (in 1924, with effect from 1926) the League of Nations also alllowed Poland to establish a munition depot on the Westerplatte peninsula and to maintain a small garrison of ca 90 men. Polish Commanders of Westerplatte 1926 Com. Ignacy Szaniawski 1926 - 1927 Com. Borys Mohuczy 1927 - 1931 Com. Józef Czechowicz 1931 - 1934 Capt. Jan Litynski 1934 - 1938 Maj. Stefan Fabiszewski 1896 - 1974 1938 - 1939 Maj. Henryk Sucharski, captured by the Germans 1898 - 1946 1939 Capt. Franciszek "Kuba" Dabrowski* 1904 - 1962 __________________________________________________________________________________

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

High Commissioners The High Commissioners appointed by the League of Nations din't intervene in the internal affairs of the Free City. Their main task was to settle problems which could arise between Poland and the Free City. 1920 Col. Edward Lisle Strutt* (UK) 1874 - 1948 1920 - 1921 Bernardo Attolico (Italy) 1880 - 1942 1921 - 1923 Gen. Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking (UK) 1862 - 1945 1923 - 1925 Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (UK) 1880 - 1949 1925 - 1929 Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.) 1880 - 1964 1929 - 1932 Manfredi, Conte di Gravina dei Principi di Ramacca (Italy) 1883 - 1932 1932 - 1934 Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting (Denmark) 1893 - 1945 1934 - 1936 Seán Lester (Ireland) 1888 - 1959 1936 - 1937 none 1937 - 1939 Carl Jakob Burckhardt (Switz.) 1891 - 1974 __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF STATE

Presidents of the Senate Senatspräsidenten (also in charge of foreign affairs) 1920 - 1931 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm s.a. 1931 - 1933 Ernst Bruno Viktor Ziehm 1867 - 1962 1933 - 1934 Hermann Adolf Reinhold Rauschning 1887 - 1982 1934 - 1939 Arthur Karl Greiser 1897 - 1946 State President (2) Staatspräsident 1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 - 1952 (2) The Senate, still headed by Greiser, continued to function as an executive body. __________________________________________________________________________________

SENATORS

Senators of Home Affairs Senatoren des Inneren 1920 - 1924 Wilhelm Schümmer 1924 - 1925 Willibald Wiercinski 1888 - 1924 - 1928 Hubert Schwartz 1883 - 1966 1926 - 1933 Bruno Kurowski 1879 - 1928 - 1929 Friedrich Grünhagen 1876 - 1929 1929 - 1931 Franz Arczynski* 1886 - 1946 1931 - 1933 Georg Hinz 1933 - 1939 Artur Karl Greiser s.a. Senators for Justice Senatoren für Justiz 1924 - 1928 Albert Heinrich Frank 1881 - 1928 - 1931 Albert Evert 1931 - 1933 Fritz Dumont 1933 - 1939 Willibald Wiercinski-Keiser (since 1934 Wiers-Kaiser) 1888 - Senators of Finances Senatoren für Finanzen 1921 - 1928 Ernst Volkmann 1881 - 1959 1928 - 1931 Bernhard Kamnitzer 1890 - 1959 1931 - 1939 Julius Hoppenrath 1880 - 1960 __________________________________________________________________________________

OTHER OFFICIALS

Presidents of the Harbor Council The Harbor Council was in charge of the harbor and all waterways of Danzig. It comprized 10 members - 5 Danziger and 5 Poles - and its president was a Swiss citizen (Nederbragt was an exception. He was appointed because he had succesfully resolved an important traffic problem in Danzig the year before) 1921 - 1925 James de Reynier (Switz.) 1925 - 1931 Hugens de Loes (Switz.) 1863 - 1931 - 1934 Carl Josef Benziger (Switz.) 1877 - 1951 1934 - 1939 Johan A. Nederbragt (Neth.) 1880 - 1953 General Commissioners of the Polish Republic (3) Komisarze Generalni Rzeczpospoltej Polskiej The Polish representatives were reponsible for the liaison between the Senate and the Polish government. 1920 - 1921 Maciej Biesiadecki 1864 - 1935 1921 - 1924 Leon Boleslaw Pluciñski 1875 - 1935 1924 - 1932 Henryk Leon Strasburger 1887 - 1951 1932 - 1936 Kazimierz Papée 1889 - 1979 1936 - 1939 Marian Stanislaw Chodacki 1898 - 1975 (3) Polish Delegate 1919 - 1920 Mieczyslaw Jalowiecki 1876 - 1962

GERMAN DANZIG 1939 - 1945

In 1939 the Free City of Danzig was annexed to the German Empire. After a short transitional period its area became part of the restored Regierungsbezirk Danzig of the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen (= restored Province Westpreussen). The territory of the former Free city was divided over nine Kreise : - Danzig-Stadt, - Berent, Dirschau, Elbing-Land, Karthaus and Neustadt, - Danzig-Land [included Danziger-Höhe and part of Danziger-Niederung] - Grosses Werder [included Marienburg and part of Danziger-Niederung] - Zoppot [detached from Neustadt] Like the rest of the Gau Danzig-Westpreusen, the city territory was conquered by Soviet troops in early 1945 and transferred to the Polish administration. (4) (4) First postwar administrator of the town of Gdansk : City President of Gdansk (Prezydent Miasta Gdanska) 1945 - 1946 Franciszek Kotus-Jankowski __________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN ADMINISTRATOR OF DANZIG

Head of the Civil Administration 1939 SS-Gruppenf. Albert Forster 1902 - 1952 __________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS OF THE DANZIG AREA

(all subordinated to the Regierungspräsidenten of Danzig) DANZIG-STADT Lords Mayor Oberbürgermeister 1939 - 1945 Georg Lippke Police Presidents Polizeipräsidenten 1939 - 1940 ... 1940 - 1943 ... Henze 1943 - 194. SS-Oberf. Walter Stein 1896 - BERENT AND THE OTHER KREISE Landräte of Berent 1939 - 1940 Günter Modrow 1940 - 1941 Kurt Witte* 1941 - 194. Heinz Hesemann (*1941-1942) 1944 - 1945 ... Schwager Landräte of Danzig-Land 1939 - 1943 Erwin Johst (*1939-1941) 1943 - 1945 ... Gillhoff* Landräte of Dirschau 1939 - 1940 ... Sommer 1940 - 1945 Reinhold Isendick (*1940-1941) Landrat of Elbing-Land 1926 - 1945 Karl Cichorius Landrat of Karthaus 1939 - 1945 Herbert Busch (*1939-1941) Landrat of Neustadt 1939 - 1945 Heinz Lorenz (*1939-1941) Landräte of Grosses Werder 1939 - 1940 ... Andres 1941 - 1942 ... Jansson* 1942 - 194. Ernst Wallhöfer Oberbürgermeister of Zoppot 1936 - 1942 Erich Temp 1942 ... Koss* 1942 ... Schröder 1942 - 1945 the Police Presidents of Danzig-Stadt s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

PARTY LEADERS

LOCAL LEADERS OF THE NSDAP IN THE DANZIG AREA The NSDAP of the Danzig area was divided into nine Kreise, part of the Gau Danzig -Westpreussen. Kreisleiter of Berent 19.. - 194. Johannes Affeld Kreisleiter of Danzig-Land 19.. - 194. Erwin Johst Kreisleiter of Dirschau 19.. - 194. Reinhold Isendick Kreisleiter of Elbing Incorporated both Elbing-Land and Elbing-Stadt (before a Kreis not included in the area of the former Free City) 1939 - 1941 Ernst Wagner 1941 - 194. Kurt Bietau Kreisleiter of Gross Danzig 19.. - 1941 ... 1941 - 1943 Werner Kampe 1943 - 1945 ... Kreisleiter of Karthaus 19.. - 194. Herbert Busch Kreisleiter of Neustadt 19.. - 194. Heinz Lorenz Kreisleiter of Werder 19.. - 194. ... Neufeld Kreisleiter of Zoppot-Gotenhafen Incorporated both Zoppot and Gotenhafen (before a Kreis outside the area of the former Free City) 19.. - 194. Erich Temp s.a.

19.. – 194. Erich Temp s.a.